Author Archives: gaozhigang

Chapter 3 summary-Zhigang Gao

Zhigang  Gao [Gina]                                        HMGT 1101  Chapter 3 summary

10/13/15                                                           Prof. Damien Duchamp

Chapter three focuses on discuss the functions and departments of a hotel.

  1. Application service provider (ASP) def: is a company that offers individuals or enterprises access over the Internet to applications and related services that would otherwise have to be located in their own personal or enterprise computers. My example: Use application service provider’s system, help hotel save time and money. For this reason, the HR and Financial department no need exit in future.
  2. Average daily rate- My example: The average daily rate used to increase when it is travel peak season.
  3. Call accounting systems- My example: Hospitality is probably the biggest industry to utilize call accounting systems
  4. Catastrophe plans- My example: the catastrophe plans include buy insurance to reduce the risk.
  5. Central reservation office (CRO) – My example: Call central reservation office to book a room.
  6. Central reservation system (CRS)- this system only used by the hotel and resort industry to take care customer’s order or booking.
  7. City ledger ‚Äď thecity ledger¬†is the collection of accounts belonging to non-registered guests. This is distinct from the transient ledger (or front-office ledger, or guest ledger), which is the collection of accounts receivable for guests who are currently registered.
  8. Concierge – My example: the concierge often had a small apartment on the ground floor.
  9. Confirmed reservations-My example: if the hotel holding my credit payment, means my reservations confirmed.
  10. Cost centers- Cost centers include research and development, marketing, help desks and customer service and contact centers.
  11. Daily report- My example: shows how many rooms sold out today.
  12. Employee right to know- My example: as an employee they have right to know their salary and profits.
  13. Executive committee- executive’s duties is to make decisions and ensures that these decisions are carried out
  14. Global distribution systems (GDS) through these systems get information, in stance, how many rooms available.
  15. Guaranteed reservations- My example: I book a room. But somehow the certain room not available, they give me double price back.
  16. Night auditor- is a person who works at night at the reception of a hotel. They typically handle both the duties of the front desk agentand some of the duties of the accounting department. This is necessitated by the fact that most fiscal days close at or around midnight, and the normal workday of the employees in the accounting department does not extend to cover this time of day.
  17. Occupational safety and health administration (OSHA) – which sets and enforces protective workplace safety and health standards.
  18. Productivity- is an average measure of the efficiency of production. It can be expressed as the ratio of output to inputs used in the production process, i.e. output per unit of input. When all outputs and inputs are included in the productivity measure it is called total productivity. Outputs and inputs are defined in the total productivity measure as their economic values.
  19. Property management systems (PMS) – also known as PMS or Hotel Operating System (Hotel OS), under business terms may be used in real estate of mind, manufacturing, logistics, intellectual property, government or hospitality accommodation management. They are computerized systems that facilitate the management of properties, personal property, and equipment, including maintenance, legalities and personnel all through a single piece of software essayer.
  20. Revenue management- is the application of disciplined analytics that predict consumer behavior at the micro-market level and optimize product availability and price to maximize revenue growth.
  21. Revenue centers- A revenue centre is one of the five divisions of a responsibility centre ‚Äď Cost centre, Revenue centre, profit centre, contribution centre and investment centre. ¬†Cost centers, like revenue centers, only monitor costs, thereby making them a counterpart to the revenue centre.Revenue centers only measure the output (in fiscal standings) and are therefore marketing establishments which are exempt from profit generation and accountability thereof.
  22. Revenue per available room (REV PAR) – RevPAR, or revenue per available room, is a performance metric in the hotel industry that is calculated by dividing a hotel’s total guestroom revenue by the room count and the number of days in the period being measured.
  23. Room occupancy percentage (ROP) – My example: let’s assume that Company XYZ owns an apartment building that has 300 units. Of those units, 275 are rented out. Using this information and the formula above, we can calculate that Company XYZ’s occupancy rate is: Occupancy Rate = 275/300 = 91.67%
  24. Room rates- the rate charged daily for ahotel room, the room rates change every season.
  25. Room‚Äôs division- The Rooms Division consists of two sub-departments, Housekeeping and Front Office. Housekeeping used to be considered ‚Äújust a cleaning department‚ÄĚ, but hotel surveys have shown again and again that cleanliness is at the top of the list of requirements of hotel guests.
  26. Uniformed staff- some internship employees are uniformed staff. They got lower salary than other same level worker.
  27. Yield management-  is a variable pricing strategy, based on understanding, anticipating and influencing consumer behavior in order to maximize revenue or profits from a fixed, perishable resource (such as airline seats or hotel room reservations or advertising inventory).

summary of chapter 2 -Gina

Zhigang  Gao [Gina]                                        HMGT 1101 draft:  Chapter2 summary

10/6/15                                                             Prof. Damien Duchamp

Chapter two focuses on discuss the advantages and disadvantages of each type of hotel. Also focuses on hotel development and ownership.

