Week 5, Weekly Writing Assignment

This week’s Weekly Writing Assignment has two parts: one part that you will submit as a comment to this post by next week and one part that you will develop on your own in preparation for next week’s Weekly Writing Assignment.

First, the part that you turn in this week is a sampling of your research. I would like you to add a comment to this post with three quotes from your research with parenthetical, in-text citations and the three bibliographic references for those quotes. For this task, you do not need to format it as a memo. The quotes, citations, and bibliographic references is all that I need to see. This will show me that you are doing the important research needed for this project. These quotes and references should go eventually into your 750-1000-Word Expanded Definition Project. Your comment should look something like this with the information filled in:

“This is a quote” (Author, Year, pp. pages).

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyy

“This is a second quote” (Author, Year, pp. pages).

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyy

“This is a third quote” (Author, Year, pp. pages).

Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Title of Periodical, volume number(issue number), pages. https://doi.org/xx.xxx/yyyy

Second, you should begin writing a first draft of your 750-1000-Word Expanded Definition Project on your own. I don’t need to see this yet, but you will use it for peer review and next week’s weekly writing assignment. It’s important to write as much as you can. In the lecture, I mention how important it is to spend time doing the research first to locate definitions to quote through the library and then find sentences using your term to quote in library and web-based sources. Below, I am including a general format of your Expanded Definition Project memo. Feel free to copy-and-paste it into the document that you are writing as your first draft. Delete my text as needed. Also, the bracketed text for headings should be removed. These are guidelines for how your document should look when you submit it in a couple of weeks.

Your Name’s Expanded Definition of YOUR TERM [Title for your OpenLab Post]

TO: Prof. Jason Ellis

FROM: Your Name

DATE: Due Date

SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of YOUR TERM

Introduction  [Heading Level 2] 

What is the purpose of this document? What term are you defining? How are you discussing the way it is defined and the way it is used in context? Describe a road map for what follows (definitions and context). This content should be published as paragraphs, unlike the heading for this section, which is a level 2 heading.

Definitions [Heading Level 2]

Quote several definitions of the term that you selected. Provide quotes and parenthetical citations for each definition and include your sources in the References section at the end of the document. Each definition that you include deserves discussion in your words about what it means and how it relates to the other definitions that you include. Consider how they are alike, how are they different, who might use one versus another, etc.

Context [Heading Level 2]

Quote several sentences from a variety of sources that use the term in context. A range of sources would provide the best source material for your discussion of how the term is used in these contexts. For example, a quote from an academic journal or two, a quote from a newspaper or magazine, a quote from a blog, and a quote from social media would give you a range of uses that might have different audiences. For each quote, you should devote at least as much space as the quote discussing what it means in that context and how it relates to the other quotes in context. Each quote should be in quotes, have a parenthetical citation, and a bibliographic entry in your references at the end of your document.

Working Definition [Heading Level 2]

Based on the definitions that you quoted and discussed, and the contextual uses of the term that you quoted and discussed, write a working definition of the term that’s relevant to your career field or major, which you will need to identify (this is the specific context for your working definition).

References [Heading Level 2]

Order your APA-formatted bibliographic references by the author’s last name, alphabetically.

25 thoughts on “Week 5, Weekly Writing Assignment”

  1. “Artificial neural networks are, as their name indicates, computational networks which attempt to simulate, in a gross manner, the networks of nerve cell (neurons) of the biological (human or animal) central nervous system.” (Graupe, Daniel, 2007, Page 1).

    Graupe, D. (2007). Principles of artificial neural networks (2nd ed.). ProQuest Ebook Central https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

    “Neural networks are computational models of the biological brain. Like the brain, a neural network comprises a large number of interconnected neurons.”

    Behrang, M., Assareh, E., Ghanbarzadeh, A., & Noghrehabadi, A. (2010). The potential of different artificial neural network (ANN) techniques in daily global solar radiation modeling based on meteorological data. Solar Energy, 84(8), 1468–1480. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.solener.2010.05.009

    “In recent years, deep artificial neural networks (including recurrent ones) have won numerous contests in pattern recognition and machine learning.”

    Schmidhuber, J. (2015). Deep learning in neural networks: An overview. Neural Networks, 61, 85–117. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.neunet.2014.09.003

  2. “Biological medicines have been used since ancient times and are plant-derived.” (Tomasz E Romer, pg 1, 2009)
    Romer, Tomasz E. “The Role of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Biosimilars in the Management of Growth Disorders: [Current-Page:Pager]TouchENDOCRINOLOGY.” TouchENDOCRINOLOGY, 6 June 2011, http://www.touchendocrinology.com/the-role-of-recombinant-human-growth-hormone-biosimilars-in-the-management-of-growth-disorders/

    “Biotechnology opened a door to the treatment of diseases that previously would not be treated adequately or at all.” (Tomasz E Romer, pg 1, 2009)
    Romer, Tomasz E. “The Role of Recombinant Human Growth Hormone Biosimilars in the Management of Growth Disorders: [Current-Page:Pager]TouchENDOCRINOLOGY.” TouchENDOCRINOLOGY, 6 June 2011, http://www.touchendocrinology.com/the-role-of-recombinant-human-growth-hormone-biosimilars-in-the-management-of-growth-disorders/

