From the reading, I learn that Karl Gerstner created a methodical approach to designing. He was a pioneer of Swiss typography. According to his method, designers should use programs to find solutions and not solutions to problems. This involves making creative decisions based on intellectual principles. When the intellectual principles are precise, the more creative the design becomes. Gerstner advocated for using the Fritz Zwicky method in designing. He developed the morphological box of typogram that designers should use in designing. This morphological box of typography contains criteria that can be changed as the design continues depending on the needs of the designer. He states that the typographic grid should be used in regulating the proportions of the composition.
Jan Tschichold developed the new typography. According to this approach, designers should design to achieve clarity and not beauty. Fonts should not be arranged as if there were some pivotal points in the middle of the line, which would call for such arrangements. Designers should not use axial arrangements because they are deemed illogical due to the stretched distance from the central point. The new typography encourages designers to use color, photography, and line arrangement to express the relationship between each part of the design. This approach is dominated by asymmetry and logic.
Josef Muller-Brockman designed using a grid of the swiss typography. Designers using this method should carefully control the use of subjective, irrational, and disorganized design elements. They use a grid to order these elements. This helps in making the work look intelligible and objective. When using this approach, designers should show their objectivity other than subjectivity. Such designs show the type of person the designer is in terms of their mentality, knowledge, and ability.