# Test 1 #4 (Version A)

(a) Let $f(n)$ and $g(n)$ be functions from the set of positive integers to the set of real numbers. State the definition of the fact that $f(n)$ is $O(g(x))$.

We say that $f(x)$ is $O(g(x))$ if there exists a pair of positive constants $(C,k)$ such that, for all $n>k$, we have $|f(x)| \leq C|g(x)|$.

(b) Use your definition from (a) to prove that $1^2+2^2+ \cdots n^2$ is $O(n^3)$. Show all your work.

We want to find a pair of positive constants $(C,k)$ such that, for all $n>k$, we have $|1^2+2^2+ \cdots n^2| \leq C|n^3|$.

Assume that $n>1$. Then we have $n$ inequalities. $1^2 \leq n^2$, $2^2 \leq n^2$, $n^2 \leq n^2$.

When we add up the left sides of these inequalities, we get $1^2+2^2+ \cdots n^2$.
Adding up the right sides of these inequalities, we get $n^2+n^2+ \cdots n^2$.
There are exactly $n$ terms in this expression, so $n^2+n^2+ \cdots n^2 = n(n^2)$ which is equal to $n^3$.
This shows that $1^2+2^2+ \cdots n^2 \leq n^3$ whenever $n>1$.
We also have that $1^2+2^2+ \cdots n^2 \geq 0$, so this gives us that $|1^2+2^2+ \cdots n^2| \leq |n^3|$ whenever $n>1$.
In particular, we have that $|1^2+2^2+ \cdots n^2| \leq 1\cdot|n^3|$ whenever $n>1$.
This proves that $1^2+2^2+ \cdots n^2$ is $O(n^3)$, with witnesses $(C,k)=(1,1)$.

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### 2 Responses to Test 1 #4 (Version A)

1. Kate Poirier says:

Part (a) should have been a freebie. Whether or not you’ve understood a definition from class, you should have the *precise* definition memorized. All the pieces needed to be in the right place in your answer for it to receive full credit here.

2. Kate Poirier says:

Part (b) was one of the more challenging questions on the test. However, you’re given the answer here, that $1^2+ \dots n^2$ *is\$ $O(n^3)$, so that tells you exactly what you need to do: find a pair of witnesses so that your condition from (a) is satisfied.

One of the most wide-spread issues that I encountered while grading was that many of you appeared to be answering a completely unrelated question: that $n^2$ is $O(n^3)$. The function $n^2$ and the function $1^2+ \dots n^2$ are completely different, so this is of no real help.

Another issue was the assumption that the function $1^2+ \dots n^2$ is a quadratic polynomial in the variable $n$. This is not the case, even though it kind of looks like a quadratic polynomial. Compare it to $1^2+n^2$. This *is* a quadratic polynomial. In rough terms, the difference between how it behaves and how $1^2+ \dots n^2$ behaves is that the “polynomial” $1^2+ \dots n^2$ changes when $n$ changes, while the actual polynomial $1^2+n^2$ does not.