Research – History on China



China, a country with the world’s largest population needs no further introduction. In the last decade there has been countless headlines on China. News around the world have been circulating opinions of its economy and domestic politics, even with a sense of fear with the rise of this communist nation. As the world’s second largest economy in gross domestic product measures, China has become an unknown factor for the world. Many unanswered questions arise around Chinese intentions. What does China want? Do they want to change the global order? What is China’s system of governance? Will they have an economic collapse? Do they want to be a hegemon? China is the colossal enigma of the 21st century. In order to understand modern day China one must look into its past and see what it is that shaped the modern Chinese ethos.


The Last Chinese Dynasty – The Qing

By the end of the 19th century China was devastated by a precarious feudal dynasty clenching onto its last breath. China’s last dynasty, the Qing had lost both Opium wars to the British, thus starting the era of “unequal treaties” and what the Chinese call “the century of humiliation.” Beginning with the British, China had to cede the territory of Hong Kong, open an additional ten ports for trade, legalize opium, and allow Christian missionaries to spread their faith. (“The Opening to China,” 2017) One after another foreign powers coerced China into signing even more treaties. (“The Opening to China,” 2017) In March of 1898, a small village in Shandong province had an open dispute with the Catholic authorities on turning a temple into a church. The villagers claimed that they needed the temple for religious rituals and that it was traditionally a place to practice martial arts. (“Boxer Rebellion,” 2008) This matter was brought to the attention of the local government in which they ruled in favor of the Catholic authorities. This enraged the villagers and under the command of the Boxers they attacked the church. This was the very beginning of what was later known as the Boxer Rebellion. (“Boxer Rebellion,” 2008) Thousands of Boxers were attacking foreign missionaries in the capital. It became so chaotic that the Boxers were murdering and torturing any missionaries, foreigners and Chinese Christians that they came across. The Empress Dowager Cixi decided to support the Boxers to oust the foreigners from China by sending imperial troops to aide them. In the final stages of the rebellion; there was an attempt to storm the compounds of the foreign legations. These buildings housed many seeking refuge against the violence of the Boxers. This ultimately led to the Eight-Nation Alliance of Russia, Britain, France, the United States, Japan, Germany, Italy and Austro-Hungary declaring war on China. The result was another defeat for the Qing dynasty. All the allied nations except America and Japan engaged in looting, plunder, arson and rape. And China was forced to pay $333 million in reparations. (“Boxer Rebellion,” 2008)

Below are tv show renditions of what a Qing Dynasty Empress would wear

The Revolution of 1911- Establishment of the First Repubic

(Movie images of Republic revolution of 1911 – The fight and establishment of the first Chinese Republic)

In the early 1900s, millions of Chinese overseas either advocated for the establishment of a constitutional monarchy or outright revolution. A group called the Revolutionary Alliance under Sun Yat-sen began to gain momentum. (“The Chinese Revolution,” 2017) The alliance attempted at seven revolts against the Qing dynasty to no avail. However in September of 1911, revolutionaries in Southern China led another revolt against the dynasty and to their surprise the soldiers of the new modern Qing army switched their allegiance to Sun Yat-sen; staging a mutiny and joining the revolutionary alliance. This uprising was known as the “Wuchang uprising,” named after the city of which the uprising took place in. (“The Chinese Revolution,” 2017) After the successful uprising, the revolutionaries proceeded to telegraph other provinces in China to convince them to declare independence. And 15 provinces in southern and central China followed through and the representatives from the seceded provinces declared the founding of the Republic Of China. Subsequently in 1912 the feudal system that governed China for thousands of years came to an end. The 1911 revolution put the dynasty on its knees and ultimately the last dynasty of China fell; and the Republic of China was born. (“The Chinese Revolution,” 2017)

Although the new republic was established, it failed to unify the country. Instead due to the absence of the Qing government in territories that weren’t controlled by the new republic; it resulted in the rise of many warlords that disregarded the new Nationalist government. As a result, reforms from the new government never came to fruition. (“The Chinese Revolution,” 2017) After the death of Sun Yat-sen in 1925, Commander Chiang Kai Shek took his place to become the new leader of the Chinese Nationalist Party. Chiang was in favor of a military authoritarian government rather than Sun’s democratic socialism. (“Chiang Kai-shek:1887-1975,” 2017) Chiang also did not maintain good relations with the Communists as Sun had previously done. In 1927, in collaboration with the notorious green gang; Chiang Kai Shek launched a purge on labor workers on strike, most of whom were Communists. (Newman, 2013) Thousands of them were being rounded up to be shot or beheaded by the green gang. This incident was known as the “Shanghai Massacre,” marking the very beginnings of the Chinese civil war between the Nationalists and the Communists. (Newman, 2013)

