750-1000 Word Expanded Defenition

To: Professor Ellis

From: Ducquon Hinds 

Date: Nov. 28.2021

Subject: Expanded Definition  

Introduction 

The Purpose of this Document is to give the Expanded Definition, background context, and History of The Term Internet. Sometimes referred to as the “World Wide Web” The internet is used for various reasons in our world today One being our main source of human communications Via Social Media, Email, and Audio and video transmissions as well as giving us access to digital information.  

 Definitions 

According to the Merriam- Websters Dictionary  “ Internet is An Electronic Communications network that connects computer Networks and Organizational computer facilities around the world – used with the except when being used attributively” also Known as the “World Wide Web”[1] this is the generic definition for this term while on the other hand According to Britannica Academic “ Internet is a System Architecture that has revolutionized communications and methods of commerce by allowing various computer networks around the world to interconnect”[2] while this definition gives a more vivid description of the term they both capture the concept of the term. The internet is so powerful and general that it can be used for almost any information-dependent purpose, and anyone connected to any of its configured networks can access the internet. 

Context 

“The Internet that we use today, the network of computer networks based on the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP)/Internet Protocol (IP) suite of protocols (Postel 1981) – is now relatively old technology.” This quote can be found in John Naughton’sArticle on the Evolution of the Internet: from the military experiment to general-purpose technology. In the context of this quote research on its design began in 1973, and the network went live in January 1983. The first 20 years of its existence were reserved for the technical, academic, and research elite. Beginning to invade mainstream societies in the early 1990s, today is widely regarded as general-purpose technology (GPT) without which modern societies would not work. Therefore, in a relatively short period of time, the technology exotic to a seemingly mediocre utility like the power grid.

The first computer networks were dedicated specialized systems such as SABER (Flight Reservation System) and AUTODIN I (Defense Command and Control System), both developed and implemented in the late 1950s and early 1960s. By the early 1960s, computer makers began using semiconductor technology in their commercial products, and both traditional batch processing and time-sharing systems were introduced to many large and technologically advanced companies. A timeshare system allows you to quickly and continuously share computer resources with multiple users, quickly navigating a user’s queue, even if many other users are accessing the system “at the same time”. The computer appeared to be dedicated to each user’s task. .. Which gave rise to the idea of ​​sharing computer resources (called host computers or simply hosts) throughout the network. “The Internet resulted from the effort to connect various research networks in the United States and Europe”. This information was cited from Britannica Academic and it elaborates on the Origin and use of the Internet and why it was created. It is well known that the Internet owes its existence to the Cold War. But, as always, retroactive generalization obscures more complex stories.

 Working Definition 

The Working Definition of the Term Internet is a globally connected network system that provides access to communications and data resources around the world through a vast collection of private, public, business, academic, and government networks. It is managed by institutions such as the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority which sets the Universal Protocol. 

References 

[1]“Internet definition & meaning,” Merriam-Webster. [Online]. Available: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/Internet. [Accessed: 21-Dec-2021]. 

[2]R. Kahn, “Internet – Computer Network,” Encyclopædia Britannica. [Online]. Available: https://www.britannica.com/technology/Internet. [Accessed: 21-Dec-2021]. 

[3]John Naughton (2016) The evolution of the Internet: from military experiment to General Purpose Technology, Journal of Cyber Policy,1:1, 5-28, DOI: 10.1080/23738871.2016.1157619

750-1100 Word Expanded Definition

To: Professor Ellis

From: Kiara Ortiz

Date: 09/29/2021

Subject: Expanded Definition of Blockchain

Introduction

            The purpose of this document is to elaborate on the background and current relevance to the term Blockchain. Blockchain is a very technical term and has many technical abstractions that can differ from one implementation to the next. How this term is defined and when it’s used in context often subtracts from the revolutionary nature of the technology. The way the general media use the term blockchain sometimes over exaggerates its potential at this stage of its development. One can view Blockchain as a protocol not an application. Where our current work is surrounded by applications, this term refers to a new protocol which applications will be built upon. We will explore how the term is professionally defined and then compare it to how it could be used as a tool for greater exposure in context.

