## Michael Linâ€™s Expanded Definition of â€śMagnetic Fieldâ€ť

TO: Prof. Jason Ellis

FROM: Michael Lin

DATE: October 20, 2020Â Â Â

SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of magnetic field

## Introduction

The purpose of this document is to expanded definition of a word that weÂ might use in our future careers. The team that I will be defining in this document is â€śmagnetic fieldâ€ťÂ in this document I will first discuss the definition of â€śMagnetic Fieldâ€ťÂ follow by some context discussion and finally I willÂ provide a working definition of the term â€śMagnetic fieldâ€ťÂ Â Â

## Definition

Here is some definition of the term â€śmagnetic field.â€ť FromA Dictionary of Electronics and Electrical Engineering (5 ed.) it states that magnetic field is: ” The space surrounding a magnet or a current-carrying conductor and containing magnetic flux.â€ť in other word magnetic field is a force field that surround a magnet or things that carrying current and containing magnetic flux. Another definition for the term magnetic field is from Anderson, Michael. Electricity. 1st ed. New York: Britannica Educational Pub: â€śThe region around a magnet in which magnetic forces can be seen is called a magnetic field. An electric current also creates a magnetic fieldâ€ť. This mean definition means that the area around a magnet that has magnetic force is call the magnetic field. The third definition for the term â€śMagnetic Fieldâ€ť are from Oxford English Dictionary, it state: â€śa field of the kind that is produced by a magnetic body (also by an electric current and a varying electric field) and acts on magnetic material.â€ť

Â Base on the three definition that we get, we canÂ see that theÂ definition we got for the term â€śMagnetic Fieldâ€ť are similar in differentÂ areaÂ of study.Â It all definesÂ as â€śa force field around a magnet or things that carry current near its surrounding.Â SoÂ we can conclude that the definition of the term â€śMagnetic fieldâ€ťÂ wonâ€™t change if it was been use in different subject of the writing.Â Â

## Context

Here is some context that are using the term â€śmagnetic field.â€ť one article written by John Noble Wilford stated: â€śThe other major planets in the Solar System, Jupiter, Saturn and the Earth, have strong magnetic fields that trap and accelerate interplanetary particles.â€ť This sentence means that the major planet in our system all has magnetic field that pull the interplanetary particle toward them. Also, the term â€śmagnetic Fieldâ€ť in this sentence meant the force field that surround the planet.

The second article that also has the term â€śmagnetic fieldâ€ť are written by K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, its state: â€śThe earth’s magnetic field may help some animals navigate as they migrate. People have been using magnetic compasses for navigation since the fifteenth century. Because it has been so important for navigation, the magnetic field has been mapped all over the surface of the earth.â€ť This sentence meant that some animal would use the earthâ€™s magnetic field to help them to navigate their way around during the cold season as they need to migrate to a warmer place. Human also use magnetic field to help them navigate around the world during the fifteenth century by using magnetic compass.

The third article that has the term â€śmagnetic fieldâ€ť areÂ written byÂ James Gorman, its state:â€ť Birds have to have a way to detect a magnetic field, and some part of the brain has to register that information; it seems likely that another part of the brain then compares the incoming information to a stored map.â€ť This statement meant thatÂ part of the bird brain was able to absorb the earthâ€™s magnetic field and use itÂ asÂ information and createÂ a map in their brain to help the fly around the world. In this sentence, the term â€śmagnetic fieldâ€ťÂ was described as wave of current that flow around the Earth and was been pick up by birds.Â Â

## Working Definition

Based on the quote and the definition from different source,Â now we canÂ conclude that â€śMagnetic Fieldâ€ť is a force field that around a magnet orÂ thing that carrying current. ManyÂ thingsÂ in this world hasÂ magnetic field around them, for example our planet Earth has magnetic field around it. Even the human has magnetic field, but it is much weaker than the others.Â Many electricalÂ engineersÂ needÂ to have knowledge aboutÂ magnetic fieldÂ for their career, this is the basic of electrical engineering.Â Â Â Â