    “Engineers in this field employ an array of principles to guide their study, including classical mechanics, physics and mathematics.”(2020)
    “4 Ways That Bioengineering Has Enhanced Health Care.” UC Riverside, 9 Jan. 2020, engineeringonline.ucr.edu/blog/4-important-ways-that-bioengineering-has-enhanced-health-care/

    1. Nargis Anny
      Professor Jason Ellis
      New York City College of Technology
      ENG2575 OL70
      Weekly Writing Assignment: Week 5

      1. “First, One major advantage of DL is that it makes learning Algorithms less dependent on future engineering”. (Yoon-Ho Choi, Peng Liu, Zitong Shang, Article #15 2020, Page 2)
      Choi, Y., Liu, P., Shang, Z. et al. Using deep learning to solve computer security challenges: a survey. Cybersecurity 3, 15 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s42400-020-00055-5
      2. “ We consider transmission security in relation to the risk of physical destruction of system elements and concerns about Cyber security” ( S.B. Ferber, 1989, page 298)

      S.B. Ferber (1989) VLSI RISC Archit. & Organisation App. D. 298)

      3. “With these network developments, more data will be created and collected than ever before, making policy attempts to protect this data more urgent” ( Alois Zwiggi, Marco Pineda, Daniel Dobrygowski, Rebekah Lewis)

      “Why 2020 Is a Turning Point For Cybersecurity” Managing Written by Alois Zwinggi – https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/01/what-are-the-cybersecurity-trends-for-2020/

    2. Nargis Anny
      Professor Jason Ellis
      New York City College of Technology
      ENG2575 OL70
      Weekly Writing Assignment: Week 5

      1. “First, One major advantage of DL is that it makes learning Algorithms less dependent on future engineering”. (Yoon-Ho Choi, Peng Liu, Zitong Shang, Article #15 2020, Page 2)
      Choi, Y., Liu, P., Shang, Z. et al. Using deep learning to solve computer security challenges: a survey. Cybersecurity 3, 15 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1186/s42400-020-00055-5
      2. “ We consider transmission security in relation to the risk of physical destruction of system elements and concerns about Cyber security” ( S.B. Ferber, 1989, page 298)

      S.B. Ferber (1989) VLSI RISC Archit. & Organisation App. D. 298)

      3. “With these network developments, more data will be created and collected than ever before, making policy attempts to protect this data more urgent” ( Alois Zwiggi, Marco Pineda, Daniel Dobrygowski, Rebekah Lewis)

      “Why 2020 Is a Turning Point For Cybersecurity” Managing Written by Alois Zwinggi – https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2020/01/what-are-the-cybersecurity-trends-for-2020/

  3. Quantum Entanglement:

    “…quantum mechanics allows the two electrons’ spins to exist jointly in a single entangled fuzzy state that can stretch over vast distances.” (Hanson/Shalm, 2018, 58)

    Hanson, R., & Shalm, K. (2018). Spooky Action. Scientific American, 319(6), 58–65.

    “One of the most unusual and fascinating aspects of quantum mechanics is the fact that particles or systems can become entangled. For the simplest two quantum systems case we denote the systems A and B. If these systems are entangled, this means that the values of certain properties of system A are correlated with the values that those properties will assume for system B. The properties can become correlated even when the two systems are spatially separated— leading to the phrase spooky action at a distance.” (McMahon, 2007, 147).

    McMahon, D. (2007). Quantum Computing explained. IEEE Computer Society Press. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/29.Sep/2020

    “..photon in horizontally and vertically polarized states and subscripts A and B refer to separate particles respectively. This state has an interesting property that it cannot be expressed as a product state of two single photon states. Such a state is called entangled state after Erwin Schrödinger, who coined the phrase (“verschräkung” or entanglement in German). The state above is one of four similar ones called Bell states and they are maximally entangled states for two qubits. These and other entangled states have the property that the measurement of the first photon’s polarization will allow one to infer the second photon’s polarization without measuring it. Einstein did not like it as it implied instantaneous communication of some kind between the two photons. This violates the special theory of relativity according to which any the velocity of any signal cannot exceed the velocity of light. Later experiments on qubit systems have proved that quantum mechanics describes the system correctly.” (Mishra, 2016, 12)

    Mishra, Vinod K. (2016) An Introduction to Quantum Communication. Momentum Press.

  4. “In the last few years, the word virtualization has been a topic of discussion in most, if not all, IT organizations. Not only has it promised to save organizations money, but it has consistently delivered on that promise. The first area that this has generally been applied to is the server space. Organizations often take three, four, or more physical servers, create virtual machines running what previously ran on a physical server, and run those workloads on a single physical server hosting multiple virtual machines. Reducing the number of physical servers saves the cost of purchasing, maintaining, powering, and in some cases licensing those physical servers” (Cerling, Buller, Enstall and Ruiz, 2010, p. XVII).