Definitions

            The simplistic definition of blockchain is relatively clear but is a bit different when it comes from different sources. For example, “A system in which a record of transactions made in bitcoin or another cryptocurrency is maintained across several computers that are linked in a peer-to-peer network”.[1] This definition describes a blockchain as a non-centralized store tied to some fungible token. On the other hand, “A digital database containing information (such as records of financial transactions) that can be simultaneously used and shared within a large decentralized, publicly accessibly network.” [2] In this definition a blockchain is also described as a non-centralized store of data but also implying the records of are usually of the financial type. Another major difference between the definitions is that the first definition implies the use of fungible tokens such as cryptocurrencies as they are possibly integral to the blockchain. The second definition implies that the blockchain must be a “large” decentralized network where as the first definition simply refers to it as a peer-to-peer network. These differences are not accidental as in the industry there is no specific blockchain that is the standard. An example of the blockchain term affects the stock industry is the name change of Long Island Ice tea Corporation in 2017. “… large stock gains from a name change [are] the company Long Island Ice tea Corporation, which changed their name to Long Blockchain Corporation. On the day of the name change announcement, the price of the stock rose, at most, by approximately 500%.” [4] In this example, the term blockchain is used to as a tool for greater exposure to any company that embraces the term of announces any partnership with such blockchain or cryptocurrency technology. Blockchain and cryptocurrencies are intertwined because the cryptocurrency is a fungible token minted on a particular blockchain to use the services and maintain transactions of said chain. A fuller more encompassing definition of blockchain would be a, digitally stored data on a set of computers arranged in a network. This definition doesn’t limit the blockchain to has some representative currency, nor be entirely decentralized. As a single organization could hold and maintain all the access to the record of transactions. So a centralized and single entity controlled blockchain is also possible.

Context

            In order to shed some light between the differences of the definitions we could bring in a third definition. “[The] Blockchain is a shared, immutable ledger that facilitates the process of recording transactions and tracking assets in a business network. An asset can be tangible (a house, car, cash, land) or intangible (intellectual property, patents, copyrights, branding). Virtually anything of value can be tracked and traded on a blockchain network, reducing risk and cutting costs for all involved.” [3] This third definition sheds more light on the definitions shown previously. The blockchain is a store of any form of asset in a digital form by holding this asset as record on a non-changeable ledger.

Working Definition

            A peer-to-peer network across several computers that acts as a digital database for fungible and non-fungible digital data. The network maintains trust and the validity of the transactions on its protocol using complex cryptographic processes. This network is integral and foundational to cryptocurrencies.

References

[1] Lexico Dictionaries (Oxford). (n.d.). Blockchain English definition and meaning. Lexico Dictionaries | English. Retrieved October 11, 2021, from https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/blockchain.

[2] Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Blockchain. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved October 11, 2021, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/blockchain.

[3] What is blockchain technology?. IBM. (n.d.). Retrieved October 11, 2021, from https://www.ibm.com/topics/what-is-blockchain.

[4] Carlsson, C., Danielsson, F., & Svensson, C. (2018, May). The effect of blockchain related corporate … – diva portal. The effect of blockchain related corporate name changes on stock prices. Retrieved October 11, 2021, from https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1235823/FULLTEXT01.pdf.

Expanded Definition of Web Developer

TO: Prof. Jason Ellis


FROM: Olamide Yomi


DATE: 10//2021


SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of Web developer

Introduction


The purpose of this document is to explore more into a web developer, expanding on the context, history, and definition. A web developer is one of the popular and fast-growing job opportunities in this modern age. Everyone uses Websites such as big companies, small businesses, E-commerce, school, etc.
Definitions [Heading Level 2]
According to Oxford English Dictionary, “Web developer is a person who develops websites and online applications, esp. with a focus on functionality and the practical aspects of implementing a design or brief.” This is a very generic definition of a web developer job stating the work they perform and showcasing the main online presence. [1, def 1]. According to the Britannica Academic, “A web developer is A technology specialist who uses programming languages to design and create the look and function of Web sites and their content.” [1, def 2]. Again, another generic definition which is supporting the first definition of a web developer but adding new information such as the use of programming language which is something web developer needs to make any web designs.

Context


The following content expands on where the word web developer came from and how it has evolved throughout the ages. According to Gale eBooks, “By far, the factor most responsible for the rapid evolution of Internet site development was the onslaught of electronic commerce (e-commerce). Businesses seeking to hawk products over the Internet spurred the technology and the developers into overdrive in attempts to tailor World Wide Web sites and their capabilities to the companies’ marketing and distribution needs.” [2, P.1]. This really explains in detail the importance of web developer to business such as the modern and most popular form of business right now E-commerce business showing how web developers using skill to bring engaging markets to the business from the internet is a very big market for people with little attention span, so web developer must find and adapted to unique ways of getting audience engaging using different design and the use of HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and programming to get markets for business.
The main job of a web developer is the creation of a good responsive(functioning) website design. According to the IEEE article “A responsive design is a technique that designers use to deliver elegant visual experience regardless any browser size used and any constraints lied on accessing device” [7, P.2] Almost every web developer is to build a web page that can adapt to every visitor’s screen size be it a smartphone or a computer, and change the layout in order to match the visitor device without any complication. Not only should your web page look good, but it should also be user-friendly. Regardless of the device size. This is what is referred to as a responsive website. The ability for a web developer to use CSS and HTML to reshape hide, shrink, enlarge, or move content on any screen size and make it look good. Web developer uses different techniques to make this happen. Such as using stetting the viewport, which is the visible area of the web page, using a building responsive grid, or favorable using a media query to control the page layout matching the device being used.

