Mid-term paper

Article # 1: Getting it wrong: Surprising Tips on how to learn

In this article by Henry L. Roediger and Bridgid Finn the researchers mentioned different affective strategies that can be used to help student learn a material better. The methods the researchers suggested contradicted the use of the no errors permits. The no error method basically provided students with correct answer to a problem and repeat this process till the students remembers it. This type of technique is supposed to help the student slowly learn from their mistakes and get the question right. According to Nate Kornell, Matthew Hays and Robert Bjork they believe that it would be better that “learning becomes better if conditions are arranged so that students make errors.” When it comes to people remembering, things they would remember it better and longer if they are given hard questions knowing that they can fail. In a series of experiments that was conducted, it was shown that if students were to make an unsuccessful try to retrieve information before receiving the answer, they could remember the information better than in a control condition in which they are simply to study the information. They conducted another experiment where they have a group students that required to learn pairs of “weak associates,” words that are related in some way. The word that they chose to give them was star-night. So they gave they the students the first word then they were ask to think of the word that associates with it. There was a pretest condition they were given the first word which was star and then was given a few seconds to think of a word that goes with it. The thing about this is the students is just going to think about the first word that comes to mind think it’s right but it’s not. Because they were only given a short time to think about it. They might say bright because of the word star. In the control condition, the students were given the pair to look at for 13 seconds. Because of the little more time they had, some students was able to guess the word. They found out that the students remembers the pairs better if they first tried to think the answer before they were shown the answer. Since they were given such a short time, they didn’t really have time to think about their answer meaning that they most likely get it wrong. But if they were given more time there is a chance for them to get the answer right.

A similar interesting article which can relate to “Getting it wrong: surprising tip to learn” targeted towards youth and providing different learning techniques to learn to bolster schools method to teach. There is a definitive issue of students being left behind in an educational system. With the combined effort of multiple educational psychologist, an experiment is conducted on students in efforts to alleviate this problem. The psychologist went forward knowing that the educational system would have to be corrected in many aspects. There are ten techniques that were applied during this experiment. Some techniques were chosen because of their accessibility, and the other chosen because the techniques students often use. These techniques are elaborative interrogation, self-explanation, summarization, highlighting, the keyword mnemonic, imagery use for text learning, rereading, and practice testing, distributed practice, and interleaved practice. In order to make an accurate hypothesis the psychologist applied those ten techniques to four categories of variables: learning conditions, student characteristics, materials, and criterion tasks. The article defines all these variables as the following: Learning Conditions are environmental (I.E alone or in a group), Student Characteristics are age/ability/prior knowledge, Materials vary from simple mathematics to complicated science text books, and  the Criterion Task are tapping memory, problem solving, and comprehension. The information that is provided generalizes the information because of the findings being extensive. Before the article gives results, it gives a disclaimer that the findings are generalized across the different variables combined with techniques. Meaning some techniques could not be properly evaluated. The techniques with the highest utility assessment were practice testing, and distributed practice. Just shy of high utility were elaborative interrogation and self-explanation. The lowest were summarization, highlighting, the keyword mnemonic, imagery use for text learning, and rereading. It seems like the psychologist here really done their homework, and made sure they had all variables accounted for. My only gripe is if any of these findings are being properly utilized. I believe it is of the utmost importance to make sure students are provided with an environment that which they can truly grow in intelligence, and not be forced fed knowledge with no retention in mind. So my question is anyone using this information to change the educational system? And if not than why not?

Throughout human lifespan they will always be a period of time that consist of learning. Furthermore, learning is a process that is never ending and human has been finding ways to improve on this process. The researched that Nate Kornell, Matthew Hays, Lindsey Richland, Liche Kao,  and Robert Bjork conducted at U.C.L.A has taken us one step forward towards the improvement of the never ending process of learning. A series of experiments was done to defy the idea that the best way to learn something is to be given the correct answer to a problem and study it. The researchers mainly focused around the concepts that we all learn from our mistakes, and painting a clear images in our mind before illustrating it on paper helps us paint a better picture. They prove their ideas through a series of different experiments which shows that we tend to do better at something if we fail at it first. This idea gives us a fundamental concept to focus on when approaching a problem. Although this methods might raise some questions such as: does not failing at something lowest a person confident to do better. The experiments shows still shows that the retrieval attempt is most effective.

I think the authors in the first article “Getting It Wrong’’ surprising tips on how to learn by Henry L. Roediger and Bridgid Finn give good enough reason and data to support their conclusion in the first experiment, because I believe if you continuously repeat something to an individual they will remember it eventually. I feel like this is the most common way to learn. In Nate Kornell, Matthew Hays and Robert Bjork also give good enough reason because if we would arrange questions so that person can get the question wrong and the reason I believe this is a great method is because for an example you give a 8th grader an easy question he isn’t really learning but if you give him questions that you know he will get wrong not only will he get the questions right from multiple attempts but he will be required to think and he will know why he got it wrong and know what he did to get it correct. The last method is an experiment of time if kids have more time on the test they will have a better chance of getting the problems right on the exam. If you are given a short amount of time you will be thinking at a faster rate and you may end up taking a guess and getting the problem wrong. Out of these experiments I personally like Henry L. Roediger and Bridgid Finn the more you repeat something our brains will process it and sort of have a photographic memory on what was said and what exactly happened. I do think the author provided good enough reasons and data to support their conclusions because the techniques with the highest utility assessment were practice testing and distributed practice. The reason I felt this is a great and successful experiment because students will have a better understanding of what is going to be on the test but also improve their test taking abilities. What I like about the work is that we get to see what a long term change in the student’s grades after using this experiment. The author should have asked what did the students who did not have a practice test do. I will personally go to the first experiment in the article “Getting It Wrong’’ by Henry L. Roediger when you repeat something a person will eventually remember it just like how we know the national anthem we have heard it so many times. The second article would be my backup but it is also great because you will have a practice test see what you got wrong and know why and then be ready for the actual test.




















