4/13. Guest Lecture—“Medical authority, autonomy and reactance.” Prof. David H. Lee (Communication/Humanities)

Please watch Dr. Lee’s presentation in its entirety, then make two posts below as comments on this post, or as a response to another student’s comments. These comments are due before the following class period (i.e. before 2:30pm on Thursday, 4/15/21)

The first one is your own individual thoughts and response to the lecture. This post should be at least 75 words long. You should interact with main ideas, although what you say is up to you. You may want to criticize an idea, agree with something, or offer further insight or thoughts about some topic discussed by our guest. Or, you may want to pose a question for others about the lecture. I expect the post to interact with the content of the actual lecture, and not just the day’s topic or other thoughts you may be having.

The second post is an interactive comment, posted as a response to another student’s comment. There is no length requirement on this post.

59 thoughts on “4/13. Guest Lecture—“Medical authority, autonomy and reactance.” Prof. David H. Lee (Communication/Humanities)”

  1. Thank you Professor Lee for such an interesting and informative lecture.

    As a health communication major, this lecture was very persuading to me on just how important communication partakes in society. As professor Lee mentioned “Health Error is the top leading cause of death, due to miscommunication.” It is very important that medical professionals and others that are in the health care field to be able to communicate effectively not only with their patients but as well as each other. Being able to communicate effectively and efficiently will drastically decline the death caused by health error, after all death by health error is 100% preventable.

    In America, we value individuals freedoms, professor Lee mentions about Physiological reactance, “a reactant theory”. How people react when their freedom is threatened. When an individual freedom is threaten they tend to find ways to restore it. An example provided by Professor lee was “a women who was going to wear a mask before entering the supermarket, refuses to wear one when she was confronted she wasn’t wearing one and was told to put it on before entering the supermarket.” With proper communication, this situation could have been avoided. Instead of threatening the women’s physiological reactant, the person could have communicated with her with reasoning, making it a less hostile interaction.

    1. Great Post Vivian! I agree that deaths related to medical errors are all preventable. As great as this might be, I don’t believe we will ever see this go to zero. Humans make errors all the time. Making an error that negatively impacts someones health or worse, death, is unacceptable. Improving communication between the different hierarchies within the medical system and most importantly with the patient and caretakers should help drive that statistic downward.

      While wearing a mask sometimes evokes certain emotional responses in today’s society, I don’t know if this could be approached differently. After all, the decision of the individual does not only impact the individual but everyone around them. Obviously there is room for improvement in this specific case, however it is ultimately up to the individual to decide what they choose to do with the information presented to them.

    2. I agree with you health error is the top leading cause of death and health communication is very important especially if you are in the health field. People tend to react differently if their freedom is being threaten. They will use any method to get it back.

    3. thank you for your response, I agree that health related errors are preventable. simple information makes all the difference when making health decisions. People want to be in control of their bodies and choices. When someone feels they are being pushed into doing something in a demanding way they are more likely to become reactive. Overall a change in communication can help alter situations to give more positive results.

    4. Hi Vivian,

      Thanks for this summary of my video. A couple things. The statistic about medical error being the third leading cause of death is an estimate, because medical errors are not listed on death certificates.

      Here is paper that makes that claim, by Makary and Daniel (2016):

      This estimate is disputed. Some critics say it can’t be that high a number. They question the methodology of the authors. See, for example:


      And its psychological reactance (not physiological). There is a nice review of the scholarly literature here:

      Psychological reactance is a term that is used to describe what happens when people feel their freedoms are threatened.

  2. This lecture gave us information about health communication and the action needed to be taken in order to stay healthy. Slogans are use to influence people to make good decision. There are things that affect health such as Economic Stability, Social and community context, Neighborhood and Environment and so on. Individual behaviors can have a contribution to premature death. People sometimes have no control on their behavior which could lead to them making bad choices and can possibly lead to them having problems with their health.

    Lifestyle Risk Factor can lead to health problem because this is a choice the individual makes and can be a habit to them it can be a problem and then it leads to them having serious health problems. Staying health is what people should do even if your not doing it for yourself but for others. People during Covid19 is an example of reactance because people are not used to being told which leads to them rebelling against those rules. The word “Because” can drive human behavior. Information is basically a statement while a command is telling people what to do. Health communication tells people what to do.