Working Definition


Web developer are group of people who uses different programming language and skill design to create a website design to get audience from the benefit of themselves of business in general.
According to an article found on IEEE “A design is considered to be responsive if it uses these three points: a flexible grid, flexible images and media, and media queries.” [7. P.2]. By using this web developer can define the resolution ranges, meaning designing a flexible layout can be made easy. This is as web design has grown from the traditional method of designing which used to be fixed-width design with minimum resolution. As different device is invented, a web developer has to come out with a different way to adapt the design to it. By using HTML 5 and CSS 3 to create a website that does it.
The introduction of responsive website design has reduced the problem of having to resize, panning, and scrolling and accessing them from any device. With the creation of it, people can now access important information easily.

References


[1] “Web developer,” in Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press, Jun. 2008, def. 1 [Online]. Available: https://www.oed.com
[2] Hector Santana “Web developer.” [Online]. Britannica Academic, Available: https://academic-eb-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/levels/collegiate/article/Web-developer/632823 [Accessed: 15-Oct-2021].
[3] “Web Developers.” Encyclopedia of Emerging Industries, edited by Lynn M. Pearce, 6th ed., Gale, 2011, pp. 1048-1054. Gale eBooks, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX1930200149/GVRL?u=cuny_nytc&sid=bookmark-GVRL&xid=7078b439. Accessed 15 Oct. 2021.
[4] F. Y. Alnawaj’ha and M. S. Abutaha, “Responsive web design commitment by the web developers in Palestine,” 2018 4th International Conference on Computer and Technology Applications (ICCTA), 2018, pp. 69-73, doi: 10.1109/CATA.2018.8398658.

To: Prof. Ellis

From: Anthony Cuomo

Date: 10/27/2021

Subject: Expanded Term Definition of Secure

Introduction

The purpose of this document is to teach the reader the differences between the different definitions of the word secure. A brief example of two different definitions will be shared, along with the history, etymology and some quotes from articles that I feel encapsulates the definitions best.

Definition

“Who hath oftner waged warres then he? Escapes secure him not: he owes the price [1].” This quote from “The misfortunes of Arthur” by playwright Thomas Hughes in 1587 was the first known usage of the term secure. From reading the sentence and using context clues, we can infer that the definition of secure in 1587 was the same definition used in modern language. To secure most commonly means to keep safe from danger or harm. This is not the only definition of secure that has been seen throughout the years though. Like a lot of words in the English language, secure has multiple meanings depending on the context that the word is being used. 

Context

The word secure is derived from the Latin word “securare”, which means to keep safe from harm [1]. This will probably be the first definition you will see when searching for the word secure in today’s day and age. To keep safe from danger or harm. As in to secure personal information or even to secure a space for a person to access safely. When speaking of securing something, JD Stahl had this to say about Elizabeth Enright’s writing style “She is not naive about the terrors and sufferings of children; she merely chooses to place the joyful and secure features of children’s lives in the foreground [2].” Elizabeth Enright, according to Stahl, uses a writing style which places the positive or “Secure” aspects of their lives into the forefront of the setting. A good way to think about the term secure is that it is not always used as a verb, but you can use it as an adjective to describe something. 

The English language is interesting in the way that a single word could have more than 1 meaning. Another popular definition you could see for the word secure is to make sure something is obtained. Here is a quote from a New York Times article by Julia Preston and Fernanda Santos about how Latinos gained influence in a national election. “Latinos turned out in record numbers on Tuesday and voted for President Obama by broad margins, tipping the balance in at least three swing states and securing their position as an organized force in American politics with the power to move national elections [3].” As we can see with this quote, the authors are not talking about how something is safe or out of harm’s way but instead uses secure as a way to show how Latinos were able to obtain something. In the cast that Julia Preston and Fernanda Santos showed, the thing that was obtained was political influence and power.

Working Definition

The term secure has a lot of uses when it comes to computer security. Anything that is done on a computer on a public domain is going to have some sort of security protecting it. Programmers and cyber security experts use the term secure all the time. One that is seen and heard often is to make sure your network is secure. This means that you should make sure that the network that you are working on is safe from harm from potential cyber-attacks or breaches. Cyber security can also use the other definition of secure that has been described, which is to make sure something is obtained. For example, securing a connection to a VPN. The thing being secured, or obtained, here is the connection from the user to the VPN servers. A VPN is a tool that is used to hide your IP address and is used to encrypt any type of data that would be sent via the internet [4].

References:

[1] “secure, v.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, September 2021, 

www.oed.com/view/Entry/174648. Accessed 16 October 2021

[2] Stahl, J.D. “A secure world of childhood: the artistry of Elizabeth Enright.” Hollins Critic, vol. 35, no. 2, Apr. 1998, pp. 1+. Gale Literature Resource Center, link.gale.com/apps/doc/A130929968/GLS?u=cuny_nytc&sid=bookmark-GLS&xid=1fb2d005. Accessed 15 Oct. 2021. 

