To these authors in the reading, what is missing from art of the past is craftsmanship. The manual skills have been replaced with mechanical techniques. Craftsmanship plays an important role and it should, because making things by hand serves a more purposeful and aesthetics use and artists pay more attention to detail. 

The role that typography, photography, and other media play in shaping a new kind of art, is that it designs a visual communication that is clearer and  apprehensive. These medias help to optically form a better perception of what is being communicated. According to Moholy Nagy, “photography is highly effective when used as typographical material”. As Moholy Nagy later states he believes that typophoto is the “new visual literature”.

The role that language should play in art and design is that it should be a universal understanding. Since language poses as the communication aspect to art and design. It is a issue to express language in a more visual pleasing way, without having to get tired of reading. A change in perception can help improve what is being communicated.

New strategies or ideas that will be necessary for future art forms is the concept of problem-solving and the collective work of individuals. Design thinking can also create a fundamental aspect to design. Especially, problem-solving because it is a designer’s duty to communicate to the public about any needs that need to be fulfilled. 

The education or “the academy” teach artists about their field by teaching them the principle of color theory, composition, and craftsmanship. Also ,teaching artists about  design thinking and using problem-solving skills to design and communicate broader issues. Bauhaus ideas can be updated to remain relevant in the 21st century art and design by not just focusing on problem-solving in creating material and objects for human interaction and needs. But to also, design and communicate broader issues that are occurring currently whether it is political, social, or cultural needs.