ENG 1121 D440 Fall 2019

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    Amber Slater

    Hi all! Post your annotated bibliography here. You need at least two scholarly sources and two general sources. See the reading “Exploring Topics and Creating a Research Proposal” for a sample on pages 310-311.

    You should include an MLA citation of your source, along with at least 100 words of description below the citation that: 1) summarize the source, and 2) explain why it will be useful to your paper.

    Here’s a sample annotated citation (you’ll have four of these total in your post):
    Children’s Hospital. “Vaccine Science: Vaccines and the Immune System.” Children’s Hospital of
    Philadelphia, The Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia, 20 Nov. 2014,

    In this source, the Children’s Hospital of Philadelphia lays out a theoretical situation in which two kids, Chip and Dale, contract the measles virus. However, Chip gets very ill with a fever and is rushed to the hospital, but Dale never reaches that stage because his symptoms did not progress. This is a perfect example which highlights the importance of immunizations and the amount of pain they can hinder. Although both children were not vaccinated in this case, they were both based upon the luck of the draw. I want to use this in my paper to state firmly that vaccines can take the luck factor out of the equation by controlling the pathogen from the first encounter, and not having to play catch up and wait it out once it is too late.


    Ariel Montesino

    Source 1) Markey, Patrick M., Markey, Charlotte N., and French, Juliana E. “Violent Video Games and Real-World Violence: Rhetoric Versus Data.” Psychology of Popular Media Culture 4.4 (2015): 277-95. Web.
    This source pretty much just shows the studies and research in seeing the relation between violent video games and real world violence and i simply used it because it showed some cases of which video games were blamed as a source of violence. The article had stated that there was a case in 1999 in Columbine High School where several school shootings occurred and many media outlets said violent video games may be a potential cause of why the events occurred. The case was exactly what i was looking for and because there was not enough information that i was seeking on this case i used a normal source to read more on that event.
    Source 2) History.com Editors. “Columbine Shooting.” History.com, A&E Television Networks, 9 Nov. 2009, http://www.history.com/topics/1990s/columbine-high-school-shootings.
    This is the source that I used to read up on more information regarding the columbine high school shooting. What i had found is that shooters were bullied in the past and they were also part of a group called the Trench Coat Mafia which seemed to be a goth group that despised mainstream society. I feel as if this is more then enough proof to show that video games are not the cause of violence in case which is why I’m including it in my paper.
    Source 3) Robinson, Nicholas. “Video Games and Violence: Legislating on the ‘Politics of Confusion’.” Political Quarterly 83.2 (2012): 414-23. Web.
    I didn’t particularly like this source but I had found a part of it that i thought was important to note for reader to know about. It was a small section in the paper where they said that Mortal Kombat was a very graphic and violent video games and because of that a senate inquiry made video games have to create software ratings or what as known as ESRB tags. Other then that the Source got too political for my liking and i also couldn’t find anything else useful in the source so that’s all i used it for in my paper.
    Source 4) Crump, Elle. “Turn That Game Back On: Video Games, Violence and the Myth of Injury to the Public Good.” Auckland University Law Review 20 (2014): 194. Web.
    In this source There were two gamers playing an MMORPG and were fighting each other in PVP (Player VS Player) and one of them lost so the he decided to go to the guys house and murder him. In my opinion, theres simply no proof to suggest that video games caused this as there’s thousands of people who play these online fantasy world games or Massive Multiplayer Online Role-Playing Games (MMORPGS) and they do no harm at all. I believe this was just a case where both individuals were simply having fun facing in each other in a video game and one of them snapped due to losing and what was supposed to be just a friendly player vs player virtual game battle became a deadly homicide. I used this source as another case of video games not being a source of violence.
    Source 5) Contrera, Jessica. “’Why Did You Do This?’.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 25 Jan. 2019, http://www.washingtonpost.com/news/local/wp/2019/01/25/feature/his-brother-confessed-to-gunning-down-17-people-in-parkland-but-hes-the-only-family-zach-cruz-has-left/.
    In this source, I looked into a school shooting that occured Marjory Stoneman Douglas High School. Video games were blamed to be the cause but the killer had many behaviors problems. Apparently the killer was screaming, stabbing cushions, and punching doors whenever he played video games and that to me seems like major anger issues and the game just being his outlet to feel good and rewarded whenever he wins in the video game. This source was yet another case where i believe video games are not a source of violence.
    Source 6) Draper, Kevin. “Video Games Aren’t Why Shootings Happen. Politicians Still Blame Them.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 5 Aug. 2019, http://www.nytimes.com/2019/08/05/sports/trump-violent-video-games-studies.html.
    In the source, a psychology professorby the name of Chris Ferguson in Stetson university says the evidence is clear that violent video games are not a risk factor in serious acts of aggression and neither are violent movies or other forms of media. This article is telling us that their’s never been enough proof or sufficient evidence to support the claim that video games cause violence or are a source a violence yet many politicians and news outlets claim it is a source of violence. Im using this source to support my claim of video games not being a source of violence.