[3] J. Preston and F. Santos, “A record Latino turnout, solidly backing obama,” The New York Times, 08-Nov-2012. [Online]. Available: https://www.nytimes.com/2012/11/08/us/politics/with-record-turnout-latinos-solidly-back-obama-and-wield-influence.html. [Accessed: 16-Oct-2021].  

[4] “What is a VPN? virtual private network benefits,” NordVPN, 10-Nov-2021. [Online]. Available: https://nordvpn.com/what-is-a-vpn/. [Accessed: 11-Nov-2021].

[5] “Secure,” Merriam-Webster. [Online]. Available: https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/secure. [Accessed: 16-Oct-2021].  

Expanded Definition of Distributed Denial of Service

TO: Prof. Ellis

FROM: Alex Cheung

DATE: Oct. 27, 2021

SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of Distributed Denial of Service Attacks, First Half, Rough Draft

Introduction

The purpose of this document is to better our understanding and knowledge about the term Denial of Service Attacks. We will be discussing the history, context, and the different types of Denial of Service Attacks. Denial of Service Attacks is a very known term amongst network security professionals and black hat hackers. 

Definitions

According to the Oxford English Dictionary, the term Distributed Denial of Service means “Computing a form of denial of service in which a web server or other computer system is maliciously overwhelmed by spurious requests from many computers in different locations on the internet, in order to make it inaccessible or unusable” [1]. This definition does a great job of explaining what a Distributed Denial of Service Attack is but, it does not mention how it utilizes malware to add infected computers to its botnet. According to the Britannica Academic, the term Denial of Service means “type of cybercrime in which an Internet site is made unavailable, typically by using multiple computers to repeatedly make requests that tie up the site and prevent it from responding to requests from legitimate users” [2]. Britannica Academic also says that “Distributed DoS (DDoS) attacks are a special kind of hacking. A criminal salts an array of computers with computer programs that can be triggered by an external computer user. These programs are known as Trojan horses since they enter the unknowing users’ computers as something benign, such as a photo or document attached to an e-mail” [2]. Both of these definitions from Britannica Academic do a great job of explaining the definition of a Distributed Denial of Service. It explains clearly that a malware known as a trojan is required to infect other computers and can then be controlled by an external computer and is used for criminal activities.

Context

For anyone who isn’t familiar with network security or other related fields, the term Denial of Service might just mean refusing to serve someone. But to someone who is in the said related fields, Denial of Service is a cybercrime that aims to disrupt service that lives on the internet, like websites, servers, and others. The earliest use of the term Disrupted Denial of Service according to the Oxford English Dictionary is in 1998 in a report about a DDoS attack against NIS / NIS+ based networks [1]. The term Distributed Denial of Service really only has one meaning.

In a New York Times article titled “Hackers Used New Weapons to Disrupt Major Websites Across U.S.”, author Nicole Perlroth talks about how disruptive a DDoS attack can be by citing Dr. Simons: “A DDoS attack could certainly impact these votes and make a big difference in swing states” [3]. The use of the term Disrupted Denial of Service here refers to how harmful DDoS attacks can be to critical processes like the U.S. presidential election if votes were transferred through the internet. A Distributed Denial of Service attack can take down many essential systems that are needed by many people and businesses like Amazon Web Services which hosts many of the websites used by people and businesses for day to day operations and it would be catastrophic if those services were taken down by an attack.

In an article by Imperva, a cyber security software and services company, titled “DDoS Attacks”, talks about DDoS attacks, how an attack can flood a service with malicious traffic, and the types of DDoS attacks. In the article it says “DDoS attacks are quickly becoming the most prevalent type of cyber threat, growing rapidly in the past year in both number and volume according to recent market research” [4]. The use of the term Disrupted Denial of Service here refers to the many different types of DDoS attacks used to take down a site or service. Some of the different DDoS attack types mentioned are: UDP Flood, ICMP Flood, SYN Flood, Ping of Death, Slowloris, NTP Amplification, HTTP Flood, and Zero-day. Each type of attack uses a different method to reach the goal of denying service. For example, a UDP Flood floods a victim server’s ports with UDP packets which uses up all the server’s resources which can slow down the server or even cause it to eventually become unreachable by others.

DDoS attacks are a huge problem in today’s internet. Almost anyone can perform a DDoS attack because of online “booter” services which allow users to pay a subscription to access their botnet to perform the malicious attacks on their unsuspecting victims. This is why many companies spend thousands or even millions of dollars trying to mitigate these attacks to keep their vital services online for their consumers.

Working Definition

Based on the definitions and word history discussed, I would define the term Distributed Denial of Service as: A cybercrime that aims to disrupt internet services like websites and servers by utilizing computers (victims) infected with a trojan which allows the black hat hacker to control the victim’s computer and be used for a massive Denial of Service Attack to take down or disrupt services. 

References

[1] “distributed denial of service, n.”. OED Online. September 2021. Oxford University Press. https://www-oed-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/view/Entry/55777#eid233469643 (accessed October 08, 2021).

