*OPEN EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES OER
New York City College of Technology
Social Science Department
COURSE CODE: ANTH 1102- OL69 (34420) Asynchronous
TITLE: MAGIC, WITCHCRAFT, & RELIGION
Number of class hours, lab hours if applicable, credits: 3 Class hours, 3 credits, BS Core
Enrollment requirements: Certification reading and writing
Satisfies Flexible Core: World Cultures and Global Issues, *Intensive Writing Course (A minimum of 15 pages total)
INSTRUCTOR: Dr. Lisa Pope Fischer
718-260-5742, Namm 627, Office Hours Tuesdays 10-12, or by appointment.
People rely on religion and various belief systems to bring meaning and understanding to everyday life. This course will show how anthropologists unravel and interpret cultural belief systems to gain insight into the cultural environment. Cross-cultural ethnographic examples will illustrate the various ways in which anthropologists analyze belief systems as a way to understand a culture. Topics include religion, worldview, symbolism, taboo, myth, ritual, witchcraft, shamanism, religious practitioners, magic, healing, and spirits. Students must be prepared to look at both literate and pre-literate ritual systems. Non-Western belief systems are contrasted with religions of the Western world. Theoretical approaches to religious systems will be included along with an observational field project.
Some of the underlying questions addressed in the course include: (a) In what ways do belief systems reflect the socio-cultural environment in which they take place? (b) What are the implications of culture, power, and social inequities in the expression and interpretation of systems of belief? (c) How can we identify myth, rituals, magic, and religion within our own society and what can this tell us about our culture?
“Asynchronous: Asynchronous class meetings do not require you to log in to your virtual classroom at a specified time. Students do not have to follow a strict schedule to engage in live classes or discussions, and the only requirement regarding when they turn in their work is the assignment deadline, not an arbitrary timeline. Assignment deadlines and exams days/times [deadlines] are maintained and included on the class syllabus. Per best practices, instructors should create non-mandatory opportunities for live interactions with and among students” (P. Brown).
The syllabus and the discussion board list the weekly at home reading assignments, and the online “virtual” assignments. To participate in the virtual classroom, you must post a message and response to the weekly discussion questions on Blackboard. . Plan on visiting the discussion board at least 3 times per week. All the questions are posted for the semester so you can start them early, but they are due by that week’s Friday 11:59PM (afterwards it will be marked as “late” and points will be deducted). The one discussion board question counts towards the week’s attendance, but I want detailed focused responses (aim for 250 words). In terms of “attendance,” late posts are counted as “lateness to class” – 3 of these equal 1 absence. Absent posts are “absences from class.” Absent members are not participating in part of the activities, and their grade will be lowered to reflect the lack of participation. You will not be able to read the other student’s responses until you post one of your own – a blank post followed by a full post shows me you “cheated” by looking at other students posts before formulating your own ideas. After you post, however, you are expected to read other students’ responses and my comments as this will help you on the tests. Feel free to comment on other student responses but please be respectful. Feel free to add your personal experiences and insights. If you are referring to an outside source for information you must use quotation marks and a proper reference, or I will give 0 points. This includes our readings, lectures, online dictionaries or websites). I will primarily be using Blackboard, Turnitin, and communicating to you on your City Tech email accounts. Make sure you check your email, especially on Tuesdays when I will send a weekly email to the class. Start with the discussion board on blackboard for the weekly readings, discussion board questions, and audio lectures.
-Resources for Students:
To activate student City Tech email, click here.
To access Microsoft Office 365 (using City Tech email), for online access to the Microsoft Office Suite and other applications: https://login.microsoftonline.com.
Note: Email login (ending with @mail.citytech.cuny.edu) is different from CUNY login (ending with @login.cuny.edu)
- Make sure you have the latest version of Microsoft office which is free for City Tech Students:
-Distance Learning Tools:
Blackboard: Blackboard is the CUNY-provided Learning Management System. Online courses are hosted and delivered through Blackboard, and many in-person courses use it as well. You access Blackboard by logging in via CUNYfirst.
Student Blackboard on Websupport1
If you are having trouble using Blackboard please check:
- The latest technical requirements from Blackboard are found at: https://help.blackboard.com/Learn/Student/Getting_Started/Browser_Support
- Review the City tech page for help with Blackboard: http://www.cuny.edu/about/administration/offices/cis/core-functions/cuny-blackboard/user-guides/student/
- Make sure your email is up to date on Blackboard. Here is a pdf that explains how to update your email: https://www.cuny.edu/wp-content/uploads/sites/4/page-assets/about/administration/offices/cis/core-functions/cuny-blackboard/user-guides/student/ChangeEmailAddressSP13_v1.pdf
REQUIRED TEXTBOOK (S) and MATERIALS*
This is an Open Educational Resource (OER) course. All readings are available via links on Open Lab, Blackboard Discussion Board, and this Syllabus. The links will direct you to the City Tech Library hence you must log into CUNY first in order to access the sources. Most are from article databases, but some are chapters within online ebooks. You can read directly from your computer/tablet/phone and/or download as a Pdf. Let me know if the link is broken or if you have any problems accessing the reading (Lpopefischer@Citytech.cuny.edu).
Open Lab: ANTH 1102 OER
Suggested book: TITLE: Mama Lola: A Vodou Priestess in Brooklyn.
EDITION: Any edition is fine.
AUTHOR: Karen McCarthy Brown
PUBLISHER: Berkeley: University of California Press.
Hicks, David, Editor. 2010. Ritual and Belief : Readings in the Anthropology of Religion, edited by David Hicks, AltaMira Press, 2010. ProQuest Ebook Central, https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/citytech-ebooks/detail.action?docID=616254.
The films are available on Youtube, but also “Kanopy” a database on the City Tech library article database. When possible, I have provided a direct link from the discussion board.
*All materials should be available at the City Tech Library reserve desk. Consider purchasing the McCarthy Brown book online – you can find cheaper used copies. Google “cheap textbooks” for a list of online sources, or select used options from Amazon.com.
SEQUENCE OF TOPICS AND TIME ALLOCATIONS (week by week)
WEEK 1 (My emails for the week and office hours will typically be on Tuesdays)
Topic: Introduction- What is Religion?
Before the week’s lectures you should have already read the assigned reading:
Geertz, Clifford, “Religion as a cultural system”. In: Banton, Michael, ed. 2004. Anthropological Approaches to the Study of Religion. London: Taylor & Francis Group. Accessed March 16, 2021. ProQuest Ebook Central.
Durkheim, Emile. 2003. “From the Elementary Forms of Religious Life.” Understanding Religious Sacrifice : A Reader. Carter, Jeffrey, ed London: Bloomsbury Publishing Plc. Accessed March 16, 2021. ProQuest Ebook Central. (pages 129-138)
LECTURE OUTLINE: (Go to Blackboard Discussion Board for Access to posted pre-recorded Powerpoint Show Lecture) Week 1: Introduction to ANTH1102
ATTENDANCE/PARTICIPATION (1): Make a post on the discussion board under “introductions” (Tell us your personal interests (your major, your hobbies, etc.) and /or given our circumstances with this shift to online format: how are you feeling? What are your fears, hopes, aspirations?). These weekly points are how I determine your attendance and participation in the class. All posts are due each Friday by 11:59PM.
***Please review how to use discussion boards:
WEEK 2: Topic: Symbols
* Do FIELDNOTE EXERCISE IN CLASS
2. Wolf, Eric R. “The Virgin of Guadalupe: A Mexican National Symbol.” The Journal of American Folklore 71, no. 279 (1958): 34-39. Accessed March 16, 2021. doi:10.2307/537957.
LECTURE OUTLINE: Week 2: Symbols
ATTENDANCE/PARTICIPATION (2): Your attendance/participation will be determined by your post in the discussion board. Read the entire article before answering the questions. Only answer one option each covering the topic, thesis, and cultural example (aim for 250 words):
Option 1 (Ortner article):
A. (Topic) What is the main point of the Ortner article? (One sentence)
B. (Thesis) Ortner’s defines three types of key symbols (Summarizing Symbol, Root metaphor, Key Metaphor). Here is her definition of summarizing symbol:
“those symbols which are seen as summing up, expressing, representing for the participants in an emotionally powerful and relatively undifferentiated way, way the system means to them. This category is essentially the category of sacred symbols in the broadest sense, and includes all those items which are objects of reverence and/or catalysts of emotion” (2008: 154). Summarizing symbols “ operate to compound and synthesize a complex system of ideas, to “summarize” them under a unitary form which, in an old-fashioned way, “stands for” the system as a whole” (Ortner 2008: 154).
What does she mean by summarizing symbol? ( Explain in your own words what the above quotation means and how it contributes to her over all thesis argument). (This should be at least 3 sentences)
C. (Cultural Example) Ortner uses the American Flag as an illustrating example of a summarizing symbol. Can you give an example of another summarizing symbol (not a flag)? (Explain how your example fits her definition of a summarizing symbol – how does your example sum up what is important for the culture, how does it emotionally express the cultures meaning, how is it sacred?).
