1. Dotterer, Aryn M., McHale, Susan M., Crouter, Ann C. (2009). Sociocultural Factors and School Engagement Among African American Youth: The Roles of Racial Discrimination, Racial Socialization, and Ethnic Identity. Applied Developmental Science. 61-73.
The authors of this study investigated the links between racial discrimination and school engagement and the roles of racial socialization and ethnic identity as protective factors in sixth through twelfth grade African American adolescents from working and middle class two parent families. This source is a primary work, because these authors did this study. They took a sample of 148 African American adolescents. The authors addresses this problem from a structural perspective, because it has occurred from the way society is formed. The reason for this is that the interaction with other kids at school, make them feel more discriminated. The intent of using this work is to provide information on ethnic identity and explore the connection between racial discrimination and school bonding. Analyses revealed that discrimination was negatively related to school self-esteem and school bonding. For boys, ethnic identity had additive effects on school bonding, but for girls, ethnic identity moderated the relation between discrimination and school bonding: when girls experienced more discrimination and a lower ethnic identity, they reported lower school bonding. This is secondary reference, because I didn’t do the direct research and because I’m using this source for my research and other authors created it.
2. Bennett Jr., M. Daniel. 2007. Racial Socialization and Ethnic Identity: Do They Offer Protection Against Problem Behaviors for African American Youth? Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment. 137-161.
This study applies to the explorations of the influence of racial socialization and ethnic identity on problem behaviors. Due to this problem racial socialization and racial identity are emerging and other factors such as violence and delinquency among the African American youth. This work is secondary source, because the authors did not do this research by themselves. They referred to other documents to create this piece of work. Authors address this community problem from structural perspective, because these authors didn’t add personal input to this document. The results of this occurrence were from the way society was organized. Antisocial and aggressive behavior, including violence and delinquency, still a major public concern. The intend of this study proposes that racial socialization and racial identity should be integrated into current theoretical models of child and adolescent development. Structural equation modeling is used to explore the influence of these constructs on both risk and protective factors in a sample of African American children and adolescents. Implications for social work research and practice are also discussed. This research will be secondary reference, because I didn’t do the direct researches.
3. Teasley, Martell L.; Tyson, Edgar; House, Laura. (2007). Understanding Leadership Development in African American Youth. Journal of Human Behavior in the Social Environment, 79-98.
This study assesses factors related to leadership development for African American adolescents participating in a community service program designed to develop young African American leaders. This is a primary source, due to the fact that this document is original and the authors were the first ones to create it. With the exception of some references, they were only used to guide and make this document accurate. This problem was addresses from a structural perspective, because none of the authors input personal opinion. This piece of work was created from the way society is affecting the adolescents. The work is intended to be uses in my research because it describes the psychometric characteristics of self-reported levels of leadership are explored to determine similarities and differences between gender groups. This will be a secondary reference, because other authors, not me, created it.
4. Wright, Brian L. (2009). Racial-Ethnic Identity, Academic Achievement, and African American Males: A Review of Literature. Journal of Negro Education. 123-134.
This study discusses the literature on racial-ethnic identity and its role as a factor to promote academic success in young African American adolescents, in particular males. This research also defines and describes styles of self-presentation that reflect aspects of racial-ethnic identity among African American males in and outside of school toward the development of a healthy REI. This work is secondary source, because the authors Wright and Brian L. didn’t do those researches by themselves. They used information that was originally presented by other authors. These authors address this community problem by structural perspective, because it comes from society, not from the authors’ opinions or point of view. The intend of this work is to change the often negative ways in which society thinks and talks about African American students, especially males, in terms of their racial-ethnic identities and their academic achievement toward the development of a healthy REI. The author implies in this study that racial socialization can lead students to develop an awareness of racism and discrimination and ethnic pride and knowledge of group contributions in terms of achievements to support school success. With this determinative foundation, a lot of African American male students can believe that school success is possible for them and that they can develop strategy to do well and avoid failure. So in this way, to work hard and to get a good grades becomes important to their developing a healthy REI, and results in an academically successful vision of them to keep young men committed to, and persistent in their efforts to achieve school success.
5. Hecker, Lorna; Lettenberger, Cassandra; Nedela, Mary; Soloski, Kristy L. (2010). The Body Tells the Story: Using Art to Facilitate Children’s Narratives. Journal of Creativity in Mental Health. 192-203.
This study illustrates an art activity for use in psychotherapy with children or adolescents. The process of this activity allows the art to be transformed into language, thereby including discursive (linguistic) as well as non-discursive (image-making) symbolic coding systems. This study is secondary source, because these authors: Hecker, Lorna; Lettenberger, Cassandra; Nedela, Mary; Soloski, Kristy L didn’t do this research; they took this information from other authors that did original research. The authors address the community problem by structural perspective, because this problem comes from society. The intend of this work is to help children or adolescents who have been recently physically or sexually abused may find this activity very emotionally activating, and the therapist should take care in assessing their emotional preparedness for this goal. In conclusion, if clients typically spend time “outside of their body” as in the case of seriously traumatized clients or adults suffering from dissociative identity disorder, it would be injudicious to process the activity by externalizing them from their bodies in a narrative fashion. Materials used for this activity should be age appropriate. This work will be secondary reference, because I didn’t use direct researches.
6. Hickman, Richard. (2006). Raising Pupils’ Self-Esteem through Leadership Activities in Art. International Journal of Art & Design Education. 329-340.
This study is about the ways in which young people who have disengaged from learning in school can find a way back through leadership activities in art. This project explores the potential of an approach to developing positive leadership qualities in pupils who weren’t consistently committed to the school’s learning destinations. This research is primary source, because the author did original research by himself and the author was the first ones to create it. The author addresses this community problem by structural perspective, because this problem comes from our society. The intend of this work describes and comments upon pupils’ guided attempts at peer teaching in art and its following effect upon their self-esteem and relationship towards school. This study found that pupils who taught art to other pupils, increased sense of self-worth and were more positively affected towards learning. From author’s own observations and what pupils’ have said about their experience as a positive rather than negative leaders, it seems that their confidence grew as a result of taking on a teaching roles with a younger group and they accordingly became less disengaged. This work will be secondary reference, because I didn’t do the direct research.