[2] “Denial of service attack (DoS attack).” Britannica Academic, Encyclopædia Britannica, 2 Feb. 2018. https://academic-eb-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/levels/collegiate/article/denial-of-service-attack/471037. Accessed 8 Oct. 2021.

[3] N. Perlroth, “Hackers used new weapons to disrupt major websites across U.S.,” The New York Times, 21-Oct-2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.nytimes.com/2016/10/22/business/internet-problems-attack.html. [Accessed: 18-Oct-2021].

[4] “DDoS attack types & mitigation methods: Imperva,” Imperva, 14-Feb-2021. [Online]. Available: https://www.imperva.com/learn/ddos/ddos-attacks/. [Accessed: 31-Oct-2021].

Expanded Definition of Sandbox

TO:               Prof. Jason Ellis
FROM:         Edwin Baez
DATE:          10/27/2021
SUBJECT:    Expanded Definition of Sandbox

Introduction 

 The purpose of this document is to explore the meaning and history of the term Sandbox. The term sandbox is used often in the software testing world, just as it was used pre-machines to define a play area. In this document, I will compare and contrast various definitions of the word Sandbox and how they are used in our world today.

Definitions 

The definition of Sandbox found in the Merriam-Webster dictionary is “a box or receptacle containing loose sand”[1,p1]. This is, of course, the old yet still relevant definition. Sandboxes are basically playpens for kids to let their imaginations run wild, but the term has long progressed since those days. According to the same Merriam-Webster dictionary, “a controller environment supervised by a regulatory authority within which existing regulations are relaxed or removed to allow businesses to more freely experiment with new products and services”[1, p1]. This definition is referring to the business use of the word, stating how a Sandbox is an environment that is controlled and supervised to test new products and services. For example, a business like Apple needs to test out its HTML code to see if those flashy new images look good on their website without bringing down their website. For experiments and test features like that, they use a Sandbox environment. Furthermore, there is a cyber security aspect to the definition. According to an article written on ProofPoint, “The purpose of the sandbox is to execute malicious code and analyze it.”[3,p1]. This definition shows how cyber security specialists use a sandbox as a tool to run code and decipher whether they are malicious or create any type of vulnerability in a system.

Context 

Though used in different manners, the term Sandbox essentially comes to a general meaning of testing with low risk. An author writes, “the idea of a sandbox provides an apt metaphor for the type of collaboration and interaction that should take place in the open, communal office spaces”[4]. This quote talks about how sandboxes are used as a space for a business or businesses to interact and try out new features without risking or harming their business. It’s more spoken of as a testing ground rather than a counter-measure. It’s like those times as a kid when we were being taught how to use PowerPoint and it had all these different fonts and slide animations. We would try all of them first in a separate PowerPoint so our work would not suffer any casualties and then once we decided on a font and/or slide animation we would implement it into our original work. In some way, we’ve all used a form of sandbox for our work.

Furthermore, a different author writes, “Sandbox testing proactively detects malware by executing, or detonating, code in a safe and isolated environment to observe that code’s behavior and output activity”[2]. This quote uses Sandboxes as a means of testing code for security purposes and not allowing a breach by isolation using a Sandbox. Unlike the business branch side of things, this way of using a Sandbox is indeed a counter-measure. It’s basically a bomb testing site but for code and incoming malware. One may say it’s taking batting practice before a game, just testing your swing, ball vision, and ability to make contact on that specific day. I used the statement “on that specific day” because it’s actually how this version of running a Sandbox works. Codes are unpredictable, there are things that even the developer himself doesn’t know would happen if the code is executed. One day your program may work flawlessly and the next day can be corrupt without even changing anything, maybe you missed a letter or number that allows the code to run more than a day or maybe a spelling mistake. All in all, this form of Sandbox is perfect for “detonating a bomb”.

Working Definition 

My major is Computer Systems branching into Cyber Security. As one can tell, the term Sandbox is very important in my field as many codes have to be tested. In my field, I would say a Sandbox is a safe zone where any developer or security analyst can try out any code or any level of work and look for vulnerabilities or decipher any malicious intent in the coding.

References 

[1]  “Sandbox.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/sandbox. Accessed 15 Oct. 2021.

[2] Forcepoint. 2021. What is Sandbox Security?. [online] Available at: <https://www.forcepoint.com/cyber-edu/sandbox-security> [Accessed 16 October 2021].

[3] Proofpoint. 2021. What is a Sandbox Environment? Definition & Setup | Proofpoint US. [online] Available at: <https://www.proofpoint.com/us/threat-reference/sandbox> [Accessed 16 October 2021].

[4] Clarke, D., 2021. The Serious Business of Sandboxes. [online] strategy+business. Available at: <https://www.strategy-business.com/article/The-Serious-Business-of-Sandboxes> [Accessed 16 October 2021].