Option 2 (Wolf article):
A. (Topic) What is the main point of this article? (One sentence)
B. (Thesis) Wolf’s article illustrates several key points (An origin myth, Syncretism, Multivocal Master symbol). Wolf states that “In this paper, I should like to discus this Mexican master symbol, and the ideology which surrounds it” (Wolf 1958: 34). He goes on to clarify what he means by master symbols to suggest they “provide the cultural idiom of behavior and ideal representations through which different groups of the same society can pursue and manipulate their different fates within a coordinated framework. This paper, then, deals with one such cultural form, operating on the symbolic level. The study of this symbol seems particularly rewarding, since it is not restricted to one set of social ties, but refers to a very wide range of social relationships” (Wolf 1958: 34). At the end of the article, he summarizes:
“The Guadalupe symbol thus links together family, politics and religion; colonial past and independent present; Indian and Mexican. It reflects the salient social relationships of Mexican life, and embodies the emotions which they generate. It provides a cultural idiom through which the tenor and emotions of these relationships can be expressed. It is, ultimately, a way of talking about Mexico: a “collective representation” of Mexican society” (Wolf 2008: 165).
After reading the article, can you explain what these quotations means in your own words? ( Explain in your own words what the above quotation means and how it contributes to Wolf’s over all thesis argument). (This should be at least 3 sentences).
C. (Cultural Example) Wolf uses the example of the Virgin of Guadalupe to illustrate his thesis. Can you give an example of another multivocal Master symbol or can you discuss your own experience with a multivocal master symbol? (Explain how your example relates to the Wolf article – in what way does it link the personal (family) with politics or religion? In what way does it link history with the present day? In what way does it link different types or groups of people together (such as different ethnic or class groups), in what way does it represent a “collective representation” of a culture or society?).
WEEK 3: Topic: Worldview
**HOMEWORK: Scaffold exercise/Homework: Methodology template this week (No late homework accepted – this homework will help in preparation for the both the observation paper and final paper). I will email a copy to you, but you can also find a link on the discussion board, and a copy under “course documents.” Upload your methods homework as a microsoft word document or pdf on blackboard, via turnitin. Due Friday by 11:59PM)
Weber, Max. 2001. “The Spirit of Capitalism” in Protestantische Ethik und der Geist des Kapitalismus. Florence: Taylor & Francis Group. Accessed March 16, 2021. ProQuest Ebook Central.
(READ ONLY Chapter 2: “The Spirit of Capitalism” pages on printed book are 13-38, epage starts 55-80 )
2. Montague, Susan P and Robert Morais “Football Games and Rock Concerts: The Ritual Enactment of American Success Model” ” in The American Dimension: Cultural Myths and Social Realities, edited by W. Arens and Susan Montague. Sherman Oaks, California: Alfred Publishing, 1981.
Bellah, R. “Civil Religion in America,” in Dædalus, Journal of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, from the issue entitled, “Religion in America,” Winter 1967, Vol. 96, No. 1, pp. 1-21 http://www.robertbellah.com/articles_5.htm
LECTURE OUTLINE: Week 3: Worldview
ATTENDANCE/PARTICIPATION(3): Your attendance/participation will be determined by your post in the discussion board. Read the entire article before answering the questions. You will discuss the topic, thesis, and cultural example for the Weber article (aim for 250 words):
Weber’s “The Protestant Ethic and Spirit of Capitalism”
A.(Topic) What is the main point of Max Weber’s article? (one sentence)
B.(Thesis) A “worldview” is way of understanding how the world came to be, its design, and how and individual views their place in it. An atheist has a world view, but not a religious one. It is the lens through which you see the world that can be related to your culture. Though Weber does not define the concept of worldview, his description of the spirit of capitalism is a description of an American Worldview. Weber says:
“Since asceticism undertook to remodel the world and to work out its ideals in the world, material goods have gained an increasing and finally an inexorable power over the lives of men as at no previous period in history (2008: 55).”
After reading the article, explain in your own words what the above quotation means and how it contributes to Weber’s over all thesis argument? (What is Weber’s understanding of American worldview/ what is the “spirit of capitalism”?) (At least three sentences)
C.(Cultural example) The cultural example the Weber uses to illustrate his point is Benjamin Franklin’s autobiography. Can you describe an American worldview giving an example from your own experience? (Explain how your example relates to the Weber article).
Option 2 (Montague & Morais)
A.(Topic) What is the main point of the Montague and Morais article? (one sentence)
B.(Thesis) Montague and Morais use Geertz understanding of ritual as a model of and for a cultures worldview in order to understand American worldview, specifically what they call the traditional success model (or utilitarian individual) and the creative success model (or Expressive individual). For the traditional success model they state:
“Within the traditional American success model, love is defined as altruistic self-sacrifice” (Montague & Morais 1981: 14). Men’s work is a measure of success. “The success system rewards moral character, which is manifested for men through work, and for women by domestic performance (Montague & Morais 1981: 14).” The creative model “argues that love is manifested through self-expression, rather than altruistic self-denial. Each individual possesses unique talents, and by allowing these to flower, he makes his contribution to the world (Montague & Morais 1981: 14).”
Having read the entire article can you explain what the above quotations mean and how it contributes to the authors’ overall argument? You can discuss either the traditional success model or the creative success model (you do not need to do both unless you want to). (This should be at least 3 sentences)
C.(Cultural example) Montague and Morais use Rock concerts and football games to apply or illustrate their thesis argument. Can you think of another example of something that symbolizes the traditional (utilitarian) individual and/or the creative (expressive) individual? (Explain how your example relates to the Montague & Morais article)
WEEK 4: Topic: Taboo
1.Douglas, Professor Mary, and Douglas, Mary. 2002. “The Abominations of Leviticus” in Purity and Danger : An Analysis of Concepts of Pollution and Taboo Florence: Taylor & Francis Group. Accessed March 16, 2021. ProQuest Ebook Central.
( only read chapter 3 “ The Abominations of Leviticus” pp on printed page 42-58).
2.Tsitsos, William. 2018. “Race, Class, and Place in the Origins of Techno and Rap Music.” Popular Music & Society 41 (3): 270–82. doi:10.1080/03007766.2018.1519098
*Look at how this article applies Mary Douglas’ theory to the study of Music
LECTURE OUTLINE: Week 4 Taboo
ATTENDANCE/PARTICIPATION (4): Your attendance/participation will be determined by your post in the discussion board. Read the entire article before answering the questions. You will discuss the topic, thesis, and cultural example for one of the articles for today (aim for 250 words). Only answer one option.
Option 1: (Mary Douglas)
A.(Topic) What is the main point of Mary Douglas’ article? (one sentence)
B.(Thesis) Some of the main points to Douglas’ article relate to taboo, classification systems, and systems of holiness or purity. A taboo is typically something the society deems inappropriate. What is Douglas definition of taboo? She suggests that “classifications are not otiose. They do something, they are necessary in organization. [. . .] Leviticus was a case for pollution theory the classifying of the animals should correspond to some important classifying for the internal organization of society”(Douglas 2008: 185). Having read the entire article, can you explain what she means by classification systems in this quotation, and how does it contribute to her overall argument. (hint: what may be classified as clean or pure as opposed to unclean or impure may be based on one’s cultural perception and not inherent qualities. ). What do classification systems have to do with her definition of taboo? (hint: think about what foods she defined as pure or impure/dirty and why) (Write at least three sentences)
C.(Cultural example) The cultural example she uses to prove her thesis are the food taboos as outlined in Leviticus, in the bible. Think about taboos that you adhere to within your everyday experience. Think about what is culturally inappropriate in American culture and/or your own community. Can you show how your example of a taboo can be explained in terms of classification systems? (Explain how your example fits Douglas’ understanding of taboo/impurity as things that do not fit within the cultural understanding of purity).
Option 2: (William Tsitsos)
A.(Topic) What is the main point of Tsitsos’ article? (one sentence)
B.(Thesis) William Tsitsos uses Mary Douglas’ theory or definition of taboo in order to understand the origins of techno music in Detroit and rap music in the Bronx. Tsitos states:
“Whereas rap emerged in reaction to incursion into the South Bronx, techno was itself the product of disconnection on multiple levels. According to the arguments set forth by Mary Douglas, the former situation leads to greater solidarity to repel the “matter out of place,” whereas the latter situation is one in which people themselves are out of place and must be symbolically erased” (2018: 279).
Having read the entire article, explain in your own words what the above quotation means and how it contributes to Tsitso’s overall thesis argument).? He looks at Douglas theory of pollution to apply her understanding of “danger from external boundaries” to the situation in the Bronx, and “danger from internal contradiction” to his analysis of Detroit (Douglas 1995: 24). What does this mean? (Write at least three sentences)
C.(Cultural example) Tsitso discusses the evolution of rap music in the Bronx and Techno music in Detroit to apply Douglas’s theory of taboo (purity/impurity as matter out of place). Can you give an example of your own that you can relate to the Tsitso’s general argument? (Explain how your example relates to the understanding of boundaries and “matter out of place”- things that do not belong).
WEEK 5: Topic: Totemism
1. Dundes, Alan. 1997. “Binary Opposition in Myth: The Propp/Levi-Strauss Debate in Retrospect.” Western Folklore 56 (1): 39. doi:10.2307/1500385.
2.Phillips, Susan. 2021 “Gang Graffiti as Totemism” in American Anthropologist, Vol. 00, No. 0, pp. 1-15.
Levi-Strauss, Claude. 2014 “Overture” in Myths and Mythologies : A Reader. Edited by Sinding Jensen, Jeppe. Sheffield: Taylor & Francis Group. Accessed March 16, 2021. ProQuest Ebook Central. (I will refer to Claude Levi-Strauss when I talk about Structuralism. This is a challenging article, that is why it is optional)
**HOMEWORK: 5 page fieldwork observation paper due- upload on Blackboard “Turnitin” by 11:59PM Friday [You will use this description as a basis, as evidence to prove a thesis, for your final paper]
WATCH: We will be watching this film to review some key concepts from the course and you will need to connect an article from the course to the film on the midterm test. Watch the film “Masai Woman” and the 15 minute Ted Talk.