    Melanie Manzueta

    Source 1: https://medium.com/@selphieusagi/why-everyone-on-instagram-always-looks-better-than-you-in-everything-570162b01156

    Usagi, Selphie. “Why Everyone on Instagram Always Looks Better Than You in Everything.” Medium, Medium, 21 Nov. 2017, https://medium.com/@selphieusagi/why-everyone-on-instagram-always-looks-better-than-you-in-everything-570162b01156.

    A. This source explains how perfect everyone looks on Instagram and how we “the regular people” compare ourselves to those people online. It talks a lot about how our society likes to compare themselves to people who look perfect on the internet and have perfect lives. It mentions how us comparing ourselves to people can actually be dangerous. We only seem to compare our worst side to their best side. Lastly, it mentions how people only wanna show what is good about them. No one seems to post their bad side on Instagram.
    B. I feel like this article will be useful to my paper since I am talking about the Instagram community, and how people always put on this fake image of them online. My purpose in this paper is to demonstrate how we as a society put on this “fake image” to people on social media when in reality our lives are never that perfect.

    Source 2: Pamela. “Woman Sick Of How Fake Everything On Instagram Is Reveals The Truth In The Most Epic Way.” Bored Panda, Monika Brazaitytė, 1 Jan. 2018, https://www.boredpanda.com/personal-trainer-shows-reality-vs-instagram-pictures-differences-chessie-king/?utm_source=google&utm_medium=organic&utm_campaign=organic.

    A. This article mentions how women are literally sick of how fake everything is on Instagram. Most of the article talks about the female perspective of social media, and how fake females look when posting pictures on Instagram. It shows how these so-called perfect Instagram pictures are just all a lie. it also mentions this Instagramer called Chessie King. She is an Instagram model that shows body positivity in her photos. A lot of her photos demonstrate reality vs Instagram. For instance for the Instagram side shes in a bikini with her flat stomach standing straight and trying to look as perfect as possible while the reality side shows her in her bikini slouching and showing some of her belly fat while sitting down.
    B. I feel like this article will be useful to me while writing my paper since it demonstrates this idea of social media vs reality which I am looking for. It gives me a perfect example of how most females such as myself try to look perfect on social media while in reality nothings ever really that perfect.

    Source 3: Kleemans, Mariska. “Picture Perfect: The Direct Effect of Manipulated Instagram Photos on Body Image in Adolescent Girls.” Taylor & Francis, https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/full/10.1080/15213269.2016.1257392.

    A. This article focuses on picture-perfect, and how there is this direct effect of manipulated Instagram Photos on Body Image in Adolescent Girls. This article is about a social experiment between 144 girls between the ages of 14-18 years old. They were each randomly exposed to to either original or manipulated photos(retouched or reshaped). The results demonstrated how the manipulated photos led to a lower-body image. They were negativlity affected by these photos. But the fake photos were seen more positively as the original photos were.
    B. In my opinion, I feel as if this article is useful but not sure if I would use it. I mainly would like to focus on how people act differently on social media rather than focusing on how young girls are affected, even though it is important, this isn’t my main focus. I’m trying to focus on a whole group rather than just one group.

    Source 4: Jang HoMoona, a, and Tae RangChoic. “The Role of Narcissism in Self-Promotion on Instagram.” Personality and Individual Differences, Pergamon, 27 May 2016, https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0191886916304032.