Thinking psychologically



Philippe Paul

Shawn Villeta

Kiara wright

Justin Casiano

Observation of learning


Learning is an ability that is essential to all living things in other for them to progress and evolve. Not only human beings but animals as well have the ability to absorb data that is presented to them through their surroundings and then it is interpreted in different ways, shapes and forms. We will be observing different form of learning and how it helps us to grow and form our own dependencies. We will observe operant conditioning, social learning, and classical conditioning, through familiar scenarios.

You want to get your son to do his homework, so you walk into his room nicely and you see him playing video games and you ask him to do his homework and he says ok, so you leave and then after a couple hours you go back to check up on his homework and then he says he didn’t start on it yet so you take away his video game console and then you told him if he finished his homework efficiently not only he gets back his game but he can stay up later.  So by the parent taking away the video game is an example of negative reinforcement because that parent wanted to be obeyed the first time but then that parent added a reward if it was done so this is an example of positive reinforcement . Now the child knows to do his homework not only because his game will be taken away but he can be rewarded for his job. Operant conditioning which is a method used through behavior, punishment, rewards and consequences. This scenario can be used as an exemplification for operant conditioning.

One form of learning that we observed that is most effective is social learning. Social learning is a cognitive process that takes place in a social context and can occur purely throug observation or direct instruction, even in the absence of motor reproduction or direct reinforcement. We human’s are what can be called political creatures which means we are very dependent on one another. From birth are parents’ holds our hand in order for us to maintain our balance till we can do that ourselves. Parents know when the child no longer needs their hand to be held when the child pulls their hands away from them. Philippe experiences this with his nephew. He would hold on to his nephew hand just as when he started to walk but as time went by his nephew refused to have his hands hold when trying to walk. This observation taught us that kids are very much dependent on their guardians, but at the same time they’re learning to be independent through experiences. Behavior like so repeats itself as a child gets older. They go from wanting to hold your hand while crossing the streets to “mom I’m too big for you to be holding my hand.”. This statement is proof that a child has absorb information bestowed upon them from their guardian(s).

Another example social learning is, when Kiara was making an observation of a child swimming with her mother, but what kiara notice was that The child was struggling a little. You can tell by the expression on the little girls face that she was filled with determination not to give up. The mother offered assistance by the child refused as she wanted to learn on her own. So the mother went off to swim on her own.. The mother didn’t notice that the child stopped swimming to watch her swim. As she watched her she stayed in place and mimic the body motion of her mother. After some time has passed the child prodded the mother to watch her progress, in which she agreed. There was a noticeable difference in the child’s form so much so that even Kiara noticed, but was solidified when the mother said “ Wow you’re doing good, keep going!”. The amount of pride the mom had on her face could not be hidden, and asked the little girl how did she get so good so fast? The answer she received was “ I did it by watching you”.

Classical conditioning is a learning process that would occur through environmental stimulus an naturally accruing stimulus. Classical conditioning involves placing a signal before the actual natural reflex occurs. Kiara gives us a simple a example “ I would pick up a bag of cat food and th and shake it every time I feed my cat. I am teaching my cat a signal that every time she hears th bag of food being shook, she will be fed. My cat will build a natural reflex because of this ritual. The reflex is to respond to the signal of the food. The signal was the shaking the bag of cat food . The natural reflex was when the cat responded to the food.”.


In conclusion learning has become vital for our survival, and has also become a almost transparent act that we do everyday. There are different forms of learning like Operant conditioning, Social learning, and classical conditioning. Mostly these types of learning happen beyond our cognitive functions.

Education is what survives when what has learned been forgotten

Author.B F Skinner “ Education in 1984” New scientist 21 May 64

This digresses to a perverse reality, that the only time something is relevant in our minds is when we must learn it.




Thinking psychologically

Observation on learning

By:philippe paul, kiara wright, shawn villeta, Justin Casiano Continue reading

observation on learning

Philippe Paul


Prof. Schutz


As living beings there are many ways for us to obtain new skills. It can either be taught to us or we simply learn it ourselves through experience. The most fundamental knowledge that we all need is the knowledge of numbers. I’ve been observing my older brother teaching his son how to count. what I noticed is my nephew would memorize the sequence of the numbers, but if you were to point at a specific number to him, and ask which number is this he wouldn’t know. That first observation let me know that my nephew still didn’t know his numbers. Upon further lessons from my brother my nephew then started to become more familiar with each number. My brother would ask my nephew to write random numbers on a sheet of paper and my nephew would get it right.

Who: Stevenson

Where: my home

When: September 7

Philippe Paul observation on attention

Philippe Paul
Prof. Schulz
When a person is focusing, either by thinking; planning a move or performing a task they tend to filter out their surroundings. They may hear or see what lays besides, but due to the fact that their mind’s is elsewhere their surroundings is not registered. It is still somewhere in their memories, located to the part of their brain’s where you might consider it to be their “junk files”.Example: I myself (Philippe Paul) tend to get lost in watching my favorite show Tom and jerry. On the second of September my best-friend had came over to visit, to tell me about how his date went the previous night. I was on my couch watching television when he walked in and greeted me. Then he began to tell me about his date. I switched the Channel unintentionally and landed on Tom and jerry. From that point in time everything my friend was telling me was irrelevant to me and my focus turned swiftly to the t.v as I’m shaking my head in agreement to everything he was saying. To this day I recall nothing of what he was telling me. So because I filtered my friend story out my behavior can be consider as a negative reinforcement.