Citation for film: Davis, Melissa Llewelyn. 1974. Masai Woman. Documentary Film. Directed by Christoper Curling. Produced by British Granada Television Series. Faces of Culture
LECTURE OUTLINE: If you have not already done so, review the slide show that outlines the requirements for the Observation paper “Observation paper1 and Methods Description audio.” Also look at the description of this assignment later on this syllabus.
ATTENDANCE/PARTICIPATION: Today I will use the film to illustrate key concepts in Anthropology (Cultural Relativism, Ethnocentrism, Emic, Etic). This films raises various issues particularly in terms of gender equity and cultural relativism. You will need to watch both the Masai Woman film and the Ted talk in order to answer the following. (pick one option)
Option 1: Cultural Relativism means “The position that the values and standards of cultures differ and deserve respect. Anthropology is characterized by methodological rather than moral relativism: In order to understand another culture fully, anthropologists try to understand its members’ beliefs and motivations. Methodological relativism does not preclude making moral judgments or taking action” (Kottak 2010: 452, 37). Female Genital Mutilation is a difficult topic to address, because on the one hand you want to be “culturally relative” and respect the society’s cultural beliefs. Can you describe scenes from the Movie that express the culture’s belief in this practice (the emic view)? On the other hand, this practice can be harmful to the young girls. Look at the TED talk and describe how this issue is addressed (An emic view). If you were an anthropologist studying this culture, how would you apply cultural relativism, what would you do (the etic view)?
Option 2: Ethnocentrism means “The tendency to view one’s own culture as the best and to judge the behavior and beliefs of culturally different people by one’s own standards” (Kottak 2010: 453, 37). Coming from a society that believes polygamy is immoral, how is this view “ethnocentric” when looking at another culture’s practices? Can you describe scenes from the Movie that express the culture’s belief in this practice (the emic view)? If you were an anthropologist studying this culture, how would you try not to be ethnocentric, what would you do (the etic view)?
WEEK 6: Topic: Myth and Folktales
Mandatory Reading: Malinowski, Bronislaw. 2014. “Myth in Primitive Psychology,” in Myths and Mythologies : A Reader. Edited by Sinding Jensen, Jeppe. Sheffield: Taylor & Francis Group. Accessed March 16, 2021. ProQuest Ebook Central.
(Read pages 146- 157. Malinowski is known for his “functionalist” approach, and I will use this article as a springboard for discussion of functionalist theory.
(I will discuss Joseph Campbell’s A Hero’s Journey as it relates to Klaus’ article)
1Campbell, Joseph 2004 The Hero with a Thousand Faces Bolligen Series, No. 17. Princeton University Press.
Look especially at chapter 1 “The Adventure of the Hero” pages 45-233. Look at the table of contents as it outlines his argument. This is too long a piece to assign for a class, but if you want to browse it can be interesting.
2. . Deyneka, Leah. 2012. “May the Myth Be With You Always” in Myth, Media, and Culture in Star Wars : An Anthology, edited by Douglas Brode, and Leah Deyneka, Scarecrow Press, 2012. ProQuest Ebook Central.
(Read only Chapter 4 pages 35-48)
LECTURE OUTLINE: Week 6 Myth
ATTENDANCE/PARTICIPATION (5): Your attendance/participation will be determined by your post in the discussion board. Only answer one:
Option 1: Malinowski
A.(Topic) What is the main point of Bronislaw Malinowski’s article? (One sentence)
B.(Thesis) For anthropologists, a myth is typically seen as an origin story. Malinowski’s thesis argument focuses on three main points: the cognitive function of a myth, the social function of a myth, and how the myth is integrated into the society. In terms of the social function, he states:
“The reality of myth lies in its social function; on the other hand, once we begin to study the social function of myth, and so to reconstruct its full meaning, we are gradually led to build up the full theory of native social organization (Malinowski 2008: 174).”
Having read the entire article, what does the above quotation mean and how does it contribute to Malinowski’s overall argument? (What does the social function of myth mean?) (This should be at least 3 sentences)
C.(Cultural example) Though he generally talks about “primitive societies” (a term we no longer use), specifically he draws on his fieldwork among the Trobriand islanders in Melanesia. He talks about a myth the represents the four main clans to illustrate his point (Malinowski 2008: 172-174).
REFER TO THE FILM WE SAW LAST WEEK –The myth for the Masai is stated at the end of the film. What is the social function of the Masai myth? (Think about what might cause conflict in Masai culture, and how the myth resolves that). Or what is the cognitive function of the myth? (What is the myth teaching the society?)
Option 2: Klaus
A.(Topic) What is the main point of Simona Klaus’ article? (One sentence)
B.(Thesis) She draws on Joseph Campbell’s understanding of the monomyth of “the hero’s journey” to see how it applies to modern day video games. She states:
“Alone the modern hero seems related to the virtual one, but the modern hero is created by mass media in the “real” world and many times has just a brief existence. A person must actually do something heroic to acquire the “hero” title. In contrast, the virtual hero as a factor of virtual space can enable anyone to become a hero. Players can start the game whenever they want and become a hero over and over again” (Klaus 2010: 386).
Having read the entire article, what does the above quotation mean and how does it contribute to Klaus’ overall argument? Why do you think it is important for people to feel like heroes by playing these games? Why are monomyth’s important? (This should be at least 3 sentences)
C.(Cultural example) The cultural examples she uses to prove her point are the fantasy role playing games “Morrowind, “Ultima,” “Diablo,” and “Rune.” Perhaps you play role playing games by yourself or within a gaming community. Do you agree with Klaus argument or do you think there are other underlying reasons why people play these games?
WEEK 7: Topic: Ritual
*1. Mandatory Reading:
*2. Mandatory Reading: Li, Meng. 2014. “Ritual and Social Change: Chinese Rural–Urban Migrant Workers’ Spring Festival Homecoming as Secular Pilgrimage.” Journal of Intercultural Communication Research 43 (2): 113–33. doi:10.1080/17475759.2014.892896.
Examples of ritual of reversal, race, power.
1.Mueller, J.C., Dirks, D. & Picca, L.H. Unmasking Racism: Halloween Costuming and Engagement of the Racial Other. Qual Sociol 30, 315–335 (2007). https://doi-org.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/10.1007/s11133-007-9061-1
2) McCoy-Torres, Sabia. 2018. “Alternative Spatiality and Temporality: Diasporic Mobilities and Queer West Indian Inclusion.” Global South 12 (1): 59–88. doi:10.2979/globalsouth.12.1.05.
LECTURE OUTLINE: Week 7 Ritual
ATTENDANCE/PARTICIPATION (6): Your attendance/participation will be determined by your post in the discussion board.
Option 1 (Clifford Geertz)
A.(Topic) What is the main point of Clifford Geertz article? (One Sentence)
B.(Thesis) This article introduces several important ideas and concepts: ethos, culture as text, deep play, webs of significance, and thick description. The main idea, however, looks at the Balinese cockfight as a type of ritual because it reflects Balinese worldview. Geertz says:
“What sets the cockfight apart from the ordinary course of life, lifts it from the realm of everyday practical affairs, and surrounds it with an aura of enlarged importance is not, as functionalist sociology would have it, that it reinforces status discriminations (such reinforcement is hardly necessary in a society where every act proclaims them), but that it provides a meta social commentary upon the whole matter of assorting human beings into fixed hierarchical ranks and organizing the major part of collective existence around that assortment. Its function, if you want to call it that, is interpretive: it is a Balinese reading of Balinese experience; a story they tell themselves about themselves” (Geertz 1972: 26).
Having read the entire article, can you explain what Geertz means by the above quotation and how does it contribute to his overall argument? (Especially the last line: “a story they tell themselves about themselves.”
C.(Cultural example) Geertz uses the gambling game of the cock fight to illustrate his thesis argument. If Geertz suggests a ritual represents a model of the culture’s worldview, but also teaches this worldview as a model for the culture, can you think of a ritual in American society that both is a model of and for American culture. (Explain how your example relates to the Geertz article).
Option 2 (Meng Li)
A.(Topic) What is the main point of the Meng Li article? (one sentence)
B.(Thesis) Meng Li use Geertz understanding of ritual as a model of and for a cultures worldview in order to understand the Spring Festival Homecoming. Li states:
“This ritual not only displays symbolically some significant aspects of contemporary Chinese society, such as modernity and mobility, but also produces the collective subjectivity of the ritual participants. Similar to the cockfight for the Balinese, the Spring Festival homecoming can be viewed as a paradigmatic human event for the Chinese, creating a story that they can “tell themselves about themselves” (Meng Li 2014: 128-129).
Having read the entire article can you explain what the above quotations means and how it contributes to the authors’ overall argument? (This should be at least 3 sentences)
C.(Cultural example) Meng Li uses the example of a Spring Festival Homecoming to illustrate his thesis argument. Can you think of another example of something that can be seen as a ritual that tells a story about American worldview? (Explain how your example relates to the Meng Li article)
WEEK 8: Topic: Rites of Passage
**HOMEWORK: Scaffold exercise/Homework: – ARTICLE WORKSHEET (No late homework accepted – this homework will help in preparation for the midterm and may be a draft for your final paper). I will email a copy to you, but you can also find a link on the discussion board, and a copy under “course documents.” Upload your article homework as a microsoft word document or pdf on blackboard, via turnitin. Due Friday 11:59PM.)