    Cerling, T., Buller, J., Enstall, C., & Ruiz, R. (2010). Mastering microsoft virtualization. Wiley Publishing, Inc

    “In essence, system virtualization is the use of an encapsulating software layer that surrounds or underlies an operating system and provides the same inputs, outputs, and behavior that would be expected from physical hardware” (Pearce, Zeadally, & Hunt, 2013, p. 17).

    Pearce, M., Zeadally, S., & Hunt, R. (2013). Virtualization: issues, security threats, and solutions. ACM Computing Surveys, 45(2), 17–17:39. https://doi.org/10.1145/2431211.2431216

    “Virtualization has been a part of the computing landscape for nearly half a century” (Douglis & Krieger, 2013, p. 6).

    Douglis, F., & Krieger, O. (2013). Virtualization. IEEE Internet Computing, 17(2), 6–9. https://doi.org/10.1109/MIC.2013.42

  5. “Cloud computing refers to applications and services that run on a distributed network using virtualized resources and accessed by common Internet protocols and networking standards. It is distinguished by the notion that resources are virtual and limitless and that details of the physical systems on which software runs are abstracted from the user” (Sosinsky, 2011, p. 3).
    Sosinsky, B. (2011).Cloud computing bible. Wiley Publishing, Inc.
    “Cloud computing is today’s most emphasized Information and Communications Technology (ICT) paradigm that is directly or indirectly used by almost every online user. However, such great significance comes with the support of a great infrastructure that includes large data centers comprising thousands of server units and other supporting equipment.” (Mastelic, Oleksiak, Claussen, Brandic, Pierson, Vasilakos, 2014, p. 1).
    Mastelic, T., Oleksiak, A., Claussen, H., Brandic, I., Pierson, J., Vasilakos, A. (2014). Cloud computing: Survey on energy efficiency. ACM Computing Surveys, 47(2), 1–36. https://doi.org/10.1145/2656204
    “There has been a lot of debate about what the cloud is. Many people think of the cloud as a collection of technologies. It’s true that there is a set of common technologies that typically make up a cloud environment, but these technologies are not the essence of the cloud.” (Rountree, Castrillo, 2014, p. 1).
    Rountree, D., Castrillo, I. (2014).The basics of cloud computing : Understanding the fundamentals of cloud computing in theory and practice Elsevier, Inc.

  6. “Authentication is an absolutely essential element of any typical security model. Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) is a form of strong authentication which uses more than one information…” (S. Ibrokhimov et al., 2019)

    S. Ibrokhimov, K. L. Hui, A. Abdulhakim Al-Absi, h. j. lee and M. Sain, “Multi-factor authentication in cyber physical system: A state of art survey,” 2019 21st International Conference on Advanced Communication Technology (ICACT), PyeongChang Kwangwoon_Do, Korea (South), 2019, pp. 279-284, https://doi.org/10.23919/ICACT.2019.8701960.

    “Multi-factor authentication can incorporate various layers of authentication solutions implemented in conjunction with one another, such as user name and password with a token and a biometric finger scanner. It may also be a single solution that delivers multiple layers of security.” (Tatham, M. et al., 2009)

    Tatham, M., & Honkanen, A. (2009). Mobility for secure multi-factor “out of band” authentication. In B. Unhelkar (Ed.), Handbook of Research in Mobile Business: Technical, Methodological, and Social Perspectives (2nd ed., pp. 388-398). Idea Group Reference. https://link-gale-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/apps/doc/CX1809100051/GVRL?u=cuny_nytc&sid=GVRL&xid=a41ac927

    “You should use MFA whenever possible, especially when it comes to your most sensitive data—like your primary email, your financial accounts, and your health records.” (National Institute of Standards and Technology [NIST],2016)

    National Institute of Standards and Technology. (2016, June 28). Back to basics: Multi-factor authentication (MFA). NIST. https://www.nist.gov/itl/applied-cybersecurity/tig/back-basics-multi-factor-authentication

  7. Alvin Ferreira
    Professor Jason Ellis
    Subject: Weekly Writing Assignment 5

    “Honeypots in their most basic form are fake information servers, strategically positioned in a test network, which are fed with false information that is disguised as files of a confidential nature. In turn, these servers are initially configured in such a way that it is difficult, but not impossible, to be penetrated by a computer attacker, deliberately exposing them and making them highly attractive to a target hacker. Finally, the server is enabled with information monitoring and tracking tools, so that each step and trace of activity of a “hacker” can be recorded in a logbook that indicates these movements in detail.”
    Miguel A. Leguizamon-Paez, Maria A. Bonilla-Diaz, & Camilo A. Leon-Cuervo (2020). Analysis of computer attacks through Honeypots in the District University Francisco Jose de caldas.Ingenieria y Competitvidad,jul2020, Vol.22 Issue 2, p1-13. 13p.

