Jan Tschichold discusses the difference between old and new typography styles, what work and what did not work, and the reasons why it worked and did not work. For old typography, Tschichold states that placing work on the central axis caused typography to be inorganic and it made everything predetermined, which made it more about how it looks instead of clarity. When he mentions New Typography, he talks about the asymmetrical principle which gives an unlimited opportunity for variations. This gives a chance for expression for diversity in modern life. Tschichold also states, “form must be created out of function” meaning that it must be functional, in which the text means communication, the emphasis, and the contents must be in logical sequence. Back then, using ornaments decreased the ability to understand communication through type, now we create functional designs which means the need for ornamentation in old typography is no longer needed.
Karl Grestner had taken art and science and mashed them together to create visual synthesis for graphic design. The way that Grestner did this was, he designed programmes, programmes are the grids. One type of grid is a typographic grid that directs composition, tables, and pictures to accommodate items in the design that you are creating. Grestner had made a diagram which broke down the basis, color, appearance, and expression to be used to make designing more automatic instead of browsing by feeling, but by criteria. He mentions if the criteria is more exact and complete, then the work will become more creative.
Josef Muller-Brockmann manages to talk about how a grid can help a designer organize his thoughts, which could help the designer to make his designs more intelligible, objective, function, and have an aesthetic quality. Using a grid system could help integrate elements of color, form, and material, as well as rationalize the creative and technical production processes. Since the designer’s work is a reflection of who he is and what his knowledge of the world is, it is helpful for the designer to use a grid which makes it easier for them to express themselves in designing the work. This helps create pieces that can be looked at for everyone and it can be used to teach other designers as an example.