1Mandatory Reading: Turner, Victor “Liminality and Communitas”, in Reader in the Anthropology of Religion. Edited by Michael Lambek. Blackwell Anthologies: New York, 2008.
or the link below:
*2. Mandatory Reading: Winslow, Donna. 1999. “Rites of Passage and Group Bonding in the Canadian Airborne.” Armed Forces & Society (0095327X)25 (3): 429–57. doi:10.1177/0095327X9902500305.
1.Van Gennep, Arnold “The Rites of Passage” in Death, Mourning, and Burial: A Cross-Cultural Reader, 2nd Edition edited by Antonius C.G.M. Robben. Wiley Blackwell Press, pp 34-
MacWilliams, Mark W. 2002. “Virtual Pilgrimages on the Internet” in Religion, Vol. 32 (4), October 2002, Pages 315-335.
* LECTURE OUTLINE: Week 8 Rites of passage
ATTENDANCE/PARTICIPATION (7): your attendance/participation will be determined by your post in the discussion board talk about life transitions. Please only answer one option.
Option 1 (Victor Turner):
A.(Topic) What is the main point of Victor Turner’s article? (One sentence)
B.(Thesis) Turner talks about rites of passage as a three part sequence of stages (Preliminal, liminal, post liminal) but focuses primarily on the middle “liminal” stage as this is the part in which group bonding develops, in a concept he defines as “communitas.” Turner states:
“What is interesting about liminal phenomena for our present purposes is the blend they offer of lowliness and sacredness, of homogeneity and comradeship. We are presented, in such rites with a “moment in and out of time,” and in and out of secular social structure, which reveals, however fleetingly, some recognition (in symbol if not always in language) of a generalized bond [. . .] I prefer the Latin term “communitas” to “community,” to distinguish this modality of social relationship from and “area of common living.” [. . .] It is rather a matter of giving recognition to an essential and generic human bond, without which there could be no society (Turner 2008: 328).”
Having read the entire article can you explain what the above quotation means and how it contributes to Turner’s overall argument? (This should be at least 3 sentences)
C.(Cultural example) Turner presents several different cultural examples, the main one being the initiation of a Chief elect from the Nedembu of Zambia. Can you describe a rite of passage that you are familiar with in terms of Turner’s understanding? [If you prefer you can refer to the rite of passage in the film “Masai Woman” marking the transition of a young girl from bride to wife/cowife. Or as some of you are focusing on “virtual communities,” can you describe a virtual community as a “liminal space” that creates “communitas”?]
You can outline the three part stages of your example, but pay special attention to the liminal stage to describe how it creates “communitas.”
Option 2 (Donna Winslow):
A.(Topic) What is the main point of Donna Winslow’s article? (One sentence)
B.(Thesis) Winslow draws on Turner’s understanding of rites of passage, again emphasizing the liminal state in which communitas is established. Winslow states:
“It is important to note that although group loyalty and bonding is important during battle, small group bonding can foster and maintain inappropriate norms” [. . .] “Severe initiation ceremonies such as those carried out by the Canadian Airborne Regiment promote increased loyalty and devotion to the group. But this group bonding is a double-edged sword: what can be functional unit bonding for war can quickly become dysfunctional in an army at peace” (Winslow 1999: 453).
Having read the entire article, can you explain what Winslow means by the above quotation and how it contributes to her overall argument? (This should be at least 3 sentences)
C.(Cultural example) Donna Winslow uses the initiation rites for the Canadian airborn military as the cultural example to relate to her thesis. Unlike Turner, Winslow suggests that the group bonding created through communitas can be maladaptive, can have a negative side. Can you describe a rite of passage or ritual that you are familiar with, and show how there can be both a good side to group bonding, but perhaps also a negative side? [If you prefer you can refer to the rite of passage in the film “Masai Woman” marking the transition of a young girl from bride to wife/cowife illustrating the pros and cons of this group bonding. Or as some of you are focusing on “virtual communities,” can you describe how a virtual community can create “communitas” that could be maladaptive (having both a pro and a con)?]]
WEEK 9: Topic: Witchcraft
*Test this week – See details on Blackboard, Discussion Board. Covers everything from week 1-8.
Citation for film: Jordan, William H. 1983. The Asmat of New Guinea: A Case Study in Religion and Magic. Produced by Ira R. Abrams. Faces of Cultures.
*1. Mandatory Reading: Evans-Pritchard, EE 2 018 “Witchcraft Explains Unfortunate Events” in Death, Mourning, and Burial: A Cross-Cultural Reader, 2nd Edition edited by Antonius C.G.M. Robben. Wiley Blackwell Press.
Evans-Pritchard, EE “Witchcraft Explains Unfortunate Events ” in Reader in Comparative Religion: An Anthropological Approach edited by William A. Lessa and Evon Z. Vogt. New York: Harper & Row, 1979
Macat Anthropology 2016 “Intro to Evans-Pritchard’s Witchcraft, Oracles, and Magic”April 11, 2016 (3 minute video)
2.Mandatory Reading: Start to read book: McCarthy Brown, Karen Mama Lola: A Vodou Priestess in Brooklyn. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.
The final exam will be based on your ability to apply 2 concepts from the course, and 2 articles to examples from this book (See final exam question on Blackboard, under “content/course documents,” file “test review.” There are portions of this book posted in this section for you to read)
Bleyenberg, Eva, and Koen Stroeken. 2018. “When a Rash Has Two Names: Pese Sorcery and Kisigo Spirits at Lake Tanganyika.” Anthropology & Medicine 25 (2): 206–19. doi:10.1080/13648470.2017.1308187.
* LECTURE OUTLINE: Week 9 Witchcraft
ATTENDANCE/PARTICIPATION (8): Your attendance/participation will be determined by your post in the discussion board. Only answer one option.
Option 1 (Evan Evans-Pritchard):
A.(Topic) What is the main point of the Evans-Pritchard article? (One sentence)
B.(Thesis) Evans-Pritchard describes circumstances in which how cause and effect could not completely explain an event, hence they were attributed to witchcraft or magic. He states:
“The concept of witchcraft nevertheless provide [the Azande] with a natural philosophy by which the relations between men and unfortunate events are explained and with a ready and stereotyped means of reacting to such events. Witchcraft beliefs also embrace a system of values which regulate human conduct” (Evans-Pritchard 1979: 363).
Having read the entire article, explain what Evans-Pritchard means in the above quotation and how it contributes to his overall argument.
C.(Cultural example) He draws on several examples that he observed among the Azande to show how misfortunes that could not easily be explained, could be explained in terms of magic, the most famous being the granary example. I would add that you could also say religious beliefs are also used to explain misfortunes. Can you think of an example of an unfortunate event that can be explained in terms of one’s beliefs? (Relate or compare your example to the Evans-Pritchard article). [If you wish you can use an example from the film “The Asmat of New Guinea]. (This should be at least 3 sentences)
Option 2: McCarthy Brown book
I realize you may have just started to read the book, but if you read the introduction you could answer the following.
A.(Topic) What is the main point of McCarthy Brown reading?
B.(Thesis) Find a quotation from the McCarthy Brown book that best illustrates the author’s thesis. Put the quotation in quotation marks and add a reference such as (McCarthy Brown 1991 page number where you found quotation). Explain the context of the quotation and what the quotation means in your own words.
C.(Cultural example) Why did you pick this quotation? Can you relate it to an example from your observation paper or your own experience? [If you wish you can use an example from the film “The Asmat of New Guinea]
WEEK 10 : Topic Magic
**HOMEWORK: Scaffold exercise/Homework: – CITATION, THESIS, TOPIC SENTENCES WORKSHEET ((No late homework accepted – this homework will help in preparation for your final paper). I will email a copy to you, but you can also find a link on the discussion board, and a copy under “course documents.” Upload your article homework as a microsoft word document or pdf on blackboard, via turnitin. Due Friday 11:59 PM)
- Mandatory Reading: Tambiah, Stanley. 2017 “Form and Meaning of Magical Acts,” Reprinted by HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 7 (3) 451-473.
*2. Mandatory Reading: Gmelch, George 2000 “Baseball Magic” Revised version of “Superstition and Ritual in American Baseball” in Elysian Fields Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1992, pp 25-36.
3) Mandatory Reading: (Continue to read book McCarthy Brown, Karen Mama Lola: A Vodou Priestess in Brooklyn. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.
Bronislaw Malinowski “The Role of Magic and Religion” in Reader in Comparative Religion: The Function of Religion in Human Society,4th Edition, Lessa and Vogt, pp37-46, 1979.
On Blackboard, or
Optional: Frazer, James (1878) The Golden Bough, Temple of Earth Publishing. Look at Chapter 3: Sympathetic Magic. (pages 19b-52a)
Frazer, James 2010. “Sympathetic Magic” In Ritual and Belief : Readings in the Anthropology of Religion. in Hicks, David, ed. Blue Ridge Summit: AltaMira Press. Accessed March 23, 2021. ProQuest Ebook Central.
* LECTURE OUTLINE: Week 10 Magic
ATTENDANCE/PARTICIPATION(9): Your attendance/participation will be determined by your post in the discussion board.
Option 1: (Stanley Tambiah)
A.(Topic) What is the main point of Tambiah’s article? (One sentence)
B.(Thesis) Tambiah talks about magic in terms of analogical pairs and illocutionary acts. He suggests magic is a persuasive transfer of property to recipient person by means of analogy, which plays on both similarity & differences between the analogically related pairs. Tambiah says
“While both “magic” and “science” are characterized by analogical thought and action, they comprise differentiated varieties whose validity would be inappropriate to measure and verify by the same standards. Magical acts, usually compounded of verbal utterance and object manipulation, constitute ‘performative’ acts by which a property is imperatively transferred to a recipient object or person on an analogical basis. Magical acts are ritual acts, and ritual acts are in turn performative” (Tambiah 2008: 311).”