    A. This article talks about the role of narcissism in self-promotion on Instagram. Most of the article is mainly about how people have this sense of worth when it comes to Instagram, and this sense of importance. It shows how Instagram photos seem to be way more attractive than in reality. They gave results on how individuals on Instagram have higher narcissism tended to post selfies and self-presented photos. B. In my opinion, this article is really worthy when it comes to writing my paper since it talks about the way people see themselves on social media vs in real life. I would love to talk about how people seem to have way more self-worth when on Instagram and how being on social media and showing your perfect life gives you this sense of importance.



    Source 1: Genius media group,
    “trap rap vs conscience rap”
    https://genius.com/discussions/12065-Trap-rap-vs-conscience-rap-food-for-thought, 11 dec 2012

    1- This article mostly conveys the debate of weather trap rap or conscience rap is better, trap rap is mostly about drugs, women, weapons and what not. Example of some artists that are considered trap rappers are as follows, yo gotti, Gucci mane, future, Chief Keef Sosa, waka flaka, and more. Most trap rappers are known to have an electric sound to their beat, with heavy bass and synthesis, rarely will you find a beat with pianos or jazz influences because that’s not really the culture of trap nowadays. This addition to the rap game changed everything rap was originally made for which was conscience, mostly rap about social problems including country gov’t problems, rappers such as Eminem, tupak, big e smalls, tupak, snoop dogg, the game, etc mostly the old rappers. They wrote rap based on their life stories and most of the times they mention gov problems and social problems, they do mention drugs, guns, and women in their songs but the fact that they didn’t use trap beats and had a different lyrical style of rap made the o.g rappers rap concscience rap.

    2- this article will definitely be beneficial to my paper because I’m going to be talking about rappers in the rap game of all time, which they used trap or conscience type of rap. Because In the present day people are debating whether these new rappers are actually rappers, because they aren’t using traditional style of rap they add trap bass and sound effects that sound like dubstep which is why most people don’t consider this rap, this is something that many people will have different views of and I’m excited to see what people or my classmates have to say about this topic.

    Source 2: Patrick Philpott, “a tale of two styles , Trap vs socially conscience rappers”, https://theforestscout.com/8537/in-culture/in-music/tale-two-styles-trap-music-vs-socially-conscious-rap/, 20 Nov 2017.

    1- in this article source I found it talks about how millennials influenced most of this new style of rap which is trap rap and how both trap and conscience rap have been revolutionary for the past few decades. An example from this article that will clarify trap music is “ Trap, a colloquialism for a place where people take drugs or sell drugs. This is very common in low-income areas and cities such as Chicago, L.A, and Atlanta. Many might question how this term came to be attributed to rap music. This term popped up in the early 2000s and was usually given to a rapper who glorified selling drugs, and other “attributes” that come with living in a low-income area as a rapper. Topics in trap music range from getting women to getting guns to garnering fame. Modern day rappers that match this profile constitute a fairly long list”. This quote explains what and how trap was found and used till this day. Conscious music is often considered to be the opposite of trap music, while conscious rap music is often lyrically describing a certain deeper meaning. Conscious hip hop or social consciousness hip hop is considered to be a sub genre of the rap community and consists of lyrics that focus on social issues. We have many of both types of rappers in today’s generation which is why I’m writing about this topic.

    2- this article will help with my research paper because in the article I’m going to write, I’m going to need some relevant quote and examples of both groups of rappers such as the new millennial rappers, it’s definitely a very interesting topic because of how so many people listen to both genres of music and don’t know what they are actually listening to rather just listening to it because their friends are listening to it.

    Source 3- Adaso Henry, “conscious rapers show genre’s uplifting side”, https://www.liveabout.com/conscious-rap-defined-2857304, 13 dec 2017

    1- What the article talks about is how conscious rappers are evolving and the way it’s changing how we are growing, a quote from the article states “ Conscious rap is a subgenre of hip-hop that focuses on creating awareness and imparting knowledge. Conscious rappers traditionally have decried violence, discrimination, and other ailments of society. Conscious rap is propelled by the conviction that radical social change comes through knowledge of self and personal discovery.” this quote talks mostly about how this style of rap has a social type of meaning and that it conveys and exposes the problems we see in the world and sometimes the ones we don’t see often, if the raps get famous enough, people will then start to write about it and understand the problems some people face, then books could be published and then live can be changed. Once the government or any type of authority listens to the rap or the many supporters authors books then that’s when change happens because once you change their hearts that when the rappers know they changed a or many social problems.

