Marla Laboy – May 5th



“The Art of Color: Color Wheel & Color Relationships.” Maryville Online, Accessed 4 May 2020.

Ion. “The Psychology of Color for Interior Design.” Interior Design, Design News and Architecture Trends, 5 Oct. 2011, Accessed 4 May 2020.

Liffering, Ilyse. “Millennial Pink: A Timeline for the Color That Refuses to Fade.” Digiday, 31 July 2017, Accessed 4 May 2020.

Fischer, Molly. “The Tyranny of Terrazzo Will the millennial aesthetic ever end?” TheCut, 3 March 2020, Accessed 4 May 2020.

“From Harvest Gold to Millennial Pink: colors that defined the decades.” Juicebox Interactive, Accessed 4 May 2020.


Marla Laboy – April 28th

When a product is mainstream, it means it’s grabbing a lot of attention from the public. In other words, it is trending. In some ways, this means that the product is quite successful and making a lot of business for the person behind said product. In other ways, however, it means that over time business will start to slow down and the product will no longer be trending and fall from the mainstream line. A lot of ‘vintage’ or ‘retro’ things are or are based on old products that are no longer on the mainstream line.

For contemporary design, being mainstream means that it will probably be re-invented in some way or help inspire other designs. Similar to what happens with mainstream products, it become a popular form of design and over time it has the potential to plummet down. At the mean time, I’d say a popular design of today’s standards is minimalism.  A lot of design has been influenced by it, everyone everywhere seems to like the slick clean look of things. But for how long? Some things also tend to come back from the brink and become popular again, like some designs from the 70’s and 80’s.

Being underground doesn’t necessarily mean something is not popular. Although it may not get the worldly attention that mainstream designs and products get, underground things can still be popular for certain groups of people. Sometimes those underground products or designs are the gateway for mainstream ones. A lot of underground based things have also lasted longer in popularity than those considered mainstream as the attention given to them isn’t as sudden or as fast as those that do become trends.

When it comes to copyright, a lot of mainstream designs and products have the advantage of being recognized much easier than those underground. Thus, the potential of something being stolen is at a much lower risk, but can still get a knock-off version. Underground designs and products have the advantage of a smaller audience, so the risk of the work being stolen is lower, but the risk of it being confused for the knock-off version can pose a problem is not handled properly.


Heller, Steven. Merz to Emigre and beyond : Avant-garde Magazine Design of the Twentieth Century. Reprint Pbk. ed. London: Phaidon, 2014. Print.

Gupta, Arjun. “”I’ll Be Your Mirror” – Contemporary Art and the Role of Style in Copyright Infringement Analysis.” University of Dayton Law Review 31.1 (2005): 46-82. Web.

Francis, Chloe. “THE PROTECTION OF CONTEMPORARY ART UNDER UK COPYRIGHT LAW.” Art Antiquity & Law 23.4 (2018): 289-311. Web.

Marla Laboy- March 24/April 14

“In the photograph-at least at the level of the literal message-the relationship of signifieds to signifiers is not one of “transformation” but of
“recording,” and the absence of a code clearly reinforces the myth of photographic “naturalness”: the scene is there, captured mechanically, not humanly (the mechanical is here a guarantee of objectivity).”

” The photograph, message without a code, must thus be opposed to the
drawing which, even when denoted, is a coded message.”

“When it comes to the “symbolic message,” the linguistic message no longer guides identification but interpretation, constituting a kind of vise which holds the connoted meanings from proliferating, whether towards excessively individual regions (it limits, that is to say, the projective power of the image) or towards dysphoric values.”

I had a difficult time understanding portions of this reading, however one thing I picked up on was how Ronald Barthes analyzed everything, including his own thoughts and analyzations of the image. My only question for our second written assignment is how deeply should we analyze our own chosen advertisement?

Marla Laboy – March 17

The media has become humanity’s main mass of communication, that is why in “Understanding Media”, Marshall McLuhan describes technology and media as extensions of man. The media has become our way of staying in touch with the world, everything we know is provided by it, even printed work have been digitized for easy access. In a way the media has made it possibly for the public to acquire information much more easily and quicker than what it used to be. Technology has also become a massive influence in how media has spread throughout the years, the better technology has become the better to access the media has become.

The growth of technology has allowed people to access the media on the go. Our phones today have become a tool for us to see media anywhere and at any time. If we need to research something our phones allows us to use the internet to do so, if we want to see the news our phones provide us with news outlets that we could watch. In a way technology has become humanity’s biggest innovation for this very reason. Today, society is very much dependent on technology and what is provided by the media. Technology has also become a way for artists and designers to spread their work worldwide, after all media is also including social media. Artists are very much dependent on social media today, it is one our biggest outlets when it comes showcasing our work.