    “Honeypots have no legitimate production use for incoming traffic, so in theory any traffic hitting a honeypot can be deemed suspicious and warrant inspection.”

    Dileep Basam, J. Scot Ransbottom, Randy Marchany, & Joseph G. Tront(2016)
    Strengthening MT6D Defense with LXC-Based Honeypot Capabilities. Journal of Electrical & Computer Engineering, p 1-13 . 13p http://web.b.ebscohost.com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/ehost/detail/detail?vid=13&sid=b110f4ca-b64a-4c7a-aa3b-f7491114517c%40pdc-v-sessmgr01&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#AN=114671286&db=a9h

    “Though honeypot technology is not widely accepted, we feel it can be successful in certain environments. This leads to a new kind of honeypot called context dependent honeypot based on databases” (S.K. Gupta et al., 2008)

    Anand Gupta, S.K. Gupta, IshaManu Ganesh, Pankhuri Gupta, Vikram Goyal, & Sangeeta Sabharwal. (2010) Opaqueness Characteristic of a Context Honeypot System. Information Security Journal: A Global Perspective.vol.19 Issue 3, p142-152. 11p.

  8. FROM: Shital B K
    TO: Professor Jason Ellis
    SUBJECT: ENG2575
    TITLE: Weekly Writing Assignment 5
    Date: 9/30/2020


    “GitHub uses a “fork & pull” collaboration model [1], where developers create their own copies of a repository and submit requests when they want the project maintainer to incorporate their changes into the project’s main branch, thus providing an environment in which people can easily conduct code reviews.” (Gousios, Spinellis, 2017, p.501).

    Gousios, G., & Spinellis, D. (2017). Mining Software Engineering Data from GitHub. ICSE: International Conference on Software Engineering, 501–502. https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSE-C.2017.164

    “Git, the brainchild of Linus Torvalds, began its life in 2005 as a revision management system used for coordinating the Linux kernel’s development.” (Spinellis, 2012, p.100).

    Spinellis, D. (2012). Git. IEEE Software, 29(3), 100–101. https://doi.org/10.1109/MS.2012.61

    “A version control system (VCS) allows you to track the iterative changes you make to your code. Thus, you can experiment with new ideas but always have the option to revert to a specific past version of the code you used to generate particular results.” (Blischak, Davenport, Wilson, 2016, p.1).

    Blischak, J. D., Davenport, E. R., & Wilson, G. (2016). A Quick Introduction to Version Control with Git and GitHub. PLoS Computational Biology, 12(1), 1–18.

  9. FROM: Michael Lin
    TO: Professor Jason Ellis
    SUBJECT: 750 1000 definition expedition. three quotes
    Date: 9/30/2020

    “Electric forces are produced by electric charges either at rest or in motion. Magnetic forces, on the other hand, are produced only by moving charges and act solely on charges in motion.” (Gregersen, Erik. 2010, pg I)

    Gregersen, Erik. The Britannica Guide to Electricity and Magnetism. 1st ed. New York, NY: Britannica Educational Pub. in association with Rosen Educational Services, 2010. Print. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/citytech-ebooks/reader.action?docID=624286

    “The region around a magnet in which magnetic forces can be seen is called a magnetic field. An electric current also creates a magnetic field.” (Michael Anderson, 2012, pg 46)

    Anderson, Michael. Electricity. 1st ed. New York: Britannica Educational Pub. In association with Rosen Educational Services, 2012. Print. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/citytech-ebooks/reader.action?docID=798349

    The magnetic field describes the effects of stationary and time-varying currents inside and outside an electrical conductor. Electric charges in motion are subject to Coulomb forces and also to other forces caused by the magnetic field. The unit of electrical current can be defined in terms of the forces in a magnetic field (Schmidt-Walter, Heinz, and Ralf Kories. 2007. Pg 64)

    Schmidt-Walter, Heinz., and Ralf. Kories. Electrical Engineering a Pocket Reference . Boston: Artech House, 2007. Print. https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/citytech-ebooks/reader.action?docID=1931610

  10. TO: Professor Ellis
    FROM: Jinquan Tan
    DATE: 9/30/2020
    SUBJECT: 750-1000 Word Expanded Definition Brainstorming

    API (Application Programming Interface)

    “An Application Programming Interface (API) is a set of functionalities provided by a third-party component (e.g., library and framework) that is made available to software developers. APIs are extremely popular as they promote reuse of existing software systems (Johnson and Foote 1988)”(Sawant,2016,p.1349).

    Sawant, A., & Bacchelli, A. (2016). fine-GRAPE: fine-grained APi usage extractor – an approach and dataset to investigate API usage. Empirical Software Engineering : an International Journal, 22(3), 1348–1371. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10664-016-9444-6

    “The HITRAN Application Programming Interface (HAPI, [15,16]) represents a code library that was made in an attempt to combine a unified data and code approach to work with the spectroscopic data”(Kochanov,2016,p.16).