After reading the entire article, explain the above quotation in your own words and how it contributes to his overall argument. What does science have to do with magic? What does he mean by analogical pairs? What is a verbal or illocutionary act? (This should be at least 3 sentences)
C.(Cultural example) He draws on ethnographic work on the Zande, particularly magic spells used in healing rituals. Can you think of least one example of his understanding of magic as 1. Analogical pairs, 2. Illocutionary verbal acts, and/or 3. Performative ritual? [If you wish you can use an example from the film “The Asmat of New Guinea”] (Explain how your example relates to Tambiah’s article)
Option 2: (George Gmelch)
A.(Topic) What is the main point of Gmelch’s article? (One sentence)
B.(Thesis) George Gmelch draws on Malinowski’s theory of magic, that magic is used to cope and in times of uncertainty. Gmelch outlines three concepts in relation to this understanding of magic: Ritual, magic fetish, and taboo. Notice his definitions are different from some of our previous authors. Unlike Douglas, who sees taboo as connected to cultural perceptions of purity and impurity (classification systems), Gmelch sees taboo as something avoided in order to control the uncontrollable (luck). In terms of ritual he says rituals are similar to routines, repetitive actions, yet they are “prescribed behaviors in which there is no empirical connection between the means (e.g., tapping home plate three times) and the desired end (e.g., getting a base hit.) Because there is no real connection between the two, rituals are not rational” (Gmelch 2012: 350). Baseball players may repeat actions to help them win in situations of uncertainty, to improve their luck. After reading the entire article, explain what Gmelch means by magic using at least one of the concepts he applies: ritual (quotation above), magic fetish, or taboo.
C.(Cultural example) The cultural evidence Gmelch uses to prove his thesis is data collected from his experience in the minor baseball league. Can you think of an example from your own experience that you can relate to Gmelch’s understanding of magic? [If you wish you can use an example from the film “The Asmat of New Guinea”] (Explain how your example relates to Gmelch’s article)
WEEK 11 : Topic: Identity, Memory, and Belief systems
- Mandatory Reading: Chong, Kelly H. “What it means to be Christian: The Role of Religion in the Construction of Ethnic Identity and Boundary Among Second-Generation Korean Americans” in Sociology of Religion, Vol. 59, No. 3 (Autumn 1998), pp. 259-286).
- Mandatory Reading: Hobsbawm, Eric “Introduction: Inventing Traditions” in The Invention of Tradition, Eds. Eric Hobsbawm, & Terence Ranger. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-14, 1983.
Mandatory Reading: ((Continue to read book McCarthy Brown, Karen Mama Lola: A Vodou Priestess in Brooklyn. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.
1.Behar, Ruth “Folklore and the Search for Home (American Folklore Plenary Address, October 2008).” Journal of American Folklore. Summer 2009, Vol. 122 Issue 485, P. 251-266. 16p.
(Good example of “reflexive anthropology” and understandings of race, religion, and identity).
2.Myerhoff, Barbara 1978. “Jewish Comes up in you from the Roots , in Number Our Days. Touchtone Book: New York, 1978, pp232-268
3) Murthy, Dhiraj. “Muslim Punks Online: A Diasporic Pakistani Music Subculture on the Internet.” South Asian Popular Culture, vol. 8, no. 2, July 2010, pp. 181–194. EBSCOhost, doi:10.1080/14746681003797997.
* LECTURE OUTLINE: Week 11 Identity Memory
ATTENDANCE/PARTICIPATION (10): Your attendance/participation will be determined by your post in the discussion board . Only answer one option.
Option 1 (Chong):
A.(Topic) What is the main point of this article? (One sentence)
B.(Thesis) Chong uses Barth’s understanding of ethnic boundaries to explore the experiences of 2nd generation Korean Americans. She sums up her argument:
- “first-generation church remains crucial for the second -generation members and one of the few institutions in the Korean-American community that is able to effectively provide a significant sense of belonging and group identity. And while it is clear that the church functions as a powerful instrument of legitimation for the ethnic interests of the first generation, it is important for the second generation as a vehicle of group empowerment through its capacity to confer positive value on group identity and to enable the members to challenge the negative group-image and stereotypes imposed by the larger society” (Chong 1998: 282).
- After reading the entire article, explain in your own words what the above quotation means and how it contributes to Chong’s overall thesis argument. (This should be at least 3 sentences)
C.(Cultural example) She draws on interviews with the first and second generation Korean Americans in a church in America. In a sense, she is describing an immigrant communities’ experience in America and their struggles with defining their ethnic identity within the context of a racist society. Can you describe, perhaps from your own experience, the struggles with defining ethnic identity in America? (Explain how your example relates to Chong’s article)
Option 2 (Hobsbawm):
A.(Topic) What is the main point of this article? (One sentence)
B.(Thesis) Hobsbawm outlines examples of what he calls “invented traditions.” You might think it has always been around as a tradition, but sometimes they are more recent, and though they may draw on things from the past, they are trying to establish authenticity. At first this seems like a benign practice but later he draws our attention to how groups wishing to establish a national identity may be enforcing power, such as the construction of Nazi symbolism, socialist and Communists. He states Socialists acquired “an annual May Day without quite knowing how; National Socialist exploited such occasions with liturgical sophistication and zeal and a conscious manipulation of symbols” ( Hobsbawm 1983 8-9). He suggests there are three main themes or types of invented traditions:
“a) those establishing or symbolizing social cohesion or the membership of groups, real or artificial communities, b) those establishing or legitimizing institutions, status or relations of authority, and c) those whose main purpose was socialization, the inculcation of beliefs, value systems and conventions of behavior” (Hobsbawm 1983: 9).
After reading the entire article, explain in your own words what the above quotation means and how it contributes to Hobsbawm’s overall thesis argument about “invented traditions”. (This should be at least 3 sentences)
C.(Cultural example) This is an introductory chapter to a book, and he draws on various cultural examples to illustrate his point such as Highland traditions in Scotland, Colonial British India, the pledge of allegiance to the American flag. Can you think of an “invented tradition” from your own experience and how it might have been used to assert authenticity. Is this a good or bad thing? (Explain how your example relates to the Hobsbawm article).
WEEK 12: Topic: Religious practitioners, Religion & Healing,
**HOMEWORK Homework: Final Paper Due (upload on Blackboard “turnitin” by Friday 11:59 PM). Make sure you have carefully reviewed my pre-recorded description of this assignment “Final Paper Description2 audio” and reviewed the description on this syllabus.
1.Suggested Reading: McCarthy Brown, Karen Mama Lola: A Vodou Priestess in Brooklyn. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991
Other Optional Articles by Karen McCarthy Brown:
1.McCarthy Brown Karen 1999 “Telling a Life: Race, Memory, and Historical Consciousness” in Anthropology and Humanism 24(2): 148-154.
2.Brown, Karen McCarthy. “”Plenty Confidence in Myself”: The Initiation of a White Woman Scholar into Haitian Vodou.” Journal of Feminist Studies in Religion 3, no. 1 (1987): 67-76. Accessed March 24, 2021. http://www.jstor.org/stable/25002057.
3.Brown, Karen McCarthy. “Altars Happen.” African Arts 29, no. 2 (1996): 67. Accessed March 24, 2021. doi:10.2307/3337369.
Other Optional articles:
1). Ostenfeld-Rosenthal, Ann “Energy healing and the placebo effect. An Anthropological perspective on the placebo effect” Anthropology & Medicine, Vol. 19, No. 3, December 2012, 327-338.
2) Poss, Jane and Mary Ann Jezewski (2002) “The Role and Meaning of Susto in Mexican Americans’ Explanatory Model of Type 2 Diabetes” Medical Anthropology Quarterly , New Series, Vol. 16, No. 3 (Sep., 2002), pp. 360-377. [Mexican culture]
* LECTURE OUTLINE: Week 12 Religious Practitioners
ATTENDANCE/PARTICIPATION (11): Your attendance/participation will be determined by your post in the discussion board talk about the Karen McCarthy Brown book. This book does not use much theory and reads very much like a story. Pick one article from the course (ie. Ortner, Geertz, Turner, Evans-Pritchard, Wolf, etc.) and relate the thesis/theory/concepts from the article you chose to a scene in the Mama Lola book. If you can, pick an article that you used for your final paper and/or the midterm test. For example, if you want to discuss Ortner, define “summarizing symbol,” and find an example in Mama Lola that best fits the definition of summarizing symbol.
A.(Topic) Pick an article from the course – What is the main point of this article? (one sentence)
B.(Thesis) Briefly describe the thesis from the article you picked. Find a quotation that best represents the author’s main point or thesis argument that you can connect to a scene from the McCarthy Brown book. (Put the quotation in quotation marks and provide the proper reference – author, year of publication, and the page number) Explain what the quotation means in your own words.
C.(Cultural example) Provide an example (describe a scene or story) from the McCarthy Brown book. Explain how this example relates to the article that you chose. How does the example illustrate the main thesis or concept from the article you picked? Remember it is one thing to identify an example, but you also need to explain how it fits the main thesis of the article you picked.
*Please note: This assignment is good practice for the Final Exam.
