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Roman structures


When the famous amphitheater by the name of the Colosseum was built in ancient Rome, it measured at 620 by 523 feet in area – making it the largest amphitheater of its time. The construction of the largest and most popular ancient Roman monument was started during the reign of Emperor Vespasian in 72 AD.

St. Peter’s Basilica is one of the largest churches in the world, built on the burial site of St. Peter, one of Christ’s apostles, on Vatican Hill in Vatican City. The first St. Peter’s Basilica was built in the fourth century by Emperor Constantine, but by the 1400s it was almost in ruins.


Both f these structures are old testimony of how great roman architecture was. They both were the biggest structures for the reason they served. The saint Peter’s cathedral being the biggest cathedral of its time . while the colosseum was the biggest amphitheatre of its time .this goes to show how big the Roman architecture is and was as these structures are still as of today some of the most attracting places on earth.

Neolithic and Paleolithic era comparasent

The Paleolithic age is a prehistoric period of human distinguished by the development of the most primitive stone tools and covers roughly 95% of human technological prehistory It extends from the earliest known use of stone tools, probably by homo habilis initially, 2.6 million years ago, to the end of the pleistocene around 10,000
The Paleolithic era is followed by the mesolithic . The date of the Paleolithic–Mesolithic boundary may vary by locality as much as several thousand years.
During the Paleolithic period, humans grouped together in small societies such as bands, and subsisted by gathering plants and fishing, hunting or scavenging wild animals] The Paleolithic is characterized by the use of knapped stone tools, although at the time humans also used wood and bone tools. Other organic commodities were adapted for use as tools, including leather and vegetable fibers; however, due to their nature, these have not been preserved to any great degree.
About 50,000 years ago, there was a marked increase in the diversity of artifacts. In Africa, bone artifacts and the first art appear in the archaeological record. The first evidence of human fishing is also noted, from artifacts in places such as blombos cave in south africa . Archaeologists classify artifacts of the last 50,000 years into many different categories, such as projectile points, engraving tools, knife blades, and drilling and piercing tools. The new technology generated a population explosion of modern humans which is believed to have led to the extinction of neanderthals
Humankind gradually evolved from early members of the genus homo—such as Homo habilis, who used simple stone tools—into fully behaviorally and anatomically modern humans during the Paleolithic era. During the Paleolithic period, humans grouped together in small societies such as bands, and subsisted by gathering plants and fishing, hunting or scavenging wild animals. The Paleolithic is characterized by the use of knapped stone tools, although at the time humans also used wood and bone tools.

Neolithic era was was a period in the development of human technology, beginning about 10,200 BC, according to the ASPRO chronology, in some parts of the Middle East, and later in other parts of the world and ending between 4500 and 2000 BC. Neolithic. Neolithic (New Stone Age) Period in human cultural development following the Palaeolithic. The Neolithic began c.8000 bc in w Asia and c.4000 bc in Europe. During this period people first lived in settled villages, domesticated animals, cultivated cereal crops, and ground stone and flint. neolithic




comparacent between early egypt strcture and mesopotemia Kristian Lugja

Mesopotamia and early Egypt were two eras that brought a lot of improvement civilizations and one was certainly the building improvement and style. One type of building that the mesopotamia era brought was the ziggurat.The ziggurats were built of sun baked bricks with facings of fired bricks on the outside. The tradition of building a ziggurat was started by the Sumerians, but other civilizations of Mesopotamia such as the Akkadians, Babylonians and the Assyrians also built the ziggurat. While on the other hand the early Egypt era brought a slightly different style of building. The earliest inhabitants of Egypt lived in huts made from papyrus reeds. However, it was soon discovered that the mud left behind after the annual flooding of the Nile (inundation) could be made into bricks which could be used for building. Bricks were made by mixing mud and straw and leaving them to dry in the sun. This system brought building to life in Egypt one structure that came from this era is the famous pyramids. The difference between these two structures is the way they were built. The ziggurats have the long path ways of coming to the top while the pyramids are made of big stones from all sides which could work as steps at times.


Ziggurats were a form of temple common to the Sumerians, Babylonians and Assyrians of ancient Mesopotamia.The earliest examples of the ziggurat date from the end of the third millennium BCE and the latest date from the 6th century BCE.

The Great Pyramid of Giza (also known as the Pyramid of Khufu or the Pyramid of Cheops) is the oldest and largest of the three pyramids in the giza pyramid complex bordering what is nowel giza Egypt. It is the oldest of the seven wonders of the world, and the only one to remain largely intact.
Based on a mark in an interior chamber naming the work gang and a reference to fourth dynasty Egypt .Pyramid was built as a tomb over a 10 to 20-year period concluding around 2560 BC. Initially at 146.5 metres (481 feet), the Great Pyramid was the tallest manmade structure in the world for more than 3,800 years. Originally, the Great Pyramid was covered by casing stones that formed a smooth outer surface; what is seen today is the underlying core structure. Some of the casing stones that once covered the structure can still be seen around the base. There have been varying scientific and alternative theories about the Great Pyramid’s construction techniques. Most accepted construction hypotheses are based on the idea that it was built by moving huge stones from a quarry and dragging and lifting them into place.