    Kochanov, R., Gordon, I., Rothman, L., Wcisło, P., Hill, C., & Wilzewski, J. (2016). HITRAN Application Programming Interface (HAPI): A comprehensive approach to working with spectroscopic data. Journal of Quantitative Spectroscopy & Radiative Transfer, 177, 15–30. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jqsrt.2016.03.005

    “we describe the Materials Application Programming Interface (API), a simple, flexible and efficient interface to programmatically query and interact with the Materials Project database based on REpresentational State Transfer (REST) principles”(Ong,2015,p.210).

    Ong, S., Cholia, S., Jain, A., Brafman, M., Gunter, D., Ceder, G., & Persson, K. (2015). The Materials Application Programming Interface (API): A simple, flexible and efficient API for materials data based on REpresentational State Transfer (REST) principles. Computational Materials Science, 97(C), 209–215. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.commatsci.2014.10.037

  11. “Nonnegative Matrix Factorization (NMF) is a method that is widely used when analyzing high-dimensional data and has proven to be successful in exploiting the similarity between users’ interactions and preferences to give recommendations.”(Mrzic, Zaimovic, 2020, p. 1182)

    Mrzic, E., Zaimovic, T. (2020). Data Science Methods and Machine Learning Algorithm Implementations for Customized Pratical Usage. TEM Journal, 9(3), 1179-1185. https://doi.org/10.18421/TEM93-44

    “In supervised machine-learning, a classifier is trained on labeled examples the classification of which is known a priori. The current task is a binary one, namely there are only two classes: O and T.”(Volansky, Ordan, Wintner, 2015, p. 103)

    Volansky V., Ordan N., Wintner S. (2015). On the features of translationese. Digital Scholarship in the Humanities, 30(1), 98–118. https://doi.org/10.1093/llc/fqt031

    “One value proposition for digital pathology is to take advantage
    of the digital nature of WSI and use artificial intelligence/
    machine learning (AI/ML) algorithms to support clinical
    decisions.”(Marble, Huang, et al., 2020, p. 2)

    Marble, H. D., Huang, R., Dudgeon, S. N., Lowe, A., Herrmann, M. D., Blakely, S., Leavitt, M. O., Isaacs, M., Hanna, M. G., Sharma, A., Veetil, J., Goldberg, P., Schmid, J. H., Lasiter, L., Gallas, B. D., Abels, E., & Lennerz, J. K. (2020). A Regulatory Science Initiative to Harmonize and Standardize Digital Pathology and Machine Learning Processes to Speed up Clinical Innovation to Patients. Journal of Pathology Informatics, 11, 1–13. https://doi.org/10.4103/jpi.jpi_27_20

  12. “prevention of damage to, protection of, and restoration of computers, electronic communications systems, electronic communications services, wire communication, and electronic communication, including information contained therein, to ensure its availability, integrity, authentication, confidentiality, and nonrepudiation.” (Department of Defense Instruction 8500.01, 2014).

    Don Snyder, James D. Powers, Elizabeth Bodine-Baron, Bernard Fox, Lauren Kendrick, & Michael H. Powell. (2015). Improving the Cybersecurity of U.S. Air Force Military Systems Throughout Their Life Cycles. In Improving the Cybersecurity of U.S. Air Force Military Systems Throughout Their Life Cycles. RAND Corporation. https://doi.org/10.7249/j.ctt19rmd15

    “Whatever be the commercial, military and intelligence purpose, multiple ways to access all kinds of data, information and knowledge require that the confidentiality, integrity and availability of information are ensured.”
    (M. Karaman et al.,2016, Vol.5, No.1)

    “Cyber-security is a method of e-protection. It is a framework policy of and for defense when reflective to a political-military alliance such as NATO (North Atlantic Treaty Organization). “ (Efthymiopoulos, 2019,page1)
    Efthymiopoulos, M. P. (2019). A cyber-security framework for development, defense and innovation at NATO. Journal of Innovation and Entrepreneurship, 8(1). doi:10.1186/s13731-019-0105-z

  13. “Electromagnetics (EM) or electromagnetism is a branch of physics or engineering in which electric and magnetic phenomena are studied. It. may be regarded as the study of interactions between electric charges at rest and in motion” (Tayal, 2008, P. 746).

    Tayal, D.C. (2008). Electricity and Magnetism. Global Media,ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com.

    “During the last 100 years, magnetism has made a giant step forward. By the second half of the nineteenth century, Maxwell’s equations had established the relation between different electromagnetic fields, and scientists and engineers were aware of the dipolar character of magnetostatic forces and interactions.”(Skomski, 2008, P. 349)

    Skomski, R. (2008). Simple models of magnetism. ProQuest Ebook Central https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

    “First, the words “electromagnetic signals” and “electromagnetism” are used interchangeably in this paper. The phrase “electromagnetic signals” is often used when the “electromagnetism” is not stationary, but is instead transmitted” (Dolly, Steven, 2010, P. 1)

    DOLLY Y. WU AND STEVEN M. GEISZLER + ++ (Spring, 2010). ARTICLE: Patentable Subject Matter: What is the Matter with Matter?. Virginia Journal of Law and Technology, 15, 101.https://advance-lexis-com.