World War II – The Invasion of Japan

The Chinese civil war was then interrupted by World War II, with the occupation of Manchuria by Japan in 1931. This led the Nationalists and Communists to form a temporary alliance to fight Imperial Japan. An estimated 20 million Chinese lost their lives and millions more became refugees. (“World Wide Deaths in WWII,” 2017) The war officially ended in China with Japan’s surrender in 1945. Chiang Kai Shek’s Republic of China was included as one of the five permanent members of the United Nations security council because of China’s role as an allied power in the war. With the surrender of Japan, the Chinese civil war almost immediately resumed. It is widely believed that the Japanese invasion significantly weakened the Nationalist government and gave way to the victory of the Communists in the Chinese civil war. (“China’s War,” 2015) In 1949 the Communist People’s Republic of China was established and successfully unified all of Mainland China. (“Chiang Kai-shek:1887-1975,” 2017) Chiang Kai Shek and the Nationalist party retreated to Taiwan and continued to run the Republic of China. Furthermore Taiwan was formally recognized as the legitimate government of China by the United Nations until the death of Chiang Kai Shek in 1975. (“Chiang Kai-shek:1887-1975,” 2017)

Communist China 

After the unification of China, the Communists under Mao Zedong attempted to rapidly modernize the country. However, the government was unsuccessful in its policies to rapidly increase agricultural and steel output. The government allocated large amounts of the labor force into massive irrigation projects. The results were disastrous; the policy was highly ineffective and resulted in large grain shortages. In addition to human error, unfavorable natural weather conditions also contributed to the great famine that killed millions of farmers. The local government overworked the farmers and carelessly tried to accomplish their objective hastily. Their belief was that the construction of the irrigation systems would rapidly increase agricultural outputs but instead the outcome was far from desirable. (Dongping, 2008)

After the Great Leap Forward the Communist decided to undertake another disastrous project, the Cultural Revolution of 1966. It was a ubiquitous scale social project that attempted to get rid of anything that was considered from China’s past, be it culture, knowledge, tradition or religion. It was believed by Mao that only then can China industrialize and compete with western countries. It is estimated that almost the entire demographic of intellectuals were eliminated during this tumultuous time. It was seen as a crusade against intellects and those that practiced tradition. Religion was banned and anyone associated with religion was also eliminated. Hundreds of thousands if not millions were murdered, tortured, publicly humiliated, jailed or driven to suicide. And this ludicrous revolution only ended after Mao’s death in 1976. (Planker, 2011)

China’s Reform Period Under Deng Xiaoping

Deng Xiaoping subsequently became the new leader of the People’s Republic of China. He decided to experiment on opening China to the world through investment. He pushed for the creation of four special economic zones; creating tax incentives for foreign companies to invest in China and starting what the West calls the 20 year economic miracle. (Holmes, 2017)  Under Deng’s economic reforms China was able to grow double digits yearly and this set the foundation for China to become the world’s second largest economy. (Chack, 1995)

Chinese Economy Today

Today, China’s economy faces many troubles. Economists around the world have agreed that China is moving into a perilous phase called the “middle income trap.” It describes when an economy has had increasingly stable growth due to heavy manufacturing and low cost of labor. It is the transition of an export led growth paradigm to a consumption and services model. This is the epitome to all developing countries wanting to join the ranks of the developed world. And this decade is crucial for China to transition into a developed nation or spiral into perpetually being trapped in the third world. However according to Rapoza, China may be going through a storm but it isn’t an indication for collapse. He believes that the service industry in China remains vigorous and has been increasing over the last 5 years. (Rapoza, 2016) He stated that household consumption is now 73 percent of the GDP growth compared to last year’s 60 percent. While the manufacturing industry has been decreasing as part of the GDP growth percentage. (Rapoza, 2016)

Modern Chinese Politics

The Chinese economy is also inevitably linked with modern day politics. President Xi Jinping is the current President of China and took office in 2012. One of the first speeches he gave was to commence the anti-corruption campaign. He openly admitted that corruption is the number one reason that will take down the communist party and cause China to collapse. Thus positioning his speech with his policy of catching corrupted officials who are “tigers” and  “flies.” Since then he has purged thousands of officials mainly for the crime of corruption or party member misconduct.

