In this section, it focuses on brick/ CMU bonding, wood components, steel shapes, reinforced concrete, and precast concrete floor systems. Bricks can have different course heights, bondings and mortar joints. In wood, there is hardwood and softwood. Hardwood is graded according to how much usable lumber it has that can be cut into smaller pieces of a certain grade and size. Softwood is classified by yard lumber, softwood for general building purposes, or factory and shop lumber, selected for further manufacture. He also explains the different types of steel shapes; s shape, w shape, c shape, and structural tubing. When talking about reinforced concrete, Ching explains what different reinforced things are used for, for example, reinforced concrete beams are made to resist applied forces. Precast concrete slabs and beams are span units that could be supported by site cast concrete, steel, precast concrete frames.