    ”Electromagnetism was first discovered in the 19th century, when scientists recognized that the interaction of electrical currents and magnets could make objects move without touching”.

    (October 31, 2017 Tuesday). Northern lights to death rays: how electromagnetism haunts our everyday life. Global English (Middle East and North Africa Financial Network). https://advance-lexis-com.

  14. The innate immune response has no immunologic memory and, therefore, it is unable to recognize or
    “memorize” the same pathogen should the body be exposed to it in the future (Marshall et al, 2018, pp.1)
    Marshall, J. S., Warrington, R., Watson, W., & Kim, H. L. (2018). An introduction to immunology and immunopathology. Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology, 14(1), N.PAG. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13223-018-0278-1

    Adaptive immunity, on the other hand, is antigen-dependent and antigen-specific and, therefore, involves a lag time between exposure to the antigen and maximal response. (Marshall et al, 2018, pp.1)
    Marshall, J. S., Warrington, R., Watson, W., & Kim, H. L. (2018). An introduction to immunology and immunopathology. Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology, 14(1), N.PAG. https://doi.org/10.1186/s13223-018-0278-1

    Immunodeficiency refers to a state in which the immune system’s ability to fight infectious disease is compromised or entirely absent (Warrington et al, 2011, pp.7)
    Warrington, R., Watson, W., Kim, H. L., & Antonetti, F. R. (2011). An introduction to immunology and immunopathology. Allergy, Asthma & Clinical Immunology, 7(S1), 1–8. https://doi.org/10.1186/1710-1492-7-S1-S1

  15. 1. “Computer systems used in data mining can be very useful to control human limitations such as subjectivity and error due to fatigue and to provide guidance to decision-making processes” (Ionuț ȚĂRANU, pg 33, 2015)

    ȚĂRANU, I. (2015). Data mining in healthcare: decision making and precision. Database Systems Journal, 6(4), 33–40. http://search.ebscohost.com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aci&AN=115441821&site=ehost-live&scope=site

    2. “data mining techniques used for predictive modelling are based on common hospital practices that may not necessarily follow best practice models, where such a model can recommend inappropriate medication orders that will be used and reinforce poor decision making within the healthcare organization and impact the delivery of patient care” (Mowafa Househ et al. , pg 82, 2017)

    Househ, M., & Aldosari, B. (2017). The Hazards of Data Mining in Healthcare. Studies In Health Technology And Informatics, 238, 80–83. http://search.ebscohost.com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=mdc&AN=28679892&site=ehost-live&scope=site

    3.“Cloud data mining fuses the applicability of classical data mining with the promises of cloud computing” (Hrishav Bakul Barua et al., pg 1, 2019)

    BARUA, H. B., & MONDAL, K. C. (2019). A Comprehensive Survey on Cloud Data Mining (CDM) Frameworks and Algorithms. ACM Computing Surveys, 52(5), 1–62.

  16. “These programs were not focused on the use of instructional software. Based on their success, one might conjecture that intelligent tutoring systems would be more effective if they focused more on the teaching of meta-cognitive skills, in addition to helping students at the domain level. A number of efforts have focused on supporting meta-cognition in intelligent tutoring systems.” (B. Bredeweg, 2005, p. 17).
    B. Bredeweg, J. Breuker, C. K. Looi, and J. Breuker (2005). Artificial Intelligence in Education : Supporting Learning Through Intelligent and Socially Informed Technology. IOS Press, Incorporated, 2005. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/

    “Software testing at various levels (unit, component, integration, etc.) has become a major activity in systems development. Though a significant amount of research has been concerned with formal proofs of code correctness, development teams still have to validate their increasingly complex products by executing a large number of experiments, which imitate the actual operating environment of the tested system.” ( L. Mark, 2004, p. vii).
    Mark Last, Abraham Kandel, and Horst Bunke (2004). Artificial Intelligence Methods in Software Testing. World Scientific Publishing Co Pte Ltd, 2004. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/

    “Siri, a virtual assistant, is a form of AI that millions of people interact with every day. Several different technological feats are happening at the same time when a human has a conversation with Siri. First, Siri has to detect the person’s speech and correctly figure out what words he is saying. This process is called speech recognition. Then, Siri has to understand those words and answer the person. This requires natural language processing.” ( H. Kathryu, 2015, p.37).
    Kathryn Hulick (2015). Artificial Intelligence. ABDO Publishing Company, 2015. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/

  17. “Cybersecurity is the practice of protecting systems, networks, and programs from digital attacks. These cyber attacks are usually aimed at accessing, changing, or destroying sensitive information; extorting money from users; or interrupting normal business processes.” (Cisco, 2020, page 1).

    Cisco. (2020). What Is Cybersecurity, 1. https://www.cisco.com/c/en/us/products/security/what-is-cybersecurity.html

    “In order to be better protected, it’s important to know the different types of cyber security. These include critical infrastructure security, network security, application security, information security, cloud security, data loss prevention, and end-user education.” (Jennifer van der Kleut, 2020, page 1).