    1. Totally agree with you when you say choices may lead to serious health issues. Just think of something as simple as buying lunch. In the city on a thirty to forty five minute break there aren’t much options and on the go most people pick fast food which leads to hypertension and other health issues. Instead of saying “bring lunch” suggesting a person “prepare meals from home BEACUSE it saves money and you’ll know exactly what ingredients are going into your body” may persuade them to make better choices leading to a better quality of life.

      1. Hi Keisha,

        That’s a good example. Honestly I believe the pandemic may have helped me eat better. When I’m on campus I usually eat at the cafeteria. But after an evening class I used to go to Five Guys about once a week or so for double cheeseburger, fries and shake. Since distance learning happened I haven’t been to Five Guys like, ever!

        I also used to stop off at the coffee stand right at the top of the subway steps at Myrtle Plaza. They had these huge Boston creme donuts for a dollar (then they went up to 1.25, lol).

    2. I definitely agree with this statement. This lecture gave us a better understanding of how proper marketing can play a huge factor on someone’s health. For example, there are several commercials out there for fast food restaurants to bring in customers. McDonalds, Burger King, Chicfila, just to name a few, plus they include several deals and incentives to keep the consumer coming back. Most healthy food establishments such as SweetGreen, for example, aren’t getting the same treatment.

    3. I agree with your example of reactance. During a crucial time like this people tend to feel like they know what is best for them. Even with people that have always had to things for themselves they wouldn’t take information on how to deal with covid lightly.

  3. I believe that this was a great video. It highlights the importance of effective communication that may increase the likelihood of an individual to listen. Most importantly, the lecture shows how humans are reactive in nature and want to feel as if they are empowered to make their own decisions. Being commanded to do certain actions is almost always met with resistance. Making small changes to how a message is delivered can have an impact in the acceptance of the action you were originally trying to convey.

    The smoking example demonstrated this beautifully. It did not openly tell pregnant women not to smoke. It simply stated potential detrimental effects that it could have on the health of the baby and allowed the individual to decide.

    1. Communication is really important in the healthcare field. its important that the message is presented in a way it would be understood by the person taking in such information. i believe the women who smoke understood the message that was communicated that you dont have to stop smoking but it that it could have an effect on the babies development.

    2. i agree it was a great video professor lee specialized in health communication and have taught many in the health field about the importance of good communication. also as humans we like to feel like were in control(autonomy) and this is why we resist any time of commands and authority but if the information is presented in a statement with good reasons we are more likely to comply.

    3. Thanks Agnieszka for your comment. One of the questions I have about reactance is, is it human nature? Or are there cultural differences?

      I would hesitate to say that humans are reactive in nature. Rather, I would consider it as ‘human capacity’ in that it is something humans are capable of. But there are also cultural situations where people dutifully do what is expected of them, without reacting in a negative way.

  4. This lecture is very informative and makes me thinking about the way I communicate. Professor Lee talked about how the wording of the sentence could affect people’s perception and their behaviors. As the professor pointed out that the miscommunication could lead to medical errors, which is one of the major causes of death, so it is significant to improve the communication between healthcare providers and patients. Also, people tend to do more when they are told not to do because of psychological reactance, so it is essential to find a better way to deliver the message. Rephrased the wording and providing reasons when making command could reduce people’s psychological reactance. Applying it to healthcare, when the healthcare providers communicate with clients, they should be mindful of how to effectively deliver the messages, so the clients are more understandable and willing to follow what is better for their health.

    1. Hi Xue! It is very important what you mention about having effective communication between physician and patient. Correct communication and close physician-patient relationships can increase positive health outcomes. When providers explained in detail and in a language that is understandable, the message that the doctor will try to transmit to the patient will be better received and the patient will feel confident to choose the best possible treatment.

    2. Hi Xue!

      I like that you pointed out not only is it important to use communication but you emphasize how important it is to use GOOD communication. “It is essential to to find a better way to deliver the message.” I agree, when we communicate we should think of the message we are trying to get across, having the other person perspective and opinion in mind can be beneficial for effective communication.

      1. Good point Vivian. I believe that communication, in itself, is not always good. I think there is such a thing as too much communication, for example. But indeed, it is the quality of the communication that counts. To me, simple and short is usually better than long winded and complicated.