WEEK 13 Topic: Ghosts and Spirits,
*1. Mandatory Reading: Bosco, Joseph. 2003. “The Supernatural in Hong Kong Young People’s Ghost Stories¹.” Anthropological Forum 13 (2): 141–49. Accessed March 17 ,2021. doi:10.1080/0066467032000129806.
*2. Mandatory Reading: Freed, Stanley A., and Ruth S. Freed. 1990. “Taraka’s Ghost.” Natural History 99 (10): 84.
* LECTURE OUTLINE: Week 13 Ghosts and Spirits
ATTENDANCE/PARTICIPATION (12): Your participation/attendance will be determined by your post in the discussion board talk about ghosts and spirits. Only answer one option.
OPTION 1: Bosco
A.(Topic) What is the main point of this article? (One sentence)
B.(Thesis) Bosco looks at ghost stories told at University orientations. He states:
“Variations in the stories were not errors in the telling but, as structuralism has shown, hints of the core symbolism of the story. The widespread rejection of the interpretation of student suggests that the informant-centered (or “emic”) approach often advocated by anthropologists is not always possible, and that a universalistic perspective can add additional insights. In addition, this shows that at least in the case of the Chinese University ghosts, the ghosts are cultural – not material – beings, and the interpretation offered here shows the advantage of interpreting and explaining them at the cultural level” (Bosco 2007: 804).
Having read the entire article, explain what Bosco means by the above quotation in your own words, and relate it to his overall argument. (This should be at least 3 sentences)
C.(Cultural example) He draws on ghost stories collected from his students to contemplate especially the context in which they are told, and what the underlying purpose of telling them might be. Can you describe an experience of telling ghost stories and relate it to the Bosco article (what might the context in which these were told tell us about an underlying purpose of the stories?)
OPTION 2: Freed and Freed
A.(Topic) What is the main point of this article? (One sentence)
B.(Thesis) Freed and Freed look for explanations for Sita’s spirit possession. They state that:
“cultural, psychological, and physical stresses were preconditions for her possessions. Research my neuroscientists during the past two decades may shed light on the underlying physiological mechanism of ghost possession. Under the stress of mental or physical pain, the body produces morphinelike substances called endorphins, which relive the pain and may trigger mental states called alternate, altered, or dissociative. Ghost possession is one such dissociative mental state” (Freed & Freed 2009: 345-346).
Having read the entire article, explain the above quotation and how it contributes to the author’s overall analysis? (What happened to Sita). (This should be at least 3 sentences)
C.(Cultural example) They focus on the spirit possession of a young bride named Sita. Ghost possession tends not to be a part of most Americans’ experience, but what I think this article shows is how different cultures may view and experience stress. One comparison is an “anxiety or panic attack” – if you have ever experienced this, it is the fear associated with a real or imagined threat. Perhaps “stress related back or neck aches,” or “nervous sweats.” Can you relate an example to this article?
OPTION 3: Do you know any ghost stories? Tell us your ghost story. After you tell us the story, consider the following questions.
- 1. Where did you learn this ghost story? (What was the context, time, place)
- 2. How old were you when you learned this story?
- 3. What other people were there when you initially heard the story?
- 4. What were the general emotions felt when the story was told?
- 5. Do you believe the story to be true? Why or why not?
- 6. How might another culture interpret the story?
WEEK 14 – Topic: Syncretism, Power, Resistance, & Cultural Change
WATCH FILM: Watch the film: The Devils Miner (1 hour 22 minutes): Need to go to City Tech library, select “article database,” select “K”, select “Kanopy,” then search by title of film. If you go directly to Kanopy they will ask you to pay, that is why you have to go through the City Tech library as they have paid for your access. I provide a link from the discussion board—film on Kanopy.
Or go to You tube — the film is in Spanish but has English subtitles:
Davidson, Kief, and Richard Ladkani. 2005. The Devil’s Miner. Documentary Film. Directed by Kief Davidson and Richard Ladkani. Cinema Delicatessen.
1.Taussig, Michael. “The Genesis of Capitalism amongst a South American Peasantry: Devil’s Labor and the Baptism of Money.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 19, no. 2 (1977): 130-55. Accessed March 23, 2021.
2.Herriman, Nicholas. 2015. “The Morbid Nexus: Reciprocity and Sorcery in Rural East Java.” Australian Journal of Anthropology 26 (2): 255–75. doi:10.1111/taja.12110.
Looks at impact of cultural change on worldview – how capitalism associated with rise in belief in sorcery. (Refers to Taussig article).
Bonilla, Heraclio. “Religious Practices in the Andes and Their Relevance to Political Struggle and Development: The Case of El Tío and Miners in Bolivia.” Mountain Research and Development 26, no. 4 (2006): 336-42. Accessed March 24, 2021. http://www.jstor.org/stable/4540653.
LECTURE OUTLINE: Week 14 Magic and cultural change
ATTENDANCE/PARTICIPATION (13): We will be watching the film “Devils Miner” to review some key concepts from the course, but also to look at the impact of power on local communities. Watch the film “Devil’s Miner” – and answer one option -sets of questions in detail. Please only do one set of questions.
Pick an article of your choice in which to apply and discuss the film
Option 1: Can you identify and describe an example of Syncretism in the film? How is this related to power in the film? Explain how your example fits the definition of “syncretism.” Can you relate this to the Eric Wolf article?
Wolf, Eric R. “The Virgin of Guadalupe: A Mexican National Symbol.” The Journal of American Folklore 71, no. 279 (1958): 34-39. Accessed March 16, 2021. doi:10.2307/537957.
Option 2: What is Evans-Pritchard’s definition of Magic? Can you find an example of Evans-Pritchard’s understanding of magic in the film? Explain how your example fits the definition. Can you relate this to an example in the Evans-Pritchard article?
Evans-Pritchard, EE “Witchcraft Explains Unfortunate Events ” in Reader in Comparative Religion: An Anthropological Approach edited by William A. Lessa and Evon Z. Vogt. New York: Harper & Row, 1979
Option 3: What is the definition of magic fetish according to George Gmelch? Can you find an example of a magic fetish in the film? Explain how your example fits the definition. Can you relate this to the George Gmelch article?
Gmelch, George 2000 “Baseball Magic” Revised version of “Superstition and Ritual in American Baseball” in Elysian Fields Quarterly, Vol. 11, No. 3, 1992, pp 25-36.
Option 4: What is the definition of summarizing symbol according to Sherry Ortner? Can you find an example of a summarizing symbol in the film? Explain how your example fits the definition. Can you relate this to the Ortner article?
Option 5: Define a liminal phase according to Viktor Turner. Can you find an example of a liminal phase or liminal space in the film? Explain how your example fits the definition. Can you relate this to the Turner or Winslow article?
Turner, Victor “Liminality and Communitas”, in Reader in the Anthropology of Religion. Edited by Michael Lambek. Blackwell Anthologies: New York, 2008.
Winslow, Donna. 1999. “Rites of Passage and Group Bonding in the Canadian Airborne.” Armed Forces & Society (0095327X)25 (3): 429–57. doi:10.1177/0095327X9902500305.
Option 6: Define how analogical pairs are used in magic according to Stanley Tambiah. Can you find an example of analogical pairs in the film? Explain how your example fits the definition. Can you relate this to the Tambiah article?
Tambiah, Stanley. 2017 “Form and Meaning of Magical Acts,” Reprinted by HAU: Journal of Ethnographic Theory 7 (3) 451-473.
Option 7: Can you identify and describe an example of an “invented tradition” as understood by Eric Hobsbawm in the film? How is this related to power in the film? Explain how your example fits the definition of “Invented tradition.” Can you relate this to the Hobsbawm article?
Hobsbawm, Eric “Introduction: Inventing Traditions” in The Invention of Tradition, Eds. Eric Hobsbawm, & Terence Ranger. New York: Cambridge University Press, pp. 1-14, 1983.
Option 8: This film is an excellent parallel to the Taussig article. How does Taussig suggest cultural change results in forms of magic, or magic interpretations of commodity fetishism? Can you relate or compare examples from the movie to Taussig’s article?
Taussig, Michael. “The Genesis of Capitalism amongst a South American Peasantry: Devil’s Labor and the Baptism of Money.” Comparative Studies in Society and History 19, no. 2 (1977): 130-55. Accessed March 23, 2021. http://www.jstor.org/stable/178173.
Option 9: This film talks about the impact of Spanish Colonialism and how it changed their beliefs. You might be able to compare this to examples from the Karen McCarthy Brown book Mama Lola as she talks about Vodou as a combination of African and Catholic beliefs.
Week 15: Revitalization Movements
Mandatory Reading: Wallace, Anthony 1956 “Revitalization Movements” in American Anthropologist Vol. 58 (2). April 1, 1956
LECTURE OUTLINE: Week 15 Revitalization Movements
ATTENDANCE/PARTICIPATION (13): Your attendance/participation will be determined by your post in the discussion board on Blackboard. Read the entire article before answering the questions or post an image of something artistic or creative you have done. Only answer one option each covering the topic, thesis, and cultural example (aim for 250 words).
Option 1: The film “The Devil’s Miner” talks about the impact of Spanish Colonialism and how it changed the local indigenous people’s beliefs. You might be able to compare this to Wallace’s understandings of revitalization movements. What is Wallace’s definition of “revitalization movements”? Can you relate or compare examples from the Movie to Wallace’s article?
OPTION 2: Post an image or describe your interests
I started the class asking about your hobbies and interests. As it is the end of the semester, I wanted to give you a less stressful option for the discussion board. Please submit a picture and /or description of the artistic work (drawing, painting, photography, writing poetry, stories, baking, etc.) you have been working on during this period when we have been forced to stay at home. Explain what you have posted and why it is important to you.
