What is more difficult the journey or the outcome of the journey? The journey to Mars will not be easy, however with the right technology, skills, and organization, we as humans can accomplish such goal. Once we arrive on Mars, shelter must be arranged as well as food and water; societal structures must also be planned to maintain order. The few selected that will travel to Mars will have the opportunity to pioneer a new society on Mars. We performed several key analysis on isolated societies on earth; using these analyses, we can draw similarities of situations of isolation that the Mars settlers will encounter. Nevertheless, by examining case studies we can hypothesis future scenarios and societal hierarchy on Mars.

Upon arrival we would need to create a permanent habitat shelter that will house 20-50 settlers on the desert of Mars. There are no shortages of proposals that are designed to protect the settlers from the harsh Mars environment. First we must look at the environment of Mars to select the suitable plan. Data taken from satellite images and the Mars rover allow us to state facts about the environment and climate on mars.  The following table compares the facts about the air on Mars with the contents of the air on Earth. The abundance of carbon dioxide and lack of nitrogen and oxygen cannot sustain human life.

Content Earth Mars
Oxygen 21% .13%
Carbon Dioxide .038% 95.3%
Nitrogen 78% 2.7%
Water 1% .25%


Another challenge we face are the levels of radiation on Mars. In comparison with the Earth, the earth’s atmosphere contains a magnetosphere, which blocks radiation from flooding the ground below(NASA,2015). However, the planet Mars atmosphere is about 1% as thick as planet Earth, and contains no magnetosphere; this allows radiation to flood the planet uncontrolled and further prevents the retention of heat. Radiation can leak into the body of a person not properly shielded, the radiation serves to transport energy and when in the body can cause cancer and more quickly radiation sickness and poising.  We do consider the dangers that we cannot completely correct with current technology, we adjust our mission in order protect against the more permanent dangers of Mars.(Gifford,2014)

When selecting a habitat we have to take into account that this habitat will protect our settlers while the slow process of transforming Mars to a habitable land takes place. The main concern is the habitat must protect the settlers from the air quality, second the habitat must shield against radiation, and wild temperature fluctuations. We will outline two choices and explore the benefits of each living system. The basic distinction between the two ideas is an above ground shelter or an underground shelter.





If we decide to send above ground shelters, the insulation material must withstand degrees below negative eighty degree Fahrenheit. All transparent surfaces must be able to permit the passage of sunlight while blocking radiation and ultra violet rays. The windows will also serve the purpose of facilitating the use of greenhouses. The Martian sand is used as an insulator and a radiation shield(Ayers,1990). As show in the figure below, this design can be constructed quickly from a frame that can be quickly assembled. This design uses inflatable shelters that allow us to carry shelters more easily aboard the space shuttle.

Our other option is below ground shelters, we would need more insulation, but the settlers are protected from the temperature fluctuations, storms and radiation. This plan will cost more and require more resources, but it is possible to complete this project with tunnel digging machines. This underground shelter is safer and more likely to survive environmental changes. We will consult with investors and our team to decide the next home of humanity.



Living conditions on Mars will be difficult; in addition, solitude and isolation from the outside world can prove detrimental to maintain a thriving society. We use a case study on the Island of Tristan da Cunha to compare the island settlement with the proposed settlement on Mars. The Island of Tristan da Cunha is one small town with approximately 300 inhabitants and located more than 1000 miles from the next town (Morton,2015).Nonetheless, the people on this island have lived self-sufficiently, with their own economy for years. The similar living conditions would be created on Mars. Further, plans for a flexibility economic system on Mars will have to be developed for Mars settlement.

The idea of hierarchy of needs is considered when planning the structure of society in the Mars settlement. The basic needs of self-actualization, esteem, social, and safety are required to keep people motivated and willing to accept their mission is space(McLeod,2007). Apart from research centers and greenhouses, entertainment centers, and education centers are essential for the well-being of society. A rule of law that reward people for good behavior and hard work will be implemented to motivate people. In contrast, a system that punishes rule breaking and anti-social behavior would maintain order on Mars. It is important to remember that we are not just building a science outpost but creating a society that would allow the continuation of the human race.

We must account on fulfilling the needs of the new generations to ensure the continuity of the project on Mars. In the case study, when returning to the island after a natural disaster, 16 youths chose not to return to their home, the rest of the older islanders returned, it is essential that we provide fulfillment to the next generation of Martians.  Furthermore, it would be wise to build and complete s settlement as quickly as possible, to provide a social dynamic that unites the setters. The settlement project must be an ongoing project. Living in isolation from earth with a small group can lead to essential need going unfulfilled.




Works Cited

Drachlis, D. (2008, April 12). Advanced Space Transportation Program:. Retrieved from


NASA (2015, September 30). Real Martians: How to Protect Astronauts from Space Radiation on Mars:. Retrieved from


Morton, E. (2014). What Life Is Like on the World’s Most Remote Island. Retrieved from Slate:.


McLeod, S. (2007). Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. Retrieved from Simply Psycology:.


Ayers, D., & Barnes, T. (1990). Mars Habitat. Prairie view A&M University.


Gifford, S. (2014, February). Calculated Risks: How Radiation Rules Manned Mars Exploration. Retrieved from