    3. I definitely agree with you Xue. Proper communication between a patient and their Health Care provider is key. Not only do they have you life in their hands, but they also have the power to guide you in the right direction to good health. Although some people may not have strong communication skills , therefore they may not have the best relationship with their doctor(s). When it comes down to a situation like that, I believe it becomes the health care provider’s job to break that barrier and establish a rapport with their patient.

  5. Choices, we all have them and enjoy the ability to make our own decisions. Telling people what to do is usually a great way to get them to rebel. Professor Lee did a great job walking us through the many reasons why so many people do not lead healthy lives. Education is key, but even in attempting to educate others, knowing how to give advice or spread knowledge will improve the way information is accepted. It is imperative that people understand the reasons behind forbidden actions. For example telling a child “don’t touch fire” may actually have an adverse effect leading to the child touching the fire anyway. Oppose to a demand explaining why may lead to a less apprehensive reaction. In health care, explaining to a patient why a procedure or even minor lifestyle changes will affect them allows the to have a choice. The probability of them following the doctor’s order or in this case suggestion keeps their autonomy. In most cases it is the sense of knowing you’re still in control give individuals the confidence to make the “right” decision.

    1. I agree that telling people what to do might make them rebel. I believe this is because people like having the free will to do something rather than listening to others. They consider it their freedom. However, people also become irresponsible and selfish by doing so.

    2. Hi Keisha, I definitely agree that we have choices! The people inevitably have the power in their hands and get to choose what they want to do with it. I liked your example with telling the child not to touch fire. People actually like to rebel when told what not to do. It’s happening today with COVID-19. With doctors talking to patients in the proper way, informing not commanding, we’ll be in a much better place as a society.

    3. In COM 2403 Health Communication we have an exercise called Motivational Interviewing. Some of you in this class may be aware of it. Its a whole style of talking to patients where you are not telling them what to do, but instead, helping them explore their ambivalence about some behavior, such as smoking.

  6. Choices, we all have them and enjoy the ability to make our own decisions. Telling people what to do is usually a great way to get them to rebel. Professor Lee did a great job walking us through the many reasons why so many people do not lead healthy lives. Education is key, but even in attempting to educate others, knowing how to give advice or spread knowledge will improve the way information is accepted. It is imperative that people understand the reasons behind forbidden actions. For example telling a child “don’t touch fire” may actually have an adverse effect leading to the child touching the fire anyway. Oppose to a demand explaining why may lead to a less apprehensive reaction. In health care, explaining to a patient why a procedure or even minor lifestyle changes will affect them allows the to have a choice. The probability of them following the doctor’s order or in this case suggestion keeps their autonomy. In most cases it is the sense of knowing you’re still in control give individuals the confidence to make the “right” decision.

  7. Health communication is very important because it helps us persuade others for certain things and inform them about the information on health issues. Miscommunication can turn to medical errors and lead a person to death which is the number one reason why people die at the hospital. The way of health communication was changed after discovering psychological reactance. People tend to do the opposite when they are being told what to do. So healthy warnings are written in a statement form so people will consider the possibility of their action without making it personal.

    1. I like how you said people tend to do the opposite when they are being told what to, It’s like a child when you don’t want them to do something they go and try it so they can see what it is about. It’s the same for us when we are told something that we don’t seem to understand we chose to do the opposite because we tend to think the other also doesn’t seem to understand but they just had to be clearer at explaining their reasoning.

  8. t was very interesting to listen to Dr. Lee’s lecture about health communication and the social determinants of health. One part that seems very important to me is when Dr. Lee mentions the role of the government in public health. It is very important that the government is involved in protecting and informing citizens about prevention and illnesses. Prevention and communication are essential so that we can be prepared as a society. Control of outbreaks of communicable diseases to avoid the appearance of epidemics. Control of environmental conditions where work activities are carried out to reduce their negative impact on the health of workers and Promotion of healthy habits such as personal hygiene, balanced diet, physical activity, and recreation.

    1. Hello, Meilly. I agree with you that government should be more involved in prevention and implanting intervention to control the outbreak of the diseases. Also, it is significant to find a more effective way to communicate with people, so the individuals will be more open to the health advice, and they will be more aware that changing personal habits and behaviors could help to improve their health.

    2. Hi Meilly!!
      I agree that its very important that the government is involved in protecting and informing citizens about prevention and illness. Such as for COVID-19, the government was very involved and told people to wear masks, and limit travel to prevent the spread of COVID. But because America is a country with freedom, some people don’t wear masks or continue to travel. A different method of communication is needed to prevent this from happening.

