Annotated Bibliography: Myth

Noah Smith

Prof Jewell

English 1101

Annotated Bibliography

Wilford, John Noble. “Greek Myths: Not Necessarily Mythical.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 4 July 2000,

This article discusses how mythology may not have been all ‘myth’. Noble uses research done by Adrienne Mayor in order to create this article. Noble speaks about how Mayor found that places used in stories of greek myth seem to be fossil sites. These fossil sites are most likely the reason as to why these myths came along and were made into stories. The greeks could have been inspired by these findings or the creatures/people themselves causing them to make up such stories which seem to have evidence of having existed just not in the way that they portray it. It was also found that the story of Heracles (known hero) who saved Hesione (trojan princess) where he slayed a monster resembles a fossil that seemed to have belonged to a giraffe which is now extinct. More fossils had also been found belonging to other large mammals and such which was further connected to other stories that were made in greek mythology. The author in this text uses the fact that the sites that were spoken about in greek mythology seemed to have fossils that were heavily connected to the stories that were spoken about. Since there are facts to back up these myths it doesn’t deny the fact that the greeks were not too far off seeing as they were able to use these animals in stories without any real knowledge on paleontology. Thus, the author is speaking in a formal tone using logos by stating facts that are connected to greek mythology stories, such as the case with Heracles saving Hesione from the extinct giraffe.

Padilla, Mark W. The Myths of Herakles in Ancient Greece: Survey and Profile. University Press of America, 1998.

Padilla speaks about the twelve labors that Hercules, who is also known as Heracles carried out. Padilla tells us how Hercules was a popular figure due to him being seen in all sorts of artwork. In this book Padilla continues to speak of the myths that Hercules is represented in and what he is known for. Hercules was a symbol to many people in greece and many were inspired by the stories told about such a person. Padilla goes on to use multiple sources that explain the origin of Hercules. Padilla says how these stories use appeal to the beliefs of the greeks due to the ‘mythology’ that they had believed in. Some greeks saw this as a true religion which is what makes it have such an impact on how they learned and passed down these stories. Also by stating how Hercules was seen in all sorts of artwork and using him as a symbol put on shield and weapons greatly impacted how all of this was perceived. 

Cartwright, Mark. “Greek Mythology.” Ancient History Encyclopedia, Ancient History Encyclopedia, 29 Oct. 2019,

Cartwright states that ‘myths’ is a bad term due to the negative thought around it being fake. Cartwright speaks about how greek myths were used for educational and religious purposes, as well as the intention for entertainment. Myths were passed down through many forms. One of them being orally which was just telling the story and then the people hearing that story passing it on to the next. It was then put in the form of a poem which was put in written form. Lastly, it was passed down using pottery and such. Buildings were decorated in order to celebrate some of these beliefs of the stories that were told. The stories that were told were also to explain how things came to be, one example would be how the world was created. Cartwright also speaks about how stories about heroes and such were used to give an idea of how poor behavior could lead to something tragic and such, so people would not end up doing anything rash and learn from these stories. Thus, Cartwright is stating that some logos and ethos was used in these stories in order to provide reasons as to how the world was made as stated earlier, and as well as those reading the stories to feel connected and learn from any mistakes that the characters made in order to not make the same mistakes. 

Gwen, et al. “Greek Mythology, Origin of Greek Mythology.” Greek Myths & Greek Mythology, 3 Nov. 2010,

Gwen starts out speaking about what greek mythology is about, and how it opens people up to a whole new world. Greeks were polytheistic due to the many Gods that were believed in. The origin of greek mythology came from two very old poems created by Homer which is the first text that was made that depicted stories of greek mythology. Using these beliefs lead to it being passed down in other forms. These stories began to be depicted through plays and such and art. This gives an idea to how big of an influence greek mythology as had on history. For it to have been passed down for so many years and impacting both culture and history. Gwen also speaks about how philosophers, scholars, and such use greek mythology to try and give explanations about the world and its ethics. Overall, for greek mythology to be such a huge influence it has appealed to many types of audiences causing them to want to continue passing down such stories may it be through writing, movies, or even artwork. 

Sakoulas, Thomas. Greek Mythology,

This author talks about how what we now call mythology was the culture of ancient Greek. They had many beliefs spiritually and traditions that were taken place. One of them being telling the stories that were passed down. Sakoulas gives a list of heroes and important characters that were spoken about in these stories. It also gives a brief summary of who they were and what their role in the story was as well. Ancient Greek culture also gave headway to what we call now Pagan religion. Pagan religion refers to those who are polytheistic otherwise known as those who believed in more than one God. He also goes on to state how even though religions like this one were suppressed in order for other ones to become more known, it was still passed down showing how much the audience it was passed to believed in the stories and heroes. It is fascinating to see how these stories have impacted many people and it still does today seeing as there are popular books that have been made or are still being made and people go on to read them.

The Labors of Hercules,

Although there is no true author for this, it is one of the many stories from greek mythology. This story gives an idea to how the people who it was told to were impacted and truly believed in these stories which lead to implicating it into their culture, making it a religion, and etc. This story speaks about how Hera, whom is a Goddess, aimed to make trouble for Hercules. Hercules ended up losing his mind which caused him to kill his wife and children. Hercules asked for forgiveness from the Gods and was tasked with punishment for twelve years. The twelve labors consisted of Hercules over the course of twelve years, to go on and slay very strong monsters and carry out impossible tasks. Hercules ended up succeeding in all tasks. Through these struggles it is said that Hercules was the symbol of pathos seeing as how many people became influenced by this story convincing people to see it as a true story. Thus, this story gives an idea to how it made people feel seeing as they connected to Hercules by reading or hearing about his struggles which most likely made them feel some type of way that made them want to continue passing these stories on.

1 thought on “Annotated Bibliography: Myth”

  1. I think you can add a few minor details to make your annotated bibliography better overall. You usually start off your sources by going straightforward into whats the source is about without introducing the author and the article itself. I think the including of a hook to all the sources would make the readers more interested in reading more and more of what you’re trying to inform them of.
    ( hook->this article by …written on.. focuses on…->audience->authors appeal->evidence->explanation) when writing about each source

Leave a Reply

This site uses Akismet to reduce spam. Learn how your comment data is processed.