750-Word Expanded Definition

750-Word Expanded Definition

TO: Prof. Jason Ellis
FROM: Rosario Garcia
DATE: 12/16/21
SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of programming

The purpose of this document is to explain furthermore about programming and the definition of it. “The process of writing and testing computer programs.” [1] Learn more explain about programming and software development. The term that the programming I defined is developing and create computer program. I defined software developing is create application when different coding language. How programming help in figure out ways to different to use different strategies methods solve problem quickly. How programming is a way to use problem-solving skills. That programming has made different ways to think and solve the problem. Make you think that there is more solution than one to a problem. Both program and software development have improved today and now in society it gives large impact to help business manage and do any tasks. The way the article express how programming is a method use problem-solving and other skills. “Identify and fix process-related problems, the measurement programs.” [2] At the same it identifies how software development is large part apart from programming in general. “Software development involves many processes, and measurement enables us to characterize, control, predict, and improve those processes.” [2] They mention how that software development able to have control the process of their own programs or project. On the other, programming they do deal with coding and the knowledge program there a limited for them in coding. Programming can be used in the real- world help area that need problem solving. The article explain more about software development is Measuring and Improving Agile Processes in a Small-Size Software Development Company. How software development benefits companies it a work in progress. Explain about the benefits of improve coding and help to learn more about coding in general. How software development improves their company in expand the (SME). How software development improves during the years continue to improve company. The other article I choose is Enhancing Confidence in Using Computational Thinking Skills via Playing a Serious Game: A Case Study to Increase Motivation in Learning Computer Programming for programming. I think that programming means to create and build code for applications. “Software development, understanding development performance and product quality.” [3] “A specific programming language so that they can develop their abilities in solving problems before they start programming.” [3, page2, line2] They need to choose the type if code that they want to choose before starting to program the software. They in the third article source how software development and programming are view in two different way they both related back to computer and create new programs. “These metrics significantly improve management of such processes as task estimation and bug fixing, which are crucial in rapid software development of high quality and stable software.” [2, page 5, section 5] It important to fix because if there any bug that aren’t fix, it failed to run the software and create program to the software. Software development requirement critical think but also problem-solving. Figure out different method of solutions to a problem. “This new version of the game will also provide an improved visualization for programming constructs. As an example, players will be able to use the decision-making construct in a variety of ways depending on how they want to overcome challenges.” [3 , pg19] They mention in the article how they need use programming for a visual game to improve the virtual the game. Programming how the game will work and test the programming language run on pc or it mobile friendly well. Plan how the challenges and figure how the multiplayer run on the software/game run well the users interact in the game. Everything revolves around the type of programming language to use and make sure it smoothly. It like running a software program check for any bugs or adjusted needed their always need attention the coding also the mechanic part of a program looking d entire software to see the entire picture. Even programming is a small part of the software developing. It the programming is the base for a software developer since it the beginning of the project.

References:
[1] Advanced Learner’s, Oxford. “Programming.” Programming Noun – Definition, Pictures, Pronunciation and Usage Notes | Oxford Advanced Learner’s Dictionary at OxfordLearnersDictionaries.com, Oxford Advanced Learner’s, 12 Dec. 2021, https://www.oxfordlearnersdictionaries.com/us/definition/english/programming.

[2] Choras, Michal, et al. “Measuring and Improving Agile Processes in a Small-Size Software Development Company.” IEEE Xplore, IEEE, 23 Apr. 2020, https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9076670.

[3] Kazimoglu, Cagin. “Enhancing Confidence in Using Computational Thinking Skills via Playing a Serious Game: A Case Study to Increase Motivation in Learning Computer Programming.” IEEE Xplore, IEEE Access, 8 Dec. 2020, https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/document/9286386.

 

Expanded Definition of Computer

TO:         Prof. Jason Ellis

FROM:     Jared Williams

DATE:         Oct 27, 2021

SUBJECT:     Expanded Definition of Computer

Introduction

The purpose of this document is to expand upon the definition of the word computer. In this document we will explore the various definitions of the term computer, the historical context surrounding the change in meaning of the term, and the way the term computer is used now.

Definitions

The first definition of computer in the Oxford English Dictionary is “a person who makes calculations or computations; a calculator, a reckoner; spec. a person employed to make calculations in an observatory, in surveying, etc.” [1, def. 1].  The second definition of Computer in the Oxford English Dictionary is “a device or machine for performing or facilitating calculation” [1, def. 2]. Both of [1]’s definitions state that mathematical calculation is involved, but they both differ regarding who or what is performing them.

From the 5th edition of McGraw-Hill’s Concise Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, a computer is “a device that receives, processes, and presents information. The two basic types of computers are analog and digital,” [2, p. 519] and from the 7th edition of A Dictionary of Computer Science, “A device or system that is capable of carrying out a sequence of operations in a distinctly and explicitly defined manner” [3, p.?]. These definitions strictly speak about machines performing calculations, no longer mentioning a person performing calculations.