    Jennifer van der Kleut. (2020). What is cyber security? What you need to know, 1.

    “Combining sound cyber security measures with an educated and security-minded employee base provides the best defense against cyber criminals attempting to gain access to your company’s sensitive data. While it may seem like a daunting task, start small and focus on your most sensitive data, scaling your efforts as your cyber program matures.” (Juliana De Groot, 2020, page 1).

    Juliana De Groot. (2020). What is Cyber Security? Definition, Best Practices & More, 1.

  18. “Power BI is a business analytics reporting tool introduced by Microsoft to create interactive business reports.” (Machiraju et al., 2018, p.2)

    Machiraju, S., & Gaurav, S. (2018). Power Bi Data Analysis and Visualization. DEG Press. DOI 10.1515/9781547400720-201

    “In this 2020 update, we are going to expand beyond Power Pivot and consider Power BI. The purpose of looking at Power BI is not so much to make the reader an expert in its usage, but to raise familiarity so that the reader upon return to their office will begin to experiment with Power BI on their own.” (Lindell, 2020, p.2-5)

    Lindell, J. (2020). Power BI, Pivot, and Excel Tips and Techniques for the Controller. In Annual Update for Controllers, J. Lindell (Ed.). DOI:10.1002/9781119757597.ch2

    “This article focuses on Microsoft Power BI because it combines data extraction, transformation, and load tools already in Excel (namely PowerPivot and Power Query) with robust modern styles of interactive analysis and visualizations.” (Thomas, 2020)

    Thomas, W. S. (2020, March 1). Power BI: An analytical view. https://www.journalofaccountancy.com/issues/2020/mar/microsoft-power-bi-data-excel.html.

  19. TO: Professor Ellis
    FROM: Joshua Patterson
    DATE: 10/7/2020
    SUBJECT: Week 5 Assignment

    “The rapidly increasing dependence on networks requires the clear understanding of these challenges, as well as robust infrastructure which is secure from current and future cyber threats.”

    (Ďulík, M., & Ďulík jr., M. (2019). Cyber Security Challenges in Future Military Battlefield Information Networks. Advances in Military Technology, 14(2), 263–277. https://doi-org.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/10.3849/aimt.01248)

    “Cyber security is a rapidly growing area of study. It is also one of the fastest developing spheres of challenge for organisations and a thriving area of the graduate recruitment market; however, there is an enduring public perception that the field is only accessible to computer science graduates. There is a clear need for graduates with skills in penetration testing to identify system vulnerabilities, but there is now greater recognition that an effective cyber security strategy requires engagement from people at all levels of the organisation with a variety of skills in order to prevent or manage critical incidents.”

    (Arora, B. (2019). Teaching cyber security to non-tech students. Politics, 39(2), 252–265. https://doi-org.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/10.1177/0263395718760960)

    “Cyber risk has become a hot topic given the ever-increasing cyber breaches and resulting losses of data and business disruptions. Cyber risk differs from traditional insurance risks in that they are very much driven by human behaviours in terms of attacks and defenses. What quantitative tools can actuaries imply to offer insights in measuring and managing cyber risks? In this paper, we apply traditional ruin theory in an innovative way to assess the stochastic changes in the level of cyber security and derived interesting insights from this theoretical framework.”

    (Nie, C., Li, J., & Wang, S. (2020). Modeling the Effect of Spending on Cyber Security by Using Surplus Process. Mathematical Problems in Engineering, 1–10. https://doi-org.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/10.1155/2020/3239591)

  20. “Cloud computing is an innovative Information System (IS) architecture, visualized as what may be the future of computing, a driving force demanding from its audience to rethink their understanding of operating systems, client–server architectures, and browsers. ” ( Dimitrios Zissis and Dimitrios Lekkasm , page 1, 2010)

    Zissis, D., & Lekkas, D. (2010, December 22). Addressing cloud computing security issues. from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0167739X10002554

    “Cloud computing is one of today’s most exciting technologies due to its ability to reduce costs associated with computing while increasing flexibility and scalability for computer processes”( Farzad Sabahi , page 1, 2011)

    Farzad Sabahi (2011, 27-29 May) Cloud Computing Security Threats and Responses from https://ieeexplore-ieee-org.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/document/6014715

    “One of the strength of the cloud environment is its distributed nature of the renounces. For huge and rapid processing of the data, a CSP may use resources which are available at that time of operation. This feature exposes the user data over entire network which may cause serious security threat” (Prachi Deshpande ; S. C. Sharma ; P. Sateesh Kumar, page 1, 2015)

    Prachi Deshpande ; S. C. Sharma ; P. Sateesh Kumar(2015, May 15) Security threats in cloud computing. From https://ieeexplore-ieee-org.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/document/7148450

  21. FROM: Shamia Campbell
    TO: Professor Jason Ellis
    SUBJECT: ENG2575
    TITLE: Weekly Writing Assignment 5
    Date: 9/30/2020

    “A well-defined procedure to solve a problem. The study of algorithms is a fundamental area of computer science. In writing a computer program to solve a problem, a programmer expresses in a computer language an algorithm that solves the problem, thereby turning the algorithm into a computer program” (Algorithm, 2005, p.76).
    Algorithm. (2005). In McGraw-Hill Concise Encyclopedia of Science and Technology, 5th ed., McGraw-Hill Professional, 2005, p. 76. Gale eBooks, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3475800207/GVRL?u=cuny_nytc&sid=GVRL&xid=54c4b65b.

