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The thermoelectric effect is the direct conversion of temperature differences to electric voltage and vice-versa. A thermoelectric device creates a voltage when there is a different temperature on each side. Conversely, when a voltage is applied to it, it creates a temperature difference. At the atomic scale, an applied temperature gradient causes charge carriers in the material to diffuse from the hot side to the cold side.
Waste Heat Recovery (WHR) is just one of the technologies helping energy-intensive industries meet these challenges – and FLSmidth now has exclusive rights to the latest technology for waste-heat-to-power generation.
Efficient heat to power engineering
The Kalina Cycle® is the most significant improvement in thermal power plant design since the advent of the Rankine Cycle in the mid 1800s. In a typical Rankine Cycle power plant, a pure working fluid, water or low molecular weight organic compounds, is heated in a boiler and converted into high-pressure, high temperature vapor which is then expanded through a turbine to generate electricity in a closed loop system. The Kalina Cycle® utilizes an ammonia-water mixture as a working fluid to improve system efficiency and provide more flexibility in various operating conditions. The Kalina Cycle® can improve power plant efficiency by 10% to 50% over the Rankine Cycle depending on the application. As plant operating temperatures are lowered, the relative gain of the Kalina Cycle® increases in comparison with the Rankine Cycle.
Heat Recovery in Kalina Cycle V.Ganapathy
Catalog of CHP Technologies
The Catalog of CHP Technologies (PDF) (139 pp, 1.5 MB) provides an overview of how combined heat and power (CHP) systems work and the key concepts of efficiency and power-to-heat ratios. It also provides information about the cost and performance characteristics of five commercially available CHP prime movers.
Download chapters from the Catalog of CHP Technologies:
Introduction (PDF) (15 pp, 311K)
Gas Turbines (PDF) (26 pp, 268K)
Microturbines (PDF) (24 pp, 280K)
Reciprocating Engines (PDF) (28 pp, 356K)
Steam Turbines (PDF) (21 pp, 207K)
Fuel Cells (PDF) (25 pp, 525K)