750-1100 Word Expanded Definition

To: Professor Ellis

From: Kiara Ortiz

Date: 09/29/2021

Subject: Expanded Definition of Blockchain


            The purpose of this document is to elaborate on the background and current relevance to the term Blockchain. Blockchain is a very technical term and has many technical abstractions that can differ from one implementation to the next. How this term is defined and when it’s used in context often subtracts from the revolutionary nature of the technology. The way the general media use the term blockchain sometimes over exaggerates its potential at this stage of its development. One can view Blockchain as a protocol not an application. Where our current work is surrounded by applications, this term refers to a new protocol which applications will be built upon. We will explore how the term is professionally defined and then compare it to how it could be used as a tool for greater exposure in context.


            The simplistic definition of blockchain is relatively clear but is a bit different when it comes from different sources. For example, “A system in which a record of transactions made in bitcoin or another cryptocurrency is maintained across several computers that are linked in a peer-to-peer network”.[1] This definition describes a blockchain as a non-centralized store tied to some fungible token. On the other hand, “A digital database containing information (such as records of financial transactions) that can be simultaneously used and shared within a large decentralized, publicly accessibly network.” [2] In this definition a blockchain is also described as a non-centralized store of data but also implying the records of are usually of the financial type. Another major difference between the definitions is that the first definition implies the use of fungible tokens such as cryptocurrencies as they are possibly integral to the blockchain. The second definition implies that the blockchain must be a “large” decentralized network where as the first definition simply refers to it as a peer-to-peer network. These differences are not accidental as in the industry there is no specific blockchain that is the standard. An example of the blockchain term affects the stock industry is the name change of Long Island Ice tea Corporation in 2017. “… large stock gains from a name change [are] the company Long Island Ice tea Corporation, which changed their name to Long Blockchain Corporation. On the day of the name change announcement, the price of the stock rose, at most, by approximately 500%.” [4] In this example, the term blockchain is used to as a tool for greater exposure to any company that embraces the term of announces any partnership with such blockchain or cryptocurrency technology. Blockchain and cryptocurrencies are intertwined because the cryptocurrency is a fungible token minted on a particular blockchain to use the services and maintain transactions of said chain. A fuller more encompassing definition of blockchain would be a, digitally stored data on a set of computers arranged in a network. This definition doesn’t limit the blockchain to has some representative currency, nor be entirely decentralized. As a single organization could hold and maintain all the access to the record of transactions. So a centralized and single entity controlled blockchain is also possible.


            In order to shed some light between the differences of the definitions we could bring in a third definition. “[The] Blockchain is a shared, immutable ledger that facilitates the process of recording transactions and tracking assets in a business network. An asset can be tangible (a house, car, cash, land) or intangible (intellectual property, patents, copyrights, branding). Virtually anything of value can be tracked and traded on a blockchain network, reducing risk and cutting costs for all involved.” [3] This third definition sheds more light on the definitions shown previously. The blockchain is a store of any form of asset in a digital form by holding this asset as record on a non-changeable ledger.

Working Definition

            A peer-to-peer network across several computers that acts as a digital database for fungible and non-fungible digital data. The network maintains trust and the validity of the transactions on its protocol using complex cryptographic processes. This network is integral and foundational to cryptocurrencies.


[1] Lexico Dictionaries (Oxford). (n.d.). Blockchain English definition and meaning. Lexico Dictionaries | English. Retrieved October 11, 2021, from https://www.lexico.com/en/definition/blockchain.

[2] Merriam-Webster. (n.d.). Blockchain. Merriam-Webster. Retrieved October 11, 2021, from https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/blockchain.

[3] What is blockchain technology?. IBM. (n.d.). Retrieved October 11, 2021, from https://www.ibm.com/topics/what-is-blockchain.

[4] Carlsson, C., Danielsson, F., & Svensson, C. (2018, May). The effect of blockchain related corporate … – diva portal. The effect of blockchain related corporate name changes on stock prices. Retrieved October 11, 2021, from https://www.diva-portal.org/smash/get/diva2:1235823/FULLTEXT01.pdf.

Expanded Definition of Web Developer

TO: Prof. Jason Ellis

FROM: Olamide Yomi

DATE: 10//2021

SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of Web developer


The purpose of this document is to explore more into a web developer, expanding on the context, history, and definition. A web developer is one of the popular and fast-growing job opportunities in this modern age. Everyone uses Websites such as big companies, small businesses, E-commerce, school, etc.
Definitions [Heading Level 2]
According to Oxford English Dictionary, “Web developer is a person who develops websites and online applications, esp. with a focus on functionality and the practical aspects of implementing a design or brief.” This is a very generic definition of a web developer job stating the work they perform and showcasing the main online presence. [1, def 1]. According to the Britannica Academic, “A web developer is A technology specialist who uses programming languages to design and create the look and function of Web sites and their content.” [1, def 2]. Again, another generic definition which is supporting the first definition of a web developer but adding new information such as the use of programming language which is something web developer needs to make any web designs.