    “An algorithm is any well-defined procedure for solving a given class of problems. Ideally, when applied to a particular problem in that class, the algorithm would yield a full solution. Nonetheless, it makes sense to speak of algorithms that yield only partial solutions or yield solutions only some of the time. Such algorithms are sometimes called “rules of thumb” or “heuristics” (DEMBSKI, 2003, p.7).
    Algorithm. (2003). In Encyclopedia of Science and Religion, edited by J. Wentzel Vrede van Huyssteen, vol. 1, Macmillan Reference USA, 2003, pp. 7-8. Gale eBooks, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3404200018/GVRL?u=cuny_nytc&sid=GVRL&xid=cc98c8c.

    “An algorithm is a set of instructions for accomplishing a task that can be couched in mathematical terms. If followed correctly, an algorithm guarantees successful completion of the task. The term algorithm is derived from the name al-Khowarizmi, a ninth-century Arabian mathematician credited with discovering algebra. With the advent of computers, which are particularly adept at utilizing algorithms, the creation of new and faster algorithms has become an important field in the study of computer science” (Lerner, 2014, p.131).
    Algorithm. (2014). In The Gale Encyclopedia of Science, edited by K. Lee Lerner and Brenda Wilmoth Lerner, 5th ed., vol. 1, Gale, 2014, p. 131. Gale eBooks, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/CX3727800076/GVRL?u=cuny_nytc&sid=GVRL&xid=7b6e67ce.

  22. “It learns hierarchical structures and levels of representation and abstraction to understand the patterns of data that come from various source types, such as images, videos, sound, and text.” (Bhardwaj et al., 2018, pp. 8)

    Bhardwaj, A., Di, W., & Wei, J. (2018). Deep learning essentials : Your hands-on guide to the fundamentals of deep learning and neural network modeling. ProQuest Ebook Central https://ebookcentral.proquest.com

    “a type of machine learning considered to be in some way more dynamic or complete than others; esp. machine learning based on artificial neural networks in which multiple layers of processing are used to extract progressively higher level features from data.” (OED, 2020)

    OED Online. (n.d.). Deep, adj. In oed.com dictionary. Retrieved October 22, 2020 from https://www-oed-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/viewdictionaryentry/Entry/48625#eid1295227870

    “Deep learning neural networks (DLNN) systematize large volumes of information by organizing
    complex data structures that are not achieved with an artificial neural network (ANN).” (Martínez et al., 2020, pp. 1957)

    Martínez, H. H., Ariza, H. M., & Gaviria, L. A. (2020). Strategy to determine the foot plantar center of pressure of a person through deep learning neural networks. Telkomnika, 18(4), 1954–1691. http://dx.doi.org/10.12928/telkomnika.v18i4.15200

  23. “In biometric authentication, image data or biomedical signals are used as biological information that indicate personal characteristics. Authentication with such image data as fingerprints, palm prints, blood vessel shapes, irises, or faces has already been applied in many fields [1-2].” (Tagashira, M. & Nakagawa, T., 2020, p.343)

    Mizuho Tagashira, & Takafumi Nakagawa. (2020). Biometric Authentication Based on Auscultated Heart Sounds in Healthcare. IAENG International Journal of Computer Science, 47(3), 343–349.

    “Biometric-based techniques are an alternative to passwords, smart cards, tokens etc., to authenticate persons, and may replace knowledge-based user authentication methods. The strength of these systems frees user from recalling passwords or PINs and at the same time increases the binding of recognition process to persons.” (Memon, Q., 2020, p.222)

    Memon, Q. A. (2020). Multi-Layered Multimodal Biometric Authentication for Smartphone Devices. International Journal of Interactive Mobile Technologies, 14(15), 222–230. https://doi-org.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/10.3991/ijim.v14i15.15825

    “Face recognition has been used in various applications such as unlocking smart devices,
    performing security checks and community surveillance, and maintaining home security. This
    method of biometric identification is convenient, widely accepted, difficult to falsify, and can be
    applied without the awareness of the person. However, limitations to face recognition include
    errors that can occur due to lighting, facial expression, and cosmetics.” (Fu, M., 2020, p.5)

    Meng-Hsuan Fu. (2020). Integrated Technologies of Blockchain and Biometrics Based on Wireless Sensor Network for Library Management. Information Technology & Libraries, 39(3), 1–13. https://doi-org.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/10.6017/ital.v39i3.11883

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