    3. I agree that we need the government to guide and regulate health and safety. I understand that we don’t want to be controlled but sometimes it is important for our lives and the lives of others. Lets not see it as control but consideration for ourselves and others.

    4. There is a philosophy called libertarianism that says the government should stay out of people’s business. I agree, to some extent. For example, I am a civil libertarian because I believe in freedom of speech. I don’t think the state should interfere with that. Although there are some forms of speech that should not be protected. For example, hate speech, or incitement of violence. For example, you can’t yell “fire!” in a crowded theater.

      But when it comes to health, I think the state can play a role in educating people and guiding them towards healthy behaviors. In general, I believe that this is a fair use of my tax dollars. I also believe that the government is needed to protect people from greedy corporations who want to make a profit at all costs. So I am a strong believer in agencies like the FDA who are supposed to monitor food and medicines and not allow any unsafe ones to be sold.

      Not that they do a very good job, always! :^)

  9. The guest lecture was very informational about health communication and the effects and issues of health communications. Miscommunications are bad in any setting but can be even worse in a health/medical setting because it deals with our wellbeing, it can lead it death. In America we have freedom, which not many countries have and when American people are told to do something which conflicts with their freedom there’s resistance. The resistance can be avoided or be non hostile by communicating it in a different style where it may allow the individual to decide themselves instead of demanded. In a patient and physician relationship, the doctor may explain the pros, cons and effects and let the individual decide themselves.

    1. Hi Eva,

      Thanks for this comment. I believe that, in the USA, there is a discourse and mythology about “freedom.” But I don’t think Americans are always the most free. Especially when it comes to health.

      For example, in Canada (where I’m from), I can see a doctor anytime. No co-pay or deductibles. In the United States, my health care is tied to my employer. So I have to do my job if I want to keep my insurance.

      Before the Affordable Care Act, if I’ve been laid off, or can’t find full time work, then I’m out of luck. Personally, I went for years and years without any health coverage, because I worked “off the books” at restaurants and bars. I just hoped I didn’t get sick!

      In a way, I’m less “free” in the USA than I am in Canada. At least in Canada I was free to see a doctor if needed.

  10. The statistics on the 2013 medical errors are startling. Patient put all their trust and their lives in health care professionals; and finding out that they are the 3rd largest cause of death nationwide is a tough pill to swallow. No pun intended! I have seen first-hand as a health professional and in my personal life, what low medical literacy can lead to. We don’t ask the right questions or don’t know what to ask. We are so intimidated by physician’s knowledge that we are afraid to ask or speak our mind or challenge their authority. On the other hand, the lecture talks about our liberties and individuals not wanting to have the government tell us what to do or not do. So, 9 out of 10 of us have low medical literacy but are against the government trying to help us stay healthy and safe. It just does not make sense to me. We don’t understand, we don’t ask, but we also don’t want help because we feel like it is imposing on our liberty.

    1. I definitely agree that the statistics is baffling. But this can be changed if only professionals knew how to inform there patients. I also think that when people don’t understand their situations, they also don’t know what to ask in that situation, it involves a complex understanding. The 9 out of 10 that have low medical literacy cant really be blamed for not having the right information. I think the government in part has most of the blame because they value money more then health. The cost of rent, education, food and hospital expenses can prevent someone from taking care of their health. People are to busy trying to fend for themselves in society that health becomes secondary. For example imagine a woman gives birth and has a C-section its normally for her to take minimum a month to 6 weeks to fully be able to move around or even do daily task without it affecting her in the long run. But what happens when you need to make money to feed your kids or pay rent you wouldn’t take the full month off you would start working maybe 2 weeks after which isn’t recommended but is needed to survive. I’m sure that because the mother doesn’t feel pain because of the medicine she thinks it will be fine but the reality is that she has no other option and doesn’t full understand its importance.

      1. the stats were shocking but it is also a good reason why communication is important in the health field, better communication can help to reduce medical errors.

      2. the stats were shocking but it is also a good reason why communication is important in the health field, better communication can help to reduce medical errors.

      3. the stats were shocking but it is also a good reason why communication is important in the health field, better communication can help to reduce medical errors.

    2. Good point about doctors. It’s pretty important to understand that physicians make mistakes! Governments may have a role in guiding us, but they are at least as prone to make mistakes as doctors.

