Semiology is the study of sign systems that explores how words and other signs make meaning. Semiology defines a sign as anything that stands in for something other than itself. Semiotics focuses on both linguistic and nonlinguistic signs, on the other hand, linguistics refers to the scientific study of languages and their structures.
Signs and symbols present a quick way of communicating our feelings. They are also used to reinforce the message conveyed through speech. One uses signs to easily strike resonance with whoever they are talking to thereby building communication and thought. Symbols can be used to identify different individuals, the groups and the organizations they subscribe to.
The signified is seen as the mental imagery that one gets from a sign while the signifier represents the tangible part meaning something that can be accessed by the human senses. We apply this component in developing speech communities where certain signs are related to specific words in the system from which we derive meaning. An example is a red light in the traffic lights which signifies danger.
Language is the use of structured words in communication by people. Visual language emanates from art forms that bear a message to the viewer. Graphic communication uses graphic elements to bear a message to the viewer. These graphic elements are varied and may include symbols and images. The similarity between this component is they all are aimed at delivering a message which is communication. The difference arises in the senses that are applied in interpreting the information with graphic and visual communication achieved through the eyes while language is mainly through the mouth and ear.