## Reference

1. Anderson, Michael. Electricity. 1st ed. New York: Britannica Educational Pub. In association with Rosen Educational Services, 2012. Print. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/citytech-ebooks/reader.action?docID=79
1. (2020). magnetic field. In Gorse, C., Johnston, D., & Pritchard, M. (Eds.), A Dictionary of Construction, Surveying and Civil Engineering. :Â Oxford University Press. Retrieved 4 Oct. 2020, fromÂ https://www-oxfordreference-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/view/10.1093/acref/9780198832485.001.0001/acref-9780198832485-e-4228.Â Â
2. Gorman, J. (2012, April 26). Study Sheds Light on How Birds Navigate by Magnetic Field. Retrieved October 20, 2020, fromÂ https://www.nytimes.com/2012/04/27/science/study-sheds-light-on-how-pigeons-navigate-by-magnetic-field.html?searchResultPosition=9Â Â
3. Magnetic Field. (2003). In K. L. Lerner & B. W. Lerner (Eds.),Â World of Earth ScienceÂ (Vol. 2, p. 358). Gale.Â https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3437800369/GVRL?u=cuny_nytc&sid=GVRL&xid=06073f2fÂ Â
4. Wilford, J. (1986, January 24). EVIDENCE OF MAGNETIC FIELD IS FOUND. Retrieved October 20, 2020, fromÂ https://www.nytimes.com/1986/01/24/us/evidence-of-magnetic-field-is-found.htmlÂ Â
5. “magnetic, adj. and n.”. OED Online. September 2020. Oxford University Press.Â https://www-oed-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/view/Entry/112270?redirectedFrom=magnetic+field+ (accessed October 04, 2020).Â

## Summary of Golovkov et al.’s â€śProtecting Against Thermal Effect: Part 1: Types of Electric Arc. Professional Safety,â€ť

TO: Professor Ellis

FROM: Michael Lin

DATE: 09/20/2020

SUBJECT: 500-word summary

This article will talk about how to protect electrician from the electric arc’s thermal hazard. The first Part of the article will talk about the different type of electric arc. Talks about theirÂ behavior and methods of thermal energy dissipation. TheÂ second Part 2 talks about how statistical are used for future improvement. The company will use the information to improve their PPE equipment but information on electric arc incident is hard to find in government statistical review. The last will talk about different way protecting from electric arc.Â Â

During the past 15 year, the availability of different fabric and other material used in PPE help to protect electrical worker from electric arc. But the most important is studying and analysis experience, so understanding the electric arc incident data will help us improve. Then they will test the PPE equipment to make sure it will happen to protect worker from electric arc. The range that the heat generated by the electric arc are very wide, so some use of PPE alone will not provide absolute protection, and there are many factors can affect the amount of thermal energy, like the distance ,type of arc, and the equipment that the worker is wearing at the time

Several organizations are involved in standards development and maintenance related to the electric arc safely and PPE. What is electric arc, some states that eclectic arc is a discharge of electricity from voltage, etc. Not all electric arcs in electrical equipment used in industry are the same, there are five different type of electric arcs and it is classification is based on several differentiating factors.

The first type of electric arc is Open air electric arc, it is median or high voltage that burn in open air without any thing that cover the arc. It could be cause by bushing flashover at high and medium voltage transformer (power and instrument) or breaker.  Second type of electric are Arc in a box, and it is a low-voltage electric arc in an enclosure. It can happen in panels, motor control centers (MCC), or electrical meters. The third type of electric are Moving arc, is a medium or high-voltage arc in open air, and it is between two parallel conductors. The fourth type of electric are Ejected Arc, ejected arc is a medium- or high-voltage arc formed at the tips of parallel conductors or electrodes. This type of arc was not common but it itâ€™s the most dangerous because it can cause large scale of burn on human skin. The last type of electric arc is Tracking arc, Tracking arc is very different from the other electric arc, it can happen on a personâ€™s skin under their cloth when they have a direct or indirect contact with the energized part. Knowing the different type of electric are very important for electrician, and to create a safe environment for those who work in that environment.

References

Golovkov, M., Schau, H., & Burdge, G. (2017). Protecting Against Thermal Effect: Part 1: Types of Electric Arc. Professional Safety62(7), 49â€“54.