    3. Hi Adela,

      That’s a great point. I never compared those two things. I do believe we have a problem with people thinking they know better.

      Like, one person spent 4 years in medical school and 3 years in residency. But this guy over here watched youtube videos for three whole hours and figured out all you need to do is drink some bleach!

  11. This lecture was very informative and definitely helped me understand the importance of health communication. It showed the importance of informing patients to help them see the benefit of listening to their doctor. Dr Lee also spoke about the way we phrase these promotions of health or health advise and how sometimes we react by saying “no, I do what I want” which goes into the subject of psychological reactance. Which is basically the way we react when someone tells us what to do in general. At the end of the lecture he makes a few questions that I found interesting and they definitely made me think deeply. One of the questions was “what is good about not doing what you are told?” I think that sometimes its good to not do what you are told because sometimes there is no real good reason or good explanation to the persons actions/ demands. It make me think about when doctor used to use leeches to “take away the bad blood” there was no proof to their logic or benefit to patients. This proves that sometime we should say no and ask more questions. This brings us back to one of the points that Dr. Lee made about how the best way to get someone to make the right decision is as simple as using the word because and explaining why they should do what they are told.

    1. I agree that sometimes we should say no and ask more questions. For me, I ask a lot of questions during my check-up about things that I had an issue with so I know exactly what is my current health issue.

  12. This lecture was very informative and interesting. Determination of health measures show high impact of individual behavior based on health circumstances, premature death is contributed to 40% of lifestyle risk of individuals and their actions… While genetics play major role in premature death rates along with social circumstance in relation to economic and community factors, as well as health care and environmental factors. While the professor posed a very interesting question, why do we do it? Meaning, when we know the risk of certain decisions in relation to keeping us healthy why do we do them anyways. For example, a solution
    Information vs commands can make all the different when letting a patient know. People will be more likely to make educated health decisions when they are fully informed on the circumstances of both all the benefits and varies risk compared to not being given enough knowledge for someone to fully understand the repercussions of their decisions. Prof. Lee asked us at the end of the lecture How reactive are we when being told what to do? I think often people do not like to be told to do to feel a sense of power and control over ourselves. I believe I am, and we are all guilty at this at some point or another. We choose not to make certain choices because we simply don’t like how we were told. So, how can we alter this? What can we do differently to not be as reactive and make informed decisions?

    1. Hi Spolanco,

      On the question of “why do we do it?” Why do some of us engage in behaviors that may not be the best for us…well, take me for example. Sometimes I crave sweets and things even though I realize they are not the best for me.

      When it comes to being reactive, it makes sense that people don’t like being bossed around. It’s not that it is abnormal, I think. In fact, it might show independent thinking that makes us less vulnerable to authoritarians!

      It presents a problem for anyone trying to influence behavior, though. So for example, getting people to quit smoking is a worthy cause. But if you’re too pushy about it people might react and do the opposite.

  13. Professor Lee provides an in-depth look into the world of communication within healthcare. He talks about the main contributing factors in determining health actions and outcomes. These factors play crucial roles in our lives like neighborhood and environment, education, and economic stability among others. With those in mind however, he mentioned something that I am a firm believer of and that is the concept of individual behavior. When it comes to our health, the biggest variable is ourselves. We inevitably are the ones who choose what goes into our bodies and what we expose ourselves to. Every case is different, but in one way or another, we have options. Professor Lee also brought up “healthism” and how using words like “you MUST” in public health campaigns can bring about bad reactions from the people. This immediately made me think about our current global status with COVID-19. People get angry when told what to do, especially when they are politically biased and the information is coming from the government. Professor Lee expressed that there is a difference between informing and commanding. The way phrases are worded can have either a negative or a positive reaction from the people.

    1. I agree with you. People don’t like to be commanded. It is very important that we give people options especially when it concerns people’s health. But, I think sometimes, it is not always up to us when it comes to our own health. For instance, when the whole country promoted the safety of genetically modified food, we are persuaded to buy them even though we do not know for sure.

      1. Hi Fengxia,

        Genetically modified food is a good example. I remember when it first was introduced, it sounded really strange to me. Splicing the genes of mice into corn? Ew, that sounds creepy.


        The EU still has bans on GMOs.


        But in the US, we are pretty much all eating it. Is it safe? I googled that and this article came up:


        It talks about damage to internal organs!

        There are companies like Monsanto that will tell you they are perfectly safe.