The following content expands on where the word web developer came from and how it has evolved throughout the ages. According to Gale eBooks, “By far, the factor most responsible for the rapid evolution of Internet site development was the onslaught of electronic commerce (e-commerce). Businesses seeking to hawk products over the Internet spurred the technology and the developers into overdrive in attempts to tailor World Wide Web sites and their capabilities to the companies’ marketing and distribution needs.” [2, P.1]. This really explains in detail the importance of web developer to business such as the modern and most popular form of business right now E-commerce business showing how web developers using skill to bring engaging markets to the business from the internet is a very big market for people with little attention span, so web developer must find and adapted to unique ways of getting audience engaging using different design and the use of HTML, CSS, JavaScript, and programming to get markets for business.
The main job of a web developer is the creation of a good responsive(functioning) website design. According to the IEEE article “A responsive design is a technique that designers use to deliver elegant visual experience regardless any browser size used and any constraints lied on accessing device” [7, P.2] Almost every web developer is to build a web page that can adapt to every visitor’s screen size be it a smartphone or a computer, and change the layout in order to match the visitor device without any complication. Not only should your web page look good, but it should also be user-friendly. Regardless of the device size. This is what is referred to as a responsive website. The ability for a web developer to use CSS and HTML to reshape hide, shrink, enlarge, or move content on any screen size and make it look good. Web developer uses different techniques to make this happen. Such as using stetting the viewport, which is the visible area of the web page, using a building responsive grid, or favorable using a media query to control the page layout matching the device being used.

Working Definition

Web developer are group of people who uses different programming language and skill design to create a website design to get audience from the benefit of themselves of business in general.
According to an article found on IEEE “A design is considered to be responsive if it uses these three points: a flexible grid, flexible images and media, and media queries.” [7. P.2]. By using this web developer can define the resolution ranges, meaning designing a flexible layout can be made easy. This is as web design has grown from the traditional method of designing which used to be fixed-width design with minimum resolution. As different device is invented, a web developer has to come out with a different way to adapt the design to it. By using HTML 5 and CSS 3 to create a website that does it.
The introduction of responsive website design has reduced the problem of having to resize, panning, and scrolling and accessing them from any device. With the creation of it, people can now access important information easily.


[1] “Web developer,” in Oxford English Dictionary, 3rd ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press, Jun. 2008, def. 1 [Online]. Available: https://www.oed.com
[2] Hector Santana “Web developer.” [Online]. Britannica Academic, Available: https://academic-eb-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/levels/collegiate/article/Web-developer/632823 [Accessed: 15-Oct-2021].
[3] “Web Developers.” Encyclopedia of Emerging Industries, edited by Lynn M. Pearce, 6th ed., Gale, 2011, pp. 1048-1054. Gale eBooks, link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX1930200149/GVRL?u=cuny_nytc&sid=bookmark-GVRL&xid=7078b439. Accessed 15 Oct. 2021.
[4] F. Y. Alnawaj’ha and M. S. Abutaha, “Responsive web design commitment by the web developers in Palestine,” 2018 4th International Conference on Computer and Technology Applications (ICCTA), 2018, pp. 69-73, doi: 10.1109/CATA.2018.8398658.

500 Word Summary

To: Professor Ellis
From Kiara Ortiz
Date: September 28, 2021
Subject: 500 -Word Summary of Article

1. The following writing is about a 500-word summary of scholarly article on how network slicing can be secured when dividing a network up to increase privacy in a 5G network. The technology used to make this a reality is called blockchain. So, with the help of blockchain the authors are proposing a means by which to preserve privacy when slicing up a network for greater performance. With this methodology performance won’t come at the cost of privacy.
2. Network slicing is vital to the 5G standard. The purpose of slicing up a network is to divide up the physical channel (physical frequencies) in space. These divisions become isolated and support the 5G services with a diverse set of performance and service requirements. This slicing paradigm is used to maintain high capacity (greater volume of customers served), lower latency (quicker responses from the internet), and other large-scale services. Many companies are trying to set up infrastructure in 5G and they must meet the requirements to capture the greatest number of customers.
3. 5G services providers must meet a quality standard when deploying a service, this quality standard is called Quality of Service (QoS). Depending on the implantation and type of 5G network there are issues with rollout. One such issue is that in the US majority of rollout has been in the low band 5G which shows a subpar speed increase. Incapable of meeting the needs of US consumers. While in South Korea the 5G infrastructure is incapable enough to maintain a good enough QoS.
4. As a result of these issue and as mentioned earlier, there must be a standard that upkeeps the expectations of consumers. Hence why the service level agreement of network slicing exists, this agreement is proposed to address some the issues aforementioned. The parameters change depending on the customer and network operator, some parameters include secrecy rate, latency, packet loss, and so on.
5. Given this structure of standards monitoring and auditing seems to be an issue as well. Many Cloud platforms, domains, and third-party auditors have been tampering with reports for their own benefits. On the other hand, multi-party monitoring schemes can address these issues, but it is still difficult to trust relationship between a select few parties as a result authenticity of data cannot be guaranteed.
6. Key word here is trust, the most trustful platform/technology that has been discussed in recent memory is Blockchain. So, in this paper the proposal is to use blockchain as a technique to do SLA monitoring and auditing. The paper also notes that privacy leaking may also be a challenge in this paradigm.
7. It is noted that SLA management of 5G network slicing service is at in infancy, and there is much research done in this field yet.
8. The proposal in short is, a blockchain-based 5G network slicing NS-SLA audit model to prevent eavesdroppers. Both costumers and network operators will be involved in monitoring the task of 5G network slicing service and upload the monitored data to the blockchain. This uploading and auditing will be facilitated by a smart contract.

Xiao, K., Geng, Z., He, Y., Xu, G., Wang, C., & Tian, Y. (2021). A blockchain-based privacy-preserving 5G network slicing service level agreement audit scheme. EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications & Networking, 2021(1), 1–16. https://doi-org.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/10.1186/s13638-021-02037-8