Many Chinese analysts believe that President Xi Jinping has been involved in a factional struggle with former President Jiang Zemin. Former President Jiang ran China from 1989-2002.(Ong, 2017) Under Jiang, his cronies became extremely wealthy and they were rewarded immensely with high government positions. Part of the reason for his crony capitalism methods was to align himself with allies that helped him persecute practitioners of Falun Gong, a spiritual discipline derived from Chinese religions. Jiang felt threatened because of the growing numbers of practitioners they garnered in the late 90s. (Ong, 2017) After Jiang’s tenure, he continued to control the government through his cronies from 2003-2012. It was in 2012 that analysts believed that the Jiang faction, two Jiang lieutenants, former Chongqing secretary, Bo Xilai and security czar, Zhou Yongkang plotted a coup against Xi. It is clear to many that President Xi has alluded to their plot in several public speeches. Since the failed coup, Xi has been purging countless members and associates of the Jiang faction. (Ong, 2017) Ong believes that the Jiang faction still wields enormous influence in propaganda and domestic security government organizations. And as a result Ong also noted that it contributes to the perception that Xi is incompetent and incoherent in his reform policies. However in reality the Jiang faction whether in the financial sector or in government is attempting to disrupt and sabotage the reform plans. China analysts are also looking very closely at the developments of the 19th party congress. A meeting of the highest level officials in China to determine those that will be serving in the next term. Due to the informal mandatory retirement age of 68, most of the top leadership will be expected to retire this coming fall. Chinese experts believe that President Xi is trying to consolidate his power before the coming party congress so that he will have enough influence to replace officials in the Jiang faction. (Ong, 2017) It remains to be seen who will eventually win this factional struggle and what it means for the modernization of China in the 21st century.



    • Boxer Rebellion. (2008). New World Encyclopedia, . Retrieved  July 24, 2017 from
    • The Opening to China Part II: the Second Opium War, the United States, and the Treaty of Tianjin, 1857–1859. (n.d.). Retrieved July 24, 2017, from
    • The Chinese Revolution of 1911. (n.d.). Retrieved July 24, 2017, from
    • Newman, J. (2013). Shanghai Massacre (1927). In A. Mikaberidze (Ed.), Atrocities, Massacres, and War Crimes: An Encyclopedia (Vol. 2, pp. 595-596). Santa Barbara, CA: ABC-CLIO. Retrieved from 
    • History – Chiang Kai-shek. (n.d.). Retrieved July 24, 2017, from
    • Interview: China’s war against Japan significant to WWII victory: Cambridge professor. (2015, September 3). Xinhua News Agency. Retrieved from
    • Worldwide Deaths in World War II. (n.d.). Retrieved July 24, 2017, from
    • DONGPING, H. (2009). Farmers, Mao, and Discontent in China. Monthly Review: An Independent Socialist Magazine, 61(7), 20.
    • Planker, T. (2011). Psychic Impact and Outcome of the Chinese Cultural Revolution (1966–1976). International Journal of Applied Psychoanalytic Studies. Retrieved July 24, 2017. 
    • Chack-Kie, W. (1995). Measuring Third World Poverty by the International Poverty Line: The Case of Reform China. Social Policy & Administration, 29(3), 189-203.


Self introduction – International Communications class

Hi, my name is Matthew. I am a Chinese American. I have always been influenced by Chinese culture and traditions.  My family is Buddhist but we were never actively religious. We are also guided by Taoism and Confucianism. We follow many rituals like tomb sweeping and ancestral worship. Also there is a strong emphasis to do well in school, to become a useful member of society and to refrain from causing trouble for society. But what affected me personally the most was not growing up with one culture, rather it was noticing that I grew up with two seemingly divergent ideologies. In school the individual was highly emphasized but at home, I would be reminded that we are a collective aggregate. Western philosophy always taught us that human cultivation began with the individual and it was our freedom to explore and come to our own conclusions about life. Eastern philosophy told us that human cultivation began within our family. We must follow the rules set by our parents and discipline is highly valued until we were “true adults”. Confucius believed that it wasn’t until we were 40 years old that we began to truly understand the world around us and so it was discouraged to disrupt the harmony in society before we really understood the world. I think the biggest realization I had from this dichotomy is that I don’t disagree with either one. I understand their perspectives and their end goals are both the same; to cultivate a human soul the best they can in order to live a meaningful life and to be able to contribute to society. This personal experience is a reminder to me that there are many solutions to the problems in our world. The best solution is always to listen to all solutions, no matter how absurd and inconceivable it may be. Because one day you might find that this absurd idea suddenly isn’t so absurd anymore after it has shaped the course of our world.  