        But then again, they are the ones selling the GMOs! So I think they might be a little biased.

  14. This lecture taught us about health communication and the way of staying healthy. It is very informative and reflects on me the way I communicate. Communication is very important because miscommunication can lead to medical errors which also leads to death. It’s hard to trust some physicians when sometimes the thing they say don’t even make sense. I remember when one time, I had an acid reflux problem and the doctor prefer me to do a colonoscopy exam. I was shocked because that’s an exam mainly for seniors. I fixed my acid reflux issue by doing research online and find out the solution. In the video, people prefer the free will to do something instead of listening to others.

  15. This lecture was very insightful in the fields of health communication. I was not surprised in the beginning when he mentioned that the third biggest factors of death in the hospital is due to communication, because not everyone is sound with their communication skills within the field. it was really insightful knowing how economic stability, social community context, neighborhood & environment, health care and education all are connected and how they all affect the social determinants of an individuals health.

  16. This lecture gave me a clear understanding of how important health communication is and how vital it can be if given the wrong information or explaining themselves in a sort of way that can be tough for someone with less health experience to understand. Some patients, unfortunately, are less knowledgeable at the time so for them to be able to ask a question about what is going on or to even explain themselves it can get tough. Patients end up going back home and not do what they are told because of misunderstanding, This refers back to one of the questions asked at the end of the lecture about ” What is good about not doing what you are told”. Many things can not go well, of course, it depends on your situation. However, The patient should ask more questions about his situation to have a clearer understanding and for the Doctor to have a better way of explaining things for someone less experienced than him because it can come differently for some who don’t have an understanding of his situation.

  17. Health communication is important for us to be aware of diseases, disorders or any type of sickness. The statistics that professor David Lee had shown were alarming. Even though I felt this way, with everything thats going on in our daily lives it makes as to why this would happen. Some causes of death can be because of miscommunication in the medical field. Its amazing how and experience from your childhood could have a big impact of your life. Based on professor David Lee’s background information it seems like an experience he had with his father made him choose the profession he is in now. The explanation of the four principles of biomedical ethics was spot on. The guest lecture further explain s how society expects us to have good health. Its easier being said than done. Some people do not have the privilege of having good health. I came across new terms and aspects of health communications such as deontology. It deals with the category impirical. Overall this lecture was very informative. I liked how there were pictures to go along with what the guest speaker was talking about and I’m glad I learned something new.

    1. Hi Jayda,

      I’m glad you found it informative. I figured since it was a philosophy class I would drop the term “deontology” in there. As I understand it, it means “duty.” Things you need to do. The categorical imperative was Kant’s way of saying “what if everybody behaved the way you did?”

      So, lets say I litter. Kant would say, what if everybody littered? The world would be a garbage dump. So don’t litter. Behave in a way that everybody could imitate your example.

      1. We did, in fact, define deontology earlier the class. I was glad you mentioned it in your lecture, it’s always good for students to revisit earlier discussions.

  18. the lecture by professor Lee was clear and concise.

    growing up i have heard so many times the importance of good communication , and how its not what you say but how you said it . communication is very important but if its said in away that threatens peoples autonomy they will resist that information , if its done in a non threatening way for example like a statement instead of a command along with a valid reasons it could influence people to follow whatever information that is presented to them. one good example of this is the copy machine study.

  19. Dr. Lee has left a very interesting question for us as to the pros and cons of AI doctors. Personally, I am not a big fun of the idea to make robots as my doctor. I feel that doctors are similar to Judges, whose jobs require not only the knowledge needed for the job, but also understanding of human relationship. For instance, when I pick my doctor, I would choose someone who would understand me. I need my doctor to be someone I feel I can talk to and be related, instead of just getting a procedure done because health is very personal and can be complicated sometimes. Doctors’ understanding and support mean a lot to patients.

    1. I have heard that there are some healthcare jobs that AI could do well. For example, with some strokes, tons of physical therapy is needed. Many of the tasks are repetitive.

      Instead of a person raising their arms and touching their nose, over and over again, to demonstrate, a robot could do it and not get bored.

      The “digital therapist” could monitor the patient’s progress, and say things like, “try to get your arm even higher.” Or give them positive reinforcement when they did an exercise correctly. “Good job! You did it!”

      Here is an interesting link about it:

      Artificial Intelligence in Physical Therapy: Cool Applications, Fascinating Implications

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