This technological advancement isn’t perfect however, with every good thing comes something bad. As mentioned before, society has grown immensely dependent on technology and the media, so much so that if technology were to suddenly backfire or if media were to stop working we wouldn’t necessarily know what do. So much of our life revolves around these advancements that if it were to suddenly disappear or become harder to access society could potentially crumble. Not to mention artists who use it to showcase their work would have a hard time finding better ways to get recognized, how else can we show our work without social media? Is there something better than social media today to get recognized?


Marla Laboy – March 10th

According to Jan Tschichold, Karl Gerstner, and Josef Müller-Brockmann, one should design in anyway they find pleasing just as long as they sustain clarity within their design and follow some of the basic rules invented for design. Jan Tschichold discusses more on the use of clarity in “The New Typography” by stating, “The essence of the New Typography is clarity.- This utmost clarity is necessary today because of the manifold claims for our attention made by the extraordinary amount of print, which demands the greatest economy of expression.” He then compares how old typography, although clear in its message and readability, lacked the uniqueness and expression one could make with their design. In other words, designers could design their work as expressive as they find most pleasing, so long as they don’t forget that is should be clear and readable to the audience.

One should be careful with their design however, even though they could design much more freely than the old way of working, too much freedom can also be problematic. Therefor, Karl Gerstner and Josef Müller-Brockmann both discuss some basic rules they believe are essential to a designer’s work. For one, they both mention the use of a grid and seem to also agree in its use and function (I personally despise it, but then again typography was never my strongest skill). Karl Gerstner although mostly rambling about programmes and their solutions, says this about the grid, “Is the grid a programme? Let me put it more specifically: if the grid is considered as a proportional regulator, a system, it is a programme par excellence.- The grid looks complicated to anyone not knowing the key. For the initiate it is easy to use and (almost) inexhaustible as a programme.”

Josef Müller-Brockmann speaks about the grid in “Grid and Design Philosophy“, again the use of clarity is mentioned and he states that by using the grid to help with creating the design they will acquire clarity. The grid was designed to help designers design. “The use of the grid as an ordering system is the expression of a certain mental attitude inasmuch as it shows that the designer conceives his work in terms that are constructive and oriented to the future.- Working with the grid system means submitting to laws of universal validity. The use of the grid system implies the will to systematize, to clarify-,”

Marla Laboy – February 25th

The Bauhaus was founded in 1919 in Weimar, Germany, with one of the main objectives of the school being to re-imagine the world in a way in which they could unify all art forms. They didn’t want art to just be associated with painting and drawing, instead they wanted to rethink art by expanding their possibilities. This is where the idea of photography and typography being forms of art began to grow. The Bauhaus was known for combining the fine arts with design and craft.

What the art of the past lacked was the freedom to expand and express their art in comparison to how Walter Gropius, László Moholy-Nagy, and Herbert Bayer visualized art. They saw art past just painting and drawing, as well as the rule of ‘draw what you see’ which the majority of old art consisted of. Even the impressionism paintings were based on what the artist saw not what they thought or felt or even envisioned. All three saw a modern approach to art, one where they could break and bend the old rules to recreate new ones and all for other forms to be able to be seen as art. Walter Gropius was one of the founders of the Bauhaus who saw architecture as a form or art and design, László Moholy-Nagy talked about typography and its abilities, and Herbert Bayer talked about photography and its own capacity to produce works of art.

The Bauhaus was founded with the vision to create art in a modern world, “the academy” (The Bauhaus) was built in order to carry out this objective and teach students new ways of creating art and design so that they could then expand their own abilities. The Bauhaus was one of the first steps at the time into how art is viewed today. This is where the idea of elements were first explored, they taught the element of color, shape, form, space, things old art didn’t even consider to be part of art making, and this way of thinking is what has remained even to this day.

Marla Laboy – February 18th

Whenever there is an advancement it always allows for a growth to occur of productivity, especially when those advancements are relating to technology. Technological improvement often improves productivity, for example the invention of cars allowed for easier, more durable, and faster travel than what horse drawn carriages could manage. The same could be said for technological improvements that benefit artists and designers. For one, better technology meant that more art pieces and designs could be produced at faster rate and with better quality.

What these authors envisioned for the new century were new ideas and inspirations, and they were relatively right. The 20th century brought a lot of new styles like, Futurism, Constructivism (which two of the readings talk about; Filippo Tommaso Marinetti, The Founding and Manifesto of Futurism (1909) & Aleksandr Rodchenko, Varvara Stepanova, Aleksei Gan, Who We Are: Manifesto of the Constructivist Group (c. 1922)), Cubism, and Expressionism. Artists began to explore more with their abilities, rather than try and paint or draw something realistically they instead exaggerated features or made them up from shapes or splotches. They began to express themselves more which wasn’t really seen in the previous century until about the end of it.

If we were to compare an advertisement piece from the 19th century to one of the 20th century, we’d see that a lot of 19th century art looked similar with realism and impressionism being common styles of the time. 20th century however shows how color and shapes began to be explored more. It was also the century in which objects were also being used to create pieces along with photography and other modern art forms.