Chinese Media System

During the last 20 years, China’s media has expanded extensively throughout China. With rapid development of the economy and significant increases in literacy rates, the results are a growing number of better informed citizens. These citizens want access to a greater amount of information from the outside world and a selection of perspectives, rather than that of the government’s. Newspapers and magazines have also been following the trend and increasing rapidly. In 1968, there were 382 Newspapers, today there are more than 2,200. Today there is now an estimate of 7000 magazines and journals in China. (“The Chinese Media,” 2007)

In 1978, a rough estimate of 10 million people had access to television sets but currently a billion people have access to television sets in China. Likewise, in the past, China had a meager 12 television stations and 93 radio stations; today China has 700 television stations, 3000 cable channels, and 1000 radio stations. (“The Chinese Media,” 2007) All television broadcasts are controlled by the Chinese Central Television (CCTV), it is the country’s only national network. The Chinese Central Television falls under the direct control of the Propaganda Department and the Ministry of Radio, Film, and Television. All network directors and officers are appointed by the state. CCTV is the country’s most powerful and ubiquitous television network. It holds a state monopoly on purchases of programs from overseas and all local stations must carry CCTV’s 7pm news broadcast. It is estimated that 500 million people across the country watch this program regularly. (“The Chinese Media,” 2007)

            According to the CIA website, China has been gradually becoming more autonomous and diverse since the death of Mao Zedong in 1976. (“The Chinese Media,” 2007) The emergence of Deng Xiaoping and his social and economic reforms have also been reflected in the media. An example used by the Central Intelligence Agency is People’s Daily, which historically has been used against Mao’s political enemies. It was known as the direct mouthpiece of Mao during the Cultural Revolution. However, after Mao’s death, it was reformed and the paper greatly expanded its coverage. (“The Chinese Media,” 2007) The newspaper encouraged public criticism through the form of letters to the editor. During this time period, the media was also beginning to diversify its content. Additionally, the Chinese media began to criticize party cadres and even published debates on issues like the rule of law, freedom of press and human rights. The only restriction was the unwritten rule that no one was allowed to challenge the party’s legitimacy and authority for policy making, with severe consequences if broken. Another small space for media liberalization is the radio stations, specifically talk radio. Radio stations began to adopt a new form of model; they deemphasized propaganda and geared towards citizens’ concerns.(“The Chinese Media,” 2007)  Competition was also key to the diversity of content. Radio stations competed with call-in programs that discussed politics, lifestyle, and sensitive social subjects. The radio stations did not require callers to identify themselves; as a result, much candid discussion were allowed to take place in comparison to television programs. (“The Chinese Media,” 2007) Sensitive discussions are generally permitted and least regulated on radios, journals and magazines. However, as media reaches national levels, it becomes highly regulated.


            Despite the increase in people with access to traditional media, the internet has become the fastest growing platform. Whether it is social connectivity or access to information, the internet has become the most convenient and diversified in all forms of media. (“Media Control In China,” 2017)  Chinese citizens have been able to access uncensored information. They are also able to share sensitive information on elite politics and even bring the government to concessions with microblogging. In 2012, there were public outcries of corrupt officials causing train tracks to collapse at high altitude. (“Media Control In China,” 2017)  The top leadership immediately sent investigators and arrested the officials. Nonetheless, China’s media system is rated 83 out of 100 and considered not free. According to, article 35 of the Chinese constitution guarantees the freedom of speech, assembly and publication. The problem is that all institutions and organizations are regulated by the Chinese Communist Party. China’s media is mainly state owned and the judicial branch is appointed by the CCP (Chinese Communist Party). (“Media Control In China,” 2017) This creates an unchecked balance of power. also states that there are no laws that protect journalists from violence or harassment. The CCP frequently uses a “national


security law” to punish dissidents that break the unspoken rule of advocating for the overthrow of the government. The Chinese Central Propaganda Department directly controls the boundaries of what is considered permissible reporting. The media is used by the CCP to cast a positive light on the government and condemn their enemies. They allow state controlled media to cover potentially damaging news in a careful and selective manner. (“Media Control In China,” 2017)  They also restrict other media by ordering them to report a pre-established narrative. The government not only restricts media systems in China; it also prevents Chinese citizens from accessing media sites outside of the country. For instance, Facebook, YouTube, Google, twitter, Instagram is all banned in China. Any social media/connection platform that can potentially spread news coverage outside the control of the CCP is blocked. China has an approximately 560 million online users, that is roughly 42 percent of their population. In addition, over 400 million microblogging accounts have been created. (“Media Control In China,” 2017)  The internet is growing in prominence and importance to the average Chinese citizen. In 2012, a study revealed that public opinion and crisis management reports online accounted for 65 percent of breaking news reports, while only 30 percent for traditional media. (“Media Control In China,” 2017)