The term computer originally referred to a human being who was incredibly skilled in mathematical computation but over time, the term fell more in line with the definitions of [2] and [3]. Historians may be the only people who refer to the original definition of a computer since their field of study has to do with revisiting the past. As technological advances progressed, the human component of computer was discarded and machine/device took its place as evidenced by definition 2 in [1], and the definitions of [2] and [3]. Now the phrase computer only brings images of machines in varying sizes to mind.

Context

“I haue read the truest computer of Times, and the best Arithmetician that euer breathed, and he reduceth thy dayes into a short number” [1]. This is the earliest use of the term computer according to the Oxford English Dictionary.  This quote can be found in Richard Braithwaite’s Yong Mans Gleanings published in 1613. In the context of this quote, a computer is an arithmetician, a person expertly skilled in calculation and counting. The year of this quote is important, as electricity was yet to be discovered which means there were no machines to do calculations.  

In the 1940’s the term computer had taken a step closer to today’s definition. A section from the New York Times published on Jan 1947 states “Two electronic computers that will handle complex arithmetical problems faster than earlier models were described yesterday at conference sessions of the winter meeting of the American Institute of Electrical Engineers at 33 West Thirty-Ninth Street” [4, p.5]. The author of this article must make a distinction between an electronic computer and a human one since human computers were not rendered obsolete just yet. Electronic computers of the time were very expensive and very big, needing a team of people and machinery to transport them and entire rooms dedicated to their use. It’s important to note that these computers, while electronic, were analog. Digital computers were the next step but hadn’t made their debut yet.

From an encyclopedia published in 2005: “The term digital computer—or simply, computer—embraces calculators, computer workstations, control computers (controllers) for applications such as domestic appliances and industrial processes, data-processing systems, microcomputers, microcontrollers, multiprocessors, parallel computers, personal computers, network servers, and supercomputers.” [5, p. 668] By the turn the millennium, computers had drastically scaled down in size while simultaneously upscaling in terms of their abilities. They have expanded beyond only mathematical calculations, now becoming an umbrella term. Computers had transitioned from analog to digital and no longer spanned an entire room. They were present in homes, businesses, offices, etc. The association of the term computer with a machine is so strong, future generations may not even know a human once held that position unless they look back on history. 

Working Definition

The definition the term computer largely relies on the time period you’re discussing. If I was to define computer today it would sound something like this:  

Computer – A digital electronic device or machine capable of receiving, computing, processing, and outputting data in various forms. 

References:

[1] “Computer,” in Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press, Jun. 2008, def. 1 & def. 2. [Online]. Available: https://www.oed.com

[2] “Computer,” in Concise Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 5th Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2005, p.519. [Online]. Available: https://go-gale-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/ps/retrieve.do?resultListType=RELATED_DOCUMENT&searchType=BasicSearchForm&userGroupName=cuny_nytc&inPS=true&contentSegment=&prodId=GVRL&isETOC=true&docId=GALE|CX3475801389, Accessed: Oct 6, 2021.

[3] “Computer,” in A Dictionary of Computer Science, A. Butterfield, G. E. Ngondi, A. Kerr, 7th Edition., Oxford University Press, 2016. [Online]. Available: https://www.oxfordreference.com/view/10.1093/acref/9780199688975.001.0001/acref-9780199688975, Accessed: Oct 6, 2021.

[4] Author Unknown, “COMPUTER BEATS BRAIN,” New York Times, p.5, Jan 31, 1947. [Online]. Available: https://www.nytimes.com/1947/01/31/archives/computers-beat-brain-new-electronic-devices-said-to-be-100000-times.html?searchResultPosition=3, Accessed: Oct 10, 2021.

[5] “Digital Computer,” in Concise Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 5th Edition. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill, 2005, p.668. [Online]. Available: https://go-gale-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/ps/retrieve.do?resultListType=RELATED_DOCUMENT&searchType=BasicSearchForm&userGroupName=cuny_nytc&inPS=true&contentSegment=&prodId=GVRL&isETOC=true&docId=GALE|CX3475801781, Accessed: Oct 13, 2021.

Expanded Definition of Cloud

To: Prof. Jason Ellis

From: Muztahid Sakif

Date: October 27, 2021

Subject: Expanded Definition of Cloud

Introduction

The purpose of this document is to define and explore the context/history around the term Cloud. The term cloud is used very often in the networking industry. Although cloud computing began with the military for national security purposes, it’s now increasingly growing in other sectors like business, education, health, and public and private organizations. In this document, I will compare and contrast various definitions of the word cloud from different sources. Also, I will be discussing context around the word cloud. Meaning, how this term applies to the field of networking and the importance of cloud computing for different users. 