  1. Capital intensive def: A business process or an industry that requires large amounts of money and other financial resources to produce a good or service. My example: cranes are capital intensive industry and operation cost, their management is becoming more and more important.
  2. Fair return on investment- def: the return that conforms to the rate of similar investments and reflects a fair payment for property. My example: I put twenty- thousands in a shipping company to share the profit. After one year I got thirty- thousands.
  3. Feasibility study- def: is a process that defines exactly what a project is and what strategic issues need to be considered to assess its feasibility, or likelihood of succeeding. My example: Before I run a new business I used do feasibility study with my partner.
  4. Direct economic impact- def: is a measure of the total amount of additional expenditure within a defined geographical area, which can be directly attributed to staging an event. My example: people’s minimum wages low is the direct economic impact for vacation industry.
  5. Indirect economic impact- My example: RMB depreciation indirect economic impact Chinese tourist number went to the United States.
  6. Franchising- is the practice of the right to use a firm’s business model and brand for a prescribed period of time.¬† My example: my friend got franchising of crown bake store which is a chain store, they require all the store have to obey same rule and decorations.
  7. Management contracts – is an arrangement under which operational control of an enterprise is vested by contract in a separate enterprise that performs the necessary managerial functions in return for a fee. My example: A hotel management contract details the agreement between the owner of a hotel and its operating company.
  8. Real estate investment trusts (REITs) Рdef: A REIT is a type of security that invests in real estate through propertyor mortgages and often trades on major exchanges like a stock. My example: REITs have become available in many countries outside the United States on every continent on Earth.
  9. Referral associations РMy example: Hotels and motels within a referral association generally share some sort of centralized reservation system and common image such as a logo or advertising
  10. Vacation ownership-My example: vacation ownership benefit for hotel and consumers. Because hotel collected the money they need and consumers save a lot of money.


summary of chapter one –Gao,zhigang

Zhigang  Gao [Gina]                                      HMGT 1101 draft:  summary                           

9/28/15                                                                            Prof. Damien Duchamp

       Chapter one focuses on service. Service is the most important facet of the hospitality industry. This chapter spend at least 10 pages to explain how important the service is, it also gave Disneyland as an example case to show us services is the key of success, and how to improve the services. Hospitality and tourism industries since the early 1443s began to sprout, from ancient times to the medieval, and then to the French revolution and 19century 20 century. Hospitality and tourism industries had been through a long and tortuous development period. Now it already becomes the largest and fastest-growing industries in the world. For this reason, that industry needed huge amount professional and passionate employees join it. It requires employees or managers know how to set a goal, total quality management has helped improve service to guests by empowering employees to give service that exceeds guest expectations.

Corporate philosophy-textbook def: Embraces the values of the organization, including ethics, morals, fairness, and equality. My example: employees have corporate philosophy make company stronger. For instance, Disneyland’s employees they learn to corporation and share, now this company already becomes the biggest entertainment company on the world.

Empowerment- textbook def: The act of granting authority to employees to make key decisions within their areas of responsibility. My example: The boss gave employees some empowerment can save more time for themselves and customer. For instance, one customer wants a special discount for live in one hotel for 7nights, the front desk agent gave customer reasonable price without permission then serve next customer.

Front of the house- textbook def: Front of the house is who serving the guests. My example: customers get first impression through the front of the house. For instance, I went to Korea on vacation I choose four season hotel because the front desk agency was very caring and patient.

Goal- textbook def: A goal is a specific target to be met. My example: people with a clear goal are easy to success. For instance, a student wants to be a chef, so he focus on learning and develop cooking skill, he will not far near his dream.

Guest satisfaction- textbook def: which leads to guest loyalty and, yes, profit. My example: The restaurant owner knows guest satisfaction important. For instance, he always taught employees put warm smile while they serve customer.

Heart of the house- textbook def: Someone in the back of the house. My example: because someone in heart of the house support well, so the front of the house can serve customer well.

Hospitality- textbook def: The cordial and generous reception of guests or a wide range of businesses. My example: when we serve customer we always make sure they feel our good service and hospitality.

Inseparability – textbook def: The interdependence of hospitality services offered. My example: Inseparability is the characteristic that a service as which renders it impossible to divorce the supply or production of the service from its consumption.

Intangible – textbook def: meaning the guest cannot ‚Äútest drive‚ÄĚ a night‚Äôs stay or ‚Äútaste the steak‚ÄĚ before dining. Our product is for the guest‚Äôs use only, not for possession. Even more unique. My example: travel is a intangible experience, we can‚Äôt taste it just review other‚Äôs feeling about the destination before we go.

