Introduction to Linear Algebra

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  • Bio-diversity and Hudson River
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    Do some research on species or living organism that live in this river. Why do you think study of aquatic ecology is important? Write a brief paragraph.


    Tony Aguirre

    The EPA has an interesting assesment report of the Hudson River that can be found via the link :

    A nice snippet from the EPA assesment report :
    PCBs were released from two General Electric Company facilities located in the Upper Hudson River at Hudson Falls and Fort Edward, New York. Many of these PCBs adhered to river sediments. As PCBs in the river sediments are released slowly into the river water, these contaminated sediments serve as a continuing source of PCBs. During high flow events, the sediments may be deposited on the floodplain and PCBs may thereby enter the terrestrial food chain. High flow events may also increase the bioavailability of PCBs to organisms in the river water.

    Animals and plants living in or near the river, such as invertebrates, fish, amphibians, and water-dependent reptiles, birds, and mammals, may be directly exposed to the PCBs from contaminated sediments, river water, and air, and/or indirectly exposed through ingestion of food (e.g., prey) containing PCBs.

    The obvious point here, due to certain anthropogenic sources of environmental hazards, the Hudson River is now a source of nasty carcinogens that can and will affect us and the wildlife. ***Ecology is thus, like many fields of science, extremely important. We need to be able to understand the natural processes (and their interdependencies) that take place in our enivronment (locally and globally) and how our interaction with said environment changes those processes (negatively or positively with respect to time).


    Maria V.

    The Hudson River Foundation has started working on an Oyster Restoration Research Project which started in 2010. Phase I has been posted on the following page The main goal of this project is to reintroduce oysters into the New York/New Jersey estuary. But, why are oysters so important in the ecosystem?
    In February 7th, 2013, Discovery news posted a blog titled “Oyster Shells Used to Fight Erosion”. This article shows that there is a circle of life in oysters where the shells bed are being used by the oyster larvae to set and grow on this shells bed. Oysters provide habitat and food to many species such as fishes, birds, worms, etc. Each oyster is considered an anti- pollutant because it filters water resulting in clear water letting light to reach deep aquatic vegetation.



    Shrimp, crabs, jellyfish, and other fish tend to live inside the Hudson River. Though many people think sharks or alligators live in the Hudson but fortunately they are incorrect. The river can freeze from the cold weather in New York not allowing the animals to come to the surface if needed. Therefore not allowing any dolphins or whales or sharks or alligators in the water. However, according to the report, PCBs are a “group of highly toxic compounds that are known to cause cancer, birth defects, reproductive dysfunction, growth impairment, behavioral changes, hormonal imbalances, damage to the developing brain, and increased susceptibility to disease in animals.” Hazardous at even very low levels, they make their way up the food chain and become stored in the tissues of wildlife and fish, posing a health threat if people consume them.



    Thanks Tony, Maria, and Corey for your postings. Very informative. I learned something new!

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