Walter Gropius; The Theory and Organization of the Bauhaus (1923), László Moholy-Nagy; Typophoto (1925), On Typography (1967) in Graphic Design Theory: Readings From the Field by Helen Armstrong on pages 32-34 and 44-49.

Questions / Prompts

  • According to these authors, what is missing from the art of the past?
  • What role should typography, photography, and other media play in shaping a new kind of art? 
  • What role should language play in art and design?
  • What sort of new strategies or ideas will be necessary for future art forms? 
  • What should education or “the academy” teach artists about their field?

What is missing from the art of the past is communication and communication for teaching aspiring artists. Artists were left to their own devices by the lacking education they received. Because there was no relationship between artists and education, the products of artists were limited in creativity and didn’t reflect real-life elements such as techniques and materials. The education back then didn’t value the togetherness of people and only valued artists when they were isolated. Out of the many artists being taught, only a few people became painters or architects and most students failed to become artists in their profession.

Typography, photography, and other media should form a unity despite being different methods of art. For example, typography was based on electric signs. They should also allow artists to reach their full creative potential and know their limitations by allowing them to have personal experiences and focus on subjectivity.

The role of language in art and design is to be clear, concise, and understandable to viewers. Language is clear and understandable to viewers because of the combination of text and pictures in magazines, with the pictures helping to visualize what the subject is.

New strategies that will be necessary are to make designs to unify artists and society in general, a new change that will be beneficial to society such as electronics that we write and read on that will ultimately replace the book.

Education should teach artists about all the many fields of art, skill sets, and techniques. Artists should also be taught how to use and combine art forms together such as typophoto.