            There has been a consistent pattern concerning news coverage and censorship in China throughout the years. Media is generally regulated on a national level and important conversations are usually permitted to be discussed. However, when political instability arises, the leadership immediately attempt to chokehold all media platforms into silence. The New York Times reported on the “clamp down” on the Chinese Internet portals. (Forsythe, 2016) Much of China’s independent journalists use the Chinese equivalent of twitter, Sina Weibo, and microblogging app, Wechat, to spread sensitive information. However, the article mentioned that the Cyberspace Administration of China ordered the websites to either shutdown or filter the content that was being circulated. (Forsythe, 2016) The article speculated that the clamp down was due to an important party meeting that will be held in 2017. The article also stated that the party often puts in more rigid media restrictions than usual before an important event, often highly political ones. (Forsythe, 2016) It is still unclear whether these strict regulations will kill off the vibrant independent reporting that Weibo has inadvertently created. Chinese journalists up until this point had been playing a “cat and mouse game” with government censors; they would publish content without authorization and wait to see if the government censor would take it down. The article also quoted a Chinese reporter that said, even with the large amount of government censors, it was difficult to control news in a space invigorated by hundreds of millions of readers. (Forsythe, 2016) On top of that, these readers are metaphorically equated to a “flood” that’s hungry for news, alternative to government propaganda. The Cyberspace Administration issued a statement that said they were going after eight Internet companies that chased after economic gains and their “ideological thinking wasn’t high enough.” (Forsythe, 2016)

            Although China is highly integrated into the global economy, it is being carefully watched by other nations. Many countries are also suspicious of Chinese intentions. China being full of complexities does not help how the Chinese is perceived by the world. China has a fundamentally different political system and one unfavoured by many countries. It is an authoritarian regime with a Communist legacy. China may be a global economic power on the world stage but its media power is meager. I would characterize China as a semi-peripheral media power and a central economic power. With China’s highly regulated media, there is not much of an audience internationally. Besides having light influence on the diaspora and having smaller channels in other countries, the influence is slim. Chinese state media and censorship also crushes competition causing it to improve on a much slower pace than American media channels.

China is a very perplexing country in western perspectives. It is a living contradiction. It is highly developed in the coastal cities and other parts of the country, while other provinces are still developing and very poor. China has had a history of liberalizing its media after the death of Mao but it is still highly regulated by the CCP. In addition, depending on the political climate censorship may lighten or strengthen dramatically and almost overnight. Economic liberalization has also followed this path. It use to be much easier for international corporations to conduct business in China; however in the last few years, the Chinese economy has become unstable. As a result, the government has pushed foreign companies into an undesirable position. At the same time they have taken stolen technology and given it to their own companies to outperform international corporations. Their political system is even more of a contradiction. They call themselves Communists and claim to use socialist ideology with “Chinese characteristics”. Yet the discrepancy lies in the fact that China is a capitalistic economy and not at the same time. The government highly regulates the economy and controls certain sectors that the government believes are vital to national well being. For example, the CCP directly controls the banks, energy sector, currency, and raw materials. However, the government also allows many sectors to liberalize and let the market allocate resources on its own. They also greatly believe in free trade and encourage it internationally. Thus creating a half state owned and half private sector economy.


The Chinese Media: More Autonomous and Diverse — Within Limits. (2007). Retrieved August 09, 2017, from

Media Control in China: A Model of Complexity and Thoroughness. (n.d.). Retrieved July 31, 2017, from

Forsythe, M. (2016). China Clamps Down on Online News Reporting. New York Times. Retrieved July 31, 2017, from®ion=stream&module=stream_unit&version=latest&contentPlacement=8&pgtype=collection


My paper on the Disney Internship

My paper touches on the core values and culture of Disney and how it will be a good fit for me personally to have an internship with Disney. Being in the Hospitality industry, we are all aware of Disney’s preeminence in our industry. It will definitely be beneficial to me if I can see first hand and participate in the operations. I also analyzed my previous experiences and my personality in order to possibly convince the hiring staff that I would be a good fit for their company.

Research VS Opinion


I realized that my paper was mostly based on research on areas I found interesting about Disney and analyzing how they succeed . What my paper lacked was how I was going to obtain my intern. I decided to delete a portion of my research and include my personal take on what I need to do to obtain the internship and most importantly focusing on the interview.



I constantly thought about how I was going to start my introduction. I wanted  the audience to become inquisitive yet surprised by my first sentence so that they continue to read my paper. In the end, I chose to start off with the statistic that Disney assets are around $68 billion dollars for shock value.

Difficulties of creating an outline


I remember the difficulties I had with my outline. I was thinking about possible things to write about but fitting them into 3x3x3 format was very constraining because sometimes my topics overlapped and I didn’t know where to put them in the format.