National Restaurant Association (NRA) – textbook def: The forecasts a need for thousands of supervisors and managers for the hospitality and tourism in industries. My example: NRA provide a system for guest search the hotel that they really want.

Perishability Рtextbook def: The limited lifetime of hospitality products. My example: service is inseparable, so it’s perishability, can’t resell.

Total quality management (TQM) – textbook def: TQW is a continuous process that works best when managers are also good leaders. My example: TQM is the soul of a company, it works by itself benefit employees and customer.

Tourism Рtextbook def: Travel for recreation or the promotion and arrangement of such travel. My example: the tourism support Miami’s economy.

Sustability – textbook def: Is the ability to achieve continuing economic prosperity while protecting the natural resources of the planet and providing a high quality of life for its people and future generations. My example: we cut one tree should grow a new one make our natural can protect well.

Return on investment Рtextbook def: for owners and/or shareholders and society. My example: People invest money for us to run a  business, and they expect a fair return on their investment.

travel section-What New Rules Means for Travel to Cuba–Zhigang Gao

Gao, Zhigang                                                       HMGT 1101

9/24/15                                                                Pro. DUCHAMP

Cuba is a beautiful country, I have¬†urge to travel around in¬†Cuba. So¬†every news about Cuba I interested¬†in¬†it.¬†¬†According to the article, ”¬†What New Rules Means for Travel to Cuba.” by Victoria burnett described some new rules for tourism who will visit Cuba. American can go to cuba without having a permission, but have to fit into 12 categories, for instance, visits relatives, professional research or journalistic and there forth. However, tourism still can’t fly to Cuba on a commercial carrier, they need fly through third country to Cuba. But they can go there by cruise. Havana is the most popular city in Cuba, hotel always overbooked and only few travel agency offer booking service like Cubania Travel and Trip Advisor. In addition, most of place don’t process credit card payment. so it would be wise bring cash, if you travel to Cuba, it may be a good idea to take British Pounds and Euros, which get a better exchange rate in Cuba than the United States dollar. another important policy is American can now bring back up to $400 in souvenirs. In my opinion, those new rules good to know,¬†make our trip more smooth and make less mistake.


Zhigang Gao [Gina]

Zhigang Gao [Gina]

HMGT 1101 ‚ÄďPerspectives in Hospitality Management

September 7th, 2015

My name is Gina, I born in Wuhan City which have a lot famous scenic sports in China. For example, Three Gorges Dan and Yangtze River.

When I was little I could see different tour guide very often, they wore nice uniform with name plate on it, held guide flag as a symbol, they use speaker to describe the history to the tourism and show them around of Wuhan City. The tour guides so confidence, also beautiful for wore huge knowledge, people behind them listen very careful with respect. Afterward I start having a dream to be a tour guide when I grow up.

After I graduated from high school, I was so lucky been accepted by Hubei University which is well-known of their travel management. I was so exciting learn everything about travel. At the first year as a freshman, I passed the country wide tour guide exam and got my tour guide license. With this license I could able to find a part time job in a travel agency company while I study in Hubei University. My job gave me so much practice, very useful for my major course. I was really enjoy the four years’ experience. I was working hard, study hard. I also play hard with my salary. I like try different food. When summer break I used to travel to different country, talk with native people, I had so much fun. I graduated from Hubei University in 2010, that day all our classmates got together celebrate, for we would start our real career.

Same year we start sending resume to our dream company. I am lucky enough hired by the biggest travel agency company named China International Travel Agency Company. This company in capital Beijing. They have 150 tour guides, so many brilliant people among them, I tried my best to be more professional and learn from other tour guide. I liked to listen to everyone in our company when they talk to me, always modest to them, so in the company I only have friends no enemy. After I worked there for years, our boss raised my position from a tour guide to a manager of customer service department. She commented me had patient to solve all the problem, I had 6 years tour guide experience, I knew tourist well. The most important personal strengths I have is always honest and thinking on people’s side, understand them well.

New position means more income, I use the money to travel around Korea, Vietnam and United States. I enjoyed the food, before I go, I always do research, list all the restaurant or sightseeing I have to go. Then post my experience and picture on blog and Facebook. I was so happy my experience can help my tourist and my friends or other audience.

I traveled so many Cities, finally I decided stay in New York, the life style here so freedom, 180 different countries immigrations live there, means I can try 180 different food here which make me so exciting. Now I study in New York City of Technology College, my major is hospitality management similar as travel management. Travel and food is my favorite thing, it will give me more passion to study my major. Also offer me more experience, make my study more vivid.