Definitions

According to Gale EBooks, “Cloud computing refers to the use of a network of remote servers to store files and perform services. The use of the term the cloud signifies that the network is as common as the clouds in the sky, indicating that the network is ubiquitous, easy to access, and readily available anywhere in the world” [1, p.1]. This is a great, easy-to-understand definition. The comparison of the term ‘cloud’ to ‘clouds’ shows the availability of Cloud in the modern world today. According to Britannica Academic, “Cloud computing, method of running application software and storing related data in central computer systems and providing customers or other users access to them through the Internet” [2, p.1]. The two definitions listed above are intended for different audiences. The first definition from Gale includes audiences that are outside of the computing field, whereas the definition from Britannica is more catered towards people in the computer science or related audiences. Both of these definitions include the concept of the exchanging and accessing data which is important to note. Data is a big component of the term cloud and the role of interacting with data through cloud is what makes it in demand in the current market today. The second definition is more specific as to how clouds are used in today’s world. The use of different software applications was not prevalent in the context of the original definition of cloud. 

Context

The following content expands on the usage of the word cloud in different contexts. According to the authors “Cloud solutions can improve the quality of smart city services, offering support to store, analyse, and extract knowledge from the raw data. The increasing need for supporting interaction between IoT and cloud computing systems has also led to the creation of the edge computing model, which aims to provide processing and storage capacity as an extension of available IoT devices without the need to move data or processing to a data center.” [3, p.2]. 

The use of the phrase “Cloud solutions” is important to note here. This phrase is often used in the context of the benefits of cloud, especially today. Improving the quality of smart city services through the cloud is very relevant, especially in New York City.  Also according to the authors, “Together with derived security data artifacts, this will support the Cloud provider community to implement a Security Manager system for a future Inter-Cloud environment and facilitate the adoption of these results in the private and public sector” [4, p.5]. In this context, the term cloud is mentioned in the context of security. With Cloud, there’s always the question of security which increases with time. This is also relevant to my field (Cyber Security) where the use of Cloud is increasing. 

Here’s a quote example from IEEE Xplore: Cloud Computing Based Social Media Model, writers K. Goel and I. Goel wrote about the role and the importance of cloud in the social media space: “So, to provide better data security, management,no worry of data management and also easy access of data will be required which can be only possible through cloud computing”[5, p.9]. The use of the word cloud here refers to its reach in various fields, including Social Media. The growth of Social Media is ever growing and the influence of cloud can provide its user with better security, management and allow business to grow through Social Media. Businesses, especially today, rely on Social Media advertising for business growth and cloud helps with large sums of data to simplify the process. 

Another quote example from the book Cloud Computing, writer Nayan Ruparelia wrote about cloud of things, which found in various ‘objects’ or technologies that we encounter “A cloud of things has inanimate objects, or things, as its scope; that is, it is a cloud that works with things instead of people or organizations. For example, you can have a cloud of public lighting— such as street or car park lighting— operated on a pay-per-use basis so that the lighting is available only to those who have paid for it and are in the vicinity” [6, p.10]. In this context, the author mentions the term “cloud of things” which is very relevant in the cloud business. Cloud of things can be an efficient way to manage lights as mentioned in the example. Meaning, the lights do not remain turned on all night and waste charge. The use of the term cloud refers to its influence on things instead of people or organizations. Cloud of things remotely monitor, manage and control the Internet of Things enabled devices like refrigerators, fire alarms, door locks, security systems, etc. 

Working Definition

Cloud is a networking/information technology infrastructure where all of organizations’ networking resources are shared in a public/private platform that is managed by a service provider. 

References

[1] Foyle, Harvey C. “Cloud Computing.” The SAGE Encyclopedia of Educational Technology, edited by J. Michael Spector, vol. 1, SAGE Reference, 2015, pp. 100-103. Gale eBooks, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX6197800053/GVRL?u=cuny_nytc&sid=bookmark-GVRL&xid=8a12ab4f. Accessed 6 Oct. 2021

[2] Carr, Nicholas “Cloud Computing.” [Online]. Britannica Academic, Available: https://academic-eb-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/levels/collegiate/article/cloud-computing/474374 [Accessed: 06-Oct-2021]. 

[3]. M. Fazio, R. Ranjan, M. Girolami, J. Taheri, S. Dustdar and M. Villari, “A Note on the Convergence of IoT, Edge, and Cloud Computing in Smart Cities,” in IEEE Cloud Computing, vol. 5, no. 5, pp. 22-24, Sep./Oct. 2018, doi: 10.1109/MCC.2018.053711663.

[4] M. Kretzschmar, M. Golling and S. Hanigk, “Security Management Areas in the Inter-cloud,” 2011 IEEE 4th International Conference on Cloud Computing, 2011, pp. 762-763, doi: 10.1109/CLOUD.2011.83.

[5]. K. Goel and I. Goel, “Cloud computing based social media model,” 2016 International Conference on Inventive Computation Technologies (ICICT), 2016, pp. 1-3, doi: 10.1109/INVENTIVE.2016.7823184.[6] Ruparelia, Nayan B.. Cloud Computing, MIT Press, 2016. ProQuest Ebook Central, https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/citytech-ebooks/detail.action?docID=4527741.