Video: how to insert image in discussion board
WEEK 16: FINALS WEEK
FINALS: You can start taking the test Saturday XX but both sections of the test must be completed by Friday XX by 11:59PM (Essay portion of test- 1 1/2 hour time limit, Multiple choice portion of test – 1 1/2 hour time limit. There are 35 multiple choice questions. The written section includes using the themes / concepts from the course, apply an article from the course to an analysis of the book Mama Lola. You must use descriptive details of at least three different scenes from the book in your discussion. Define and use two key terms from the course in your essay, these terms should NOT relate to the article you pick. (Look at the review sheet for a grading rubric).
** HOMEWORK: Prepare for the final exam. Look over the key words and concepts listed in the review sheet and presented in lecture. Review the readings, films, and lecture material to prepare for the written section of the test. Think about some of the major concepts or themes we have covered in the course.
LECTURE OUTLINE: REVIEW FOR FINAL
ATTENDANCE/PARTICIPATION: I will mark your attendance and participation based on your submission of your final exam.
ASSIGNMENTS and other course requirements*
This is an interactive lecture therefore you are required to attend the lectures, to have read the assigned readings, and participate in class discussions. Students are expected to observe an event within the first part of the course and write up an observation paper (a detailed description of the assignment will be handed out in class and posted on Blackboard). From this paper I divide the class into smaller discussion groups comprised with students with similar topics to provide a more interactive course discussion. From this paper students will apply several articles from the course and apply the main theory or concepts to an analysis of the material that was observed (a detailed description of the assignment will be handed out in class and posted on Blackboard. To do well in this class come prepared to discuss the reading, work on your paper throughout the semester, and come to my office hours to ask questions. I will only read drafts of your papers with you so we can brainstorm ideas together, so please bring drafts to my office hours for discussion. Ethnographic films will be shown in class depending on time and availability. Plagiarism will not be tolerated and will result in an automatic “F” and a report to the Academic Integrity committee (see statement below). (Don’t copy material from the web or any reading material without quotations and citations)
Grading Rubric for Weekly Discussion Questions (10 total):
Poor – 0 points
Weak 1-6 points
Good 7-8 points
Excellent 9-10 points
# of Posts
No posts and/or plagiarized.
Posted comments less that 6 times during the semester. Did not post on time, or posted too late for other students to comment.
Posted on a fairly regular basis, at least 8 times. Posted on time most of the time.
Posted consistently on time.
Quality of Posts
No posts and/or plagiarized
Shows some critical thinking skills. Shows some ability to understand and apply the concepts and themes from the course to real world situations. Able to use some clear and thoughtful language to discuss issues and concepts.
Shows clear critical thinking skills. Shows good ability to understand and apply the concepts and themes from the course to real world situations. Uses clear and thoughtful language to discuss issues and concepts.
Shows advanced critical thinking skills. Exceeds ability to understand and apply the concepts and themes from the course to real world situations. Uses exceptionally clear and thoughtful language to discuss issues and concepts.
Helpful Feedback to fellow students
No posts and/or plagiarized
Sometimes engages in responding to other students posts in a thoughtful and encouraging manner. (Less than 6 times)
Frequently engages in responding to other students posts in a thoughtful and encouraging manner. (6-8 times)
Consistently engages in responding to other students posts in a thoughtful and encouraging manner. (Over 10 times)
METHOD OF GRADING – elements and weight of factors determining students’ grade*
• Participation (Attendance impacts your participation grade) – 18%
•Midterm 5 page observation paper – word count 1600 (see assignment description) – 22%
•Midterm exam– 10%
•10 page analysis paper – word count 3200 (see assignment description) – 30%
•Final Exam– multiple choice and essay questions – 20%
CITYTECH GRADE POINTS:
Unofficial Withdrawal –More than 3 absents
COURSE INTENDED LEARNING OUTCOMES/ASSESSMENT METHODS
1. Have an understanding of Anthropological fieldwork
1. A short 5-page observation paper of a ritual or public event they observed within the first 5 weeks of class gives the experience of collecting fieldnotes and writing up methodology.
2. Have an understanding of the Anthropological theories used to analyze religious systems.
2. Apply the theories and concepts from the course using assigned articles in a 10-page analysis of the event or ritual they observed in the first half of the course.
3. Have an understanding of the key concepts presented in the course (Religion, Worldview, Taboo, Symbolism, Myth, Magic, Witchcraft, Religious Practitioners, etc.)
3. Questions on exams and concepts/themes of course applied in final paper show an understanding of the main concept.
4. Have an understanding and sensitivity for a variety of cultures’ belief systems and practices.
4. Essay questions on exams. Topics come from a wide variety of different cultures. In addition, the methodology portion emphasizes the issue of “ethics.”
GENERAL EDUCATION LEARNING OUTCOMES/ASSESSMENT METHODS
1. KNOWLEDGE: Students develop a knowledge of the concepts and theories deployed by anthropologists in their analysis of cultural and social issues particularly as it relates to various cultural belief systems.
1. Research project and exams. With the final paper students learn to apply anthropological theory.
2 SKILLS: Students develop and use the tools needed for communication, inquiry, analysis and productive work.
2. Research project and exams. Students learn communication skill through the writing exercises.
Students work productively within and across disciplines.
3. Research project and exams. Students draw on research materials from across disciplines as they explore different approaches and cultures.
4. VALUES, ETHICS, AND RELATIONSHIPS: Students understand and apply values, and ethics, particularly in terms of research methodology but also in terms of cultural relativism.
4. Research project and exams. Key anthropological concepts and research methods in readings and applied in essays emphasize the role of ethics.
INTENSIVE WRITING/ASSESSMENT METHODS
1. OBSERVATION & DESCRIPTION: Students learn to describe their observations using rich details.
1. Students observe a public event and describe it in a 5-page paper. This is a “medium stakes” exercise.
2. DESCRIPTION OF METHODOLOGY: Students learn to write up their research methods: Selection criteria, Procedures, and Methods.
2. Students turn in a scaffold/low stakes worksheet where they fill in the requirements for methods. This is rewritten and used within the 5-page description. This is again revised for the final paper project.
3. DESCRIPTION OF ARTICLE: Students learn to read and then describe the main theory or concepts of an anthropological article.
3. Students turn in a scaffold/low stakes worksheet where they fill in the blanks (topic, thesis, concepts). This is then revised and polished for their final paper (High stakes assignment) where they not only describe the main issues of the article but apply it to their observations.
4. LEARNING TO WRITE A THESIS AND TOPIC SENTENCES: Students learn to write a thesis statement and then show how it is applied throughout a paper with the use of topic sentences.
4. Student turn in a scaffold/low stakes worksheet with a draft of their thesis statement and topic sentences. This is then revised and applied in their final paper.
5. PEER WRITING GROUPS: Students learn from their fellow classmates about peer review and guidance.
5. After the 5 page paper I will divide students into complementary groups. This is a low stakes exercise to encourage discussion and questions about the writing process. I meet with each group to check in, answer questions, and brainstorm ideas.
ACADEMIC INTEGRITY POLICY STATEMENT
Students and all others who work with information, ideas, texts, images, music, inventions, and other intellectual property owe their audience and sources accuracy and honesty in using, crediting, and citing sources. As a community of intellectual and professional workers, the College recognizes its responsibility for providing instruction in information literacy and academic integrity, offering models of good practice, and responding vigilantly and appropriately to infractions of academic integrity. Accordingly, academic dishonesty is prohibited in The City University of New York and at New York City College of Technology and is punishable by penalties, including failing grades, suspension, and expulsion. The complete text of the College policy on Academic Integrity may be found in the catalog.
SHORT PAPER PROJECT: Observation and Description Paper (22%)
Due Week 5
Fieldwork is an important component to Anthropological research. The objective of this assignment is to introduce you to fieldwork research and to have you write up your own fieldnotes. Later, in your final paper project, you will use the data from your fieldnotes to support or test an analysis based on the themes from the course (See attached description of final paper). For this first assignment, I just want you to observe and describe. (Do not use outside sources). As you will do your observations within the New York area, what can we learn about American Culture? (Think about issues such as identity, power and inequality, or gender).
1) 5 typed pages, double spaced, word count 1600 (https://wordcounter.net/words-per-page)
2) 1 inch margins, 10 to 12 pt. font.
3) No citations or outside references — this is pure description based on your own observations. If you should use an outside source you must provide a reference and bibliography (for example if you used an image that you found on the internet you need to list the website where you found it). Do not resort to internet sources as this paper is about what you can personally observe and describe.
Possible Research Projects:
You must pick a public event that you can observe in person during this semester (not something in the past). Ideally you should pick something you can observe more than once because once you start trying to analyze your data for your final paper, you may want to go back to fill in details you might have missed. Sometimes, however, you are only able to observe an event once (such as a marriage, funeral, quinceañera, Bar Mitzvah, etc.). In this case, it is especially important to write down detailed information because you might not get another chance to fill in the gaps. If you happen to know a religious practitioner, shaman, or healer, ask permission to let you observe them (get “informed consent”). ** Because of the COVID19 pandemic, most public events have had to be changed to virtual formats. I think it might be especially interesting to look at an event such as this as in your final paper you can analyze it within the context of this historic period. Ideas that come to mind are a virtual church service, or a weekly virtual happy hour with friends. If you have school age children at home, perhaps explore the virtual education system and your role in it. Think about how you been interacting and meeting with friends and family since the pandemic started. The point is you want to observe a group of people that you are interacting with. For instance, I do not want you simply watching a football game on tv, but if you are watching it with a group that you can observe in person, or virtually, then it is okay. You want to focus on the people you are interacting with. A routine family gathering would be okay especially if it is for a special event such as a holiday or ritual. Try to search for “virtual social events” or “online social events” that you might attend. Perhaps you regularly play with an online gaming community. Think about “real time” meetings with groups of people perhaps on Zoom, or facetime. Focus on “virtual communities” that you may already be a part of. You are conducting what is referred to as “virtual fieldwork” and writing “virtual ethnographies.” Try to think outside the box, and if you are having trouble picking a topic be sure to email me.