Flamur Dellovci In-Class Assignment (Architectural Achievements Over Time)

From 30,000 BCE to 1,000 CE, civilizations have been improving steadily over time; at the beginning of architectural history, times in between architectural achievements were slow to start. But overtime, once we get into Egyptian architecture do we see acceleration in appreciation for architects and their innovative ideas for designing structures and spaces. With this, people tended to travel further distances over time which helped others see other forms of architecture and eventually be inspired by this either by Kings or rulers who looked to flex their power through the structures they’ve built and show off how impressive they were. Eventually, overtime, in shorter time spans, architecture started speeding up in different eras such as the Romans, Gothic architecture. With technology progressing and architecture becoming more pronounced we find that inventions in architecture and design only increase. Engineers coming up with more innovative ways to achieve daring conceptual designs by architects, we see that more and more achievements are being met in shorter time spans. In only the last 1000 years have we achieve the most in our architectural history, from different materials used to different innovative ways to represent time periods and turn living spaces into more habitable places. What used to be only accessible to only rulers, architecture is now readily available to anyone who has any reasonable amount of money and a vision to achieve that, thus a faster rate of architectural achievements in modern history. What helps with this is using past architectural achievements to help accelerate the knowledge of how to design and further improve and innovate with new ideas. It was slower at the start with nothing to look upon other than the ground and the trees around it to come up with making habitable spaces.


Pantheon For Sale

Fabian Chiqui
Pantheon For Sale
Huge announcement the Pantheon of Rome is for sale and for a limited time only. What is most interesting about this building is that it is was is known for its belief of the gods of Rome and Greece. The best part of this building is that is can be used as a museum. It can be best used to tour people inside of it as it creates a wonder on peoples view to see building of that design. Due to the huge middle section that is open to bring in the light. The walls are unique and kept well in tact. Corinthian style on top of the walls create a culture that can never be forgotten.

Flamur Dellovci In-Class Assignment (Selling The Pantheon)

Flamur Dellovci

ARCH 1121

Professor Zagaroli

October 24th, 2017

The Pantheon, this once grand Roman temple of every god can be yours, built in Rome, Italy with beautiful Roman Catholic affiliations, this piece of timeless history is perfect for your high class gatherings and even become a great investment pursuit at running your own museum. Designed by the great architect, Apollodorus of Damascus. This massive structure, houses one of the largest domes with a single oculus to reign artificial light throughout the inside of the structure, at 142 feet tall, its wow factor is best during the day. Large columns with Corinthian designs at the capital that hold the large pediment of the structure shows strength that you need and want in your life, especially if you’re trying to overcompensate.


Flamur Dellovci In-Class Assignment (Parthenon)


Flamur Dellovci

In-Class Writing Assignment

Create a dialogue talking to the Parthenon.

The Parthenon is quite important in Greek architecture as it was built for Athena in a time when gods were revered as beautiful mystical beings that ruled over the land and the people. It’s made mostly of columns that are Doric in design, with less ornamentation in its capital. It was considered the most beautiful piece of architecture in its time, although copied quite frequently in revival Greek architecture. Personally, I consider it to be quite bland but I understand its importance and extraordinary feat of architectural beauty and proportional consideration. One of the more interesting aspects of this structure is how it was intended to be viewed; the Greeks designed it to be viewed in 360 degrees before you ever reached the structure itself. Parthenon, amazing structure to view in all 360 degrees of the Acropolis it stands on, a mountain top made to view a structure created beautifully outside and to stand out amongst the Greek skies. What is now missing of you, the color, the fresh marble, roof tiles and the Statue of Athena, still has us wondering what you looked like in your peak form. It’s hard to appreciate you without seeing you the way the Architect intended to.


Assignment #1

ARCH 1121 Assign #1, City Tech CUNY, Fall 2017

Professor Zagaroli

Tristan Ramirez

The First building is The French Building located in Midtown Manhattan New York. It was first built in 1927 before the Great Depression. It is used primarily as an office building and also houses classrooms of Pace University.  The building is one of the better known projects of the real estate developer Fredrick Fillmore French. The architects that designed this structure were H. Douglas Ives and Sloan & Robertson. It was the tallest building on Fifth Avenue when completed, by the 1990s it underwent a complete restoration, subsequently earning the Building Owners and Managers Association 1994/1995 Historic Building of the Year Award. The National Register of Historic places listed the building in January 2004. At the top of the building it has a striking art deco that can easily attract someone’s eyes.

The second building is called the Safra National Bank Tower located in New York. It was in built in 1990 standing at 23 stories tall. It used as an office space while CompStak has 11 lease comps for this property, dating from 2007 to 2017. Safra National Bank of New York is affiliated with Banco Safra S.A., one of the largest private banks in Brazil   with approximately 100 branches throughout the world. The bank has a worldwide network of resources and products made available by the Safra Group of banks and financial institutions.

These two structures are similar in a way with the use of the building. They both are an office space, and as well as the height of each building. One thing that contrast between the two is they were built between two different time periods of the same century. The first building was built before the Great Depression and the second building was built in the late 20th century or as you can say the modern era of buildings.