When selecting something to observe, you might review the articles assigned to this course for ideas. Consider describing a sporting event as a ritual, a cultural event, festivals, parades, holidays, church services, a marriage, bar mitzvah, etc. If you have no clue as to what you should observe, please contact me during my office hours to discuss possible ideas. I have found that the best papers are about things that are of interest to you. Try to pick something that is of interest to you. Think of hobbies or activities that you like to do. Can this be something you can observe for this assignment? In your final paper you will have to come up with a complex argument using the theories from the articles we have read. As rituals are full of symbolism, consider the symbols you observe and what these symbols are telling you about the cultural environment / about US society. Therefore, for this first assignment, consider observing something where you think you might observe some symbolic representation. At this point, however, you will only need to describe, but you are welcome to perhaps consider possible symbolic identification and analysis.
Be sure to be honest with the people you are observing. Tell the people you are observing that you would like to write a paper for a course based on your observations. Ask permission to observe an event. Inform them of your intent to write a paper for a class based on your observations, that you will protect their identity, and that they have the right not to participate.
Research Purpose: what event did you observe and what is your research question? You will be observing something in the US as a way to understand American belief systems. This should be stated in your introductory paragraph.
In this section of your paper you should describe the methods you used to gather your data. You must address the following 3 questions in detail:
1) What is the source of your research subject and what are your selection criteria? (Why did you choose this group? How did this group fit the criteria for this assignment? Do you have a personal reason for choosing this group? Brief summary of group selected)
2) Describe your procedures (How did you collect your data? Are you a “participant observer”? How did you record your data? What languages were spoken and did you need an interpreter? When and where did you make your observations? Did you conduct any interviews? Etc.)
3) Describe how you addressed ethics (Ask permission, you must give “informed consent”, protect identity/pseudonym, was there any potential harm or benefit to the people you studied? Etc.)
In your descriptions you should describe everything you see, hear, smell, feel. Consider drawing diagrams or pictures. You should describe at least three of the following:
1) The temporal and spatial environment. (Use of time and space)
2) Language or discourse (Incl. songs, chants, ritual statements, etc.) What did you hear?
3) Gestures or body language (Incl. dance, movement, etc.)
4) Clothes or body ornaments (Incl. costumes, formal v. regular attire, makeup, etc.)
6) Material objects including food.
7) Emotions (happy, sad, scared, etc.) How did you feel? How did the participants appear to be feeling?
8) Describe microcultural factors such as race, ethnicity, class, gender, age, etc.
9) Describe explicit or implicit rules and norms.
10) If you can, try to identify possible symbols but save your analysis for your final paper.
Use detailed descriptions. Use adjectives and adverbs. (A cat sits in the sun – or — A fluffy orange tabby cat wiggles in the warmth of the sun). Use vivid fresh language. Emphasize what makes what you observed interesting, or unique. Use specific descriptive details.
Researchers should also note their own reactions and thoughts to the experiences observed. Give an impression for the reader by describing what you see, hear, smell, taste, and feel.
Your midterm paper should be a cleaned up form of your original fieldnotes. It should be typed and written in full sentences. Remember – focus on the details. Detailed descriptions are important. * Yes, you can change the event that you observed. I do not recommend doing this as it is extra work for you, but if you come up with a better idea you can change if for your final paper. The bottom line is, just turn in something by the deadline. UPLOAD PAPERS ON BLACKBOARD VIA “TURNITIN.” See instructional manual on Blackboard or video – remember to upload AND submit: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ogu55Hhk6CU
No late papers will be accepted.
PAPER OBSERVATION IDEAS: This must be a group of people participating in an event or common activity that you can observe in person. (You must observe and gather data from a live event where you can be present, such as a live virtual event). Think about public places where groups of people might gather.
Observe a festival, parade, or holiday event.
Observe a wedding, a funeral, a quinceñera, or a bar mitzvah.
Observe a routine activity such as a church service. Try to observe a service other than your own. If you know a priest or priestess, consider asking permission to observe the service.
Consider looking at “ritual spaces” or “liminal spaces” – places that contain groups of people that form a particular group identity or belief.
The main purpose is to push you to start working on your final paper. Basically, if you write a good methodology and describe what you observed, you will do well. I use this assignment to help give suggestions for your final paper – so I will have daily point deductions for late papers to encourage you to turn this in on time.
1. Format: 5 full written typed pages (word count 1600), 10-12 point font, 1-inch margins. (5 points)
2. A draft introduction with a description of research purpose, perhaps a preliminary statement on your overall findings (5 points)
2. Description of your methodology – how did you gather your data? (15 points)
3. Must observe first-hand in the first 5 weeks of class. (Not something from the past)(5 points)
4. Detailed descriptions of at least 3 out of the 10 points listed above. (35 points)
5. Conclusion — Overall impression of what you observed. Try to tie to themes from the course (25 points)
6. Overall spelling, grammar, style (10 points)
7. Plagiarism will result in an automatic “F.” Do not resort to cutting and pasting from the internet.
10 PAGE ANALYTICAL/PERSUASIVE PAPER PROJECT – (30%) (Refer to Blackboard for guides and grade sheets)
Due Week 12
Objectives: The objective of this assignment is to have you apply your understanding of the main thesis arguments of 3 to 4 articles from this course. (Karen McCarthy Brown’s book Mama Lola can be used as one source but you will still need to use 2-3 additional articles from the Lambek reader or optional readings listed on the syllabus). Do not try to bulk up your paper by using outside sources (anything from the internet, articles not listed on syllabus etc.) as I will simply cross it out and not consider it as part of your 10-page paper. If you look on the internet for information then you are not doing this assignment correctly. The point of this paper is to show me you can read the assigned reading and apply your understanding of the reading to your own raw observation data. Do not simply cut and paste your observation paper – this is not an analytical paper because a persuasive paper sets up a thesis argument that uses evidence to prove, to persuade the reader that their argument/thesis is correct. The emphasis of the final paper is analysis not observation (you must use topic sentences & analysis in every paragraph). There are helpful guides and tips posted on blackboard. The homework worksheets are scaffolding exercises to prepare you for this final paper. Drawing on themes and concepts of the course, what did your observation reveal about culture? Why is this important?
To connect your material to the articles, draw on one or more themes from the course such as religion, belief, worldview, symbolism, taboo, myth, ritual, rite of passage, witchcraft, magic, religious practitioners, ghosts, spirits, etc. Possible problems to focus on:
• Consider analyzing your observation as a ritual or a rite of passage. Explain how it is a ritual using the articles from the course as supporting evidence. How is basketball a ritual? How is joining a sorority/club/army a type of rite of passage? (Look at Turner, Stevens, Geertz, Montague)
• Consider doing a symbolic analysis. What kinds of symbols did you observe? Did you find any “key symbols” and how did they represent the values of American society? What can you learn about the society/culture from these symbols? (Look at Ortner, Wolf, Bellah, Montague)
• If you are looking at forms of magic, explain how it is used in times of uncertainty. Explain the use of metaphor and analogy. How is a blessing a form of magic? (Gmelch, Brown, Tambiah, Evans-Pritchard).
• Are you interested in exploring how belief systems can be related to the construction of identity? Why is identity important? What can expressions of identity tell us about American culture? (Behar, Myeroff, Chong, Bellah, Hobsbawm, Montague, Weber, Wolf, Ortner)
• Perhaps you would like to show how a particular myth or folktale reinforces our societal worldview and belief system. (Malinowski, Levi-Strauss, Wolf, Ortner, Weber, Bellah, Montague, Radin, Klaus)
• Consider addressing how belief systems can be a form of power and/or resistance (Kelly, Taussig, Radin, Brown, Hobsbawm, Wallace, Obeyesekre)
Format: (Incorrect format will result in point deductions)
1) 10 typed pages, double-spaced (excluding your original midterm description and bibliography). You must have 3200 words.
2) 1-inch margins, 10 to 12 point font
3) A minimum of 3 citations from the course reading. Show me you have a clear understanding of 3 articles from the course. (There is an article worksheet you can use for guidance posted on Blackboard)
4) Anthropologist typically use “Chicago Style”. See the following links for more information:
5) Attachments: attach a full correct bibliography (author of the article listed last name first, in alphabetical order, year of publication, title of article, title of edited book with editors, publisher and location of publication).
You can use Microsoft word to prepare citations and bibliography – here is a brief how to video: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KmaZMvxqkVE
6) Late papers are not accepted. PAPERS ARE UPLOADED TO “TURNITIN.COM.” See the following instructional video https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ogu55Hhk6CU
7) Use of material other than your observations and the articles will result in point deductions. (Do not rely on websites- such as Wikipedia)
8) Excessive typographical or grammar errors will result in point deductions. Please proofread your paper. See the following for tips on proofreading https://writing.wisc.edu/Handbook/Proofreading.html
9) Plagiarism will result in an automatic “F.” Do not copy people’s work or paste from the internet.Print this page