    2- this will help me when making my essay because as I write the essay I will make sure to add sources and a lot of information not just comparing both sides but giving my position and which side I prefer, also I will be adding quotes from every single text I used to make sure my article is clear and precise to what I’m trying to get the reader to understand. I will also talk about each topic separately not just comparing them the whole essay because it will be boring and you the reader will lose interest i know, so I plan to write at least two separate paragraphs one being trap rapper music and two being conscious rappers.

    Source 4- Friedman Sam “ trap rap has been around for a minute now – so why does it keep working” https://flypaper.soundfly.com/produce/why-does-trap-music-keep-working/, 22 sep 2017

    1- in this article they talk about how trap music has been so successful for the past decades also that the social culture everyone in society follows is trap rap music, in the article it states “you walk down the street of any major city and open your ears to the cars driving by, there’s a good chance that the music roaring out of the windows will feature an immediately recognizable formula: rattling, synthetic hi-hats, speaker-cone-devastating sub-bass, and 808 kick samples all rolling on top of one another in tight rhythmic uniform.” This quote is explaining that in society nowadays people are hypnotized by trap music and that you will hear it almost everywhere you go. That shows the huge significance of society and trap music and how is a whole community follow each other, which personally I don’t aspect of society following each other. I am a leader not a follower so I just listen to what ever sounds nice and has good lyrics even if it’s trap or conscious rap. That’s mostly what the article intails.

    2: this article will help my research for my article because I am going to use this and explain and go more into depth about the actual significance of trap music itself not including conscious rap only trap for this paragraph. I again will be talking about trap and conscious rapping separately and comparing them as well, I have my position already, I am for trap music I like trap rap more than conscious rap personally.


    Janice Chen

    Tsao, Tsu-Yu, et al. “Estimating potential reductions in premature mortality in New York City from raising the minimum wage to $15.” American journal of public health 106.6 (2016): 1036-1041.
    Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4880275/
    This source discusses the potential solutions to mortality related to New York’s minimum wages. It evaluates developments such as how setting minimum wage to $15 has affected the premature death rates in the State. The source will be important as it shows how minimum wage affects the people’s lifestyle and standards of living as well as how it contributed to the number of deaths in New York. I want to use this article to support my paper with arguments on the socio-economic implication of minimum wage.

    Studies from New York City Department of Health & Mental Hygiene Have Provided New Information about Public Health. (2016). Health & Medicine Week, 4987.
    Link: https://go.gale.com/ps/i.do?&id=GALE|A455700973&v=2.1&u=cuny_nytc&it=r&p=AONE&sw=w
    The source talks about the results published by the New York City Department of health and mental hygiene. It provides data and trends on the health condition in New York. This will be important for assessing how minimum wage can be intertwined with such health outcomes. It will help to show how the quality of life in New York has changed since the implementation of the minimum wage.

    Calandrillo, Steve P., and Taylor Halperin. “Making the Minimum Wage Work: An Examination of the Economic Impact of the Minimum Wage.” Stan. JL Bus. & Fin. 22 (2017): 147.
    This source explores the economic impacts of the minimum wage. It explores the effects that minimum wage has had on other states and countries and discusses how it influences different economic components. In the article, the authors reveal how different industries are affected by minimum wage policies, as well as how it affects socioeconomic and standards of living. It also outlines several theoretical frameworks that are used to assess the problem of the minimum wage. This article will be important for my research as it will help to compare the problem of the minimum wage in New York and in other regions, as well as help in making recommendations about how the issue should be handled.

    John S. Alexa. New York City Businesses Struggle to Keep Up After Minimum Wage Increase The Wall Street Journal.
    Link : https://www.wsj.com/articles/new-york-city-businesses struggle-to-keep-up-after-minimum-wage-increase-11565035475
    This source evaluates how minimum wage is affecting the businesses in New York. It explores how businesses have changed since the state implemented the $15 minimum wage. The article is concerned about different costs for running a business as they have changed and how they are affecting profitability and labor costs. The article uses examples of restaurant businesses to show how minimum-wage obligations have changed the working hours as well as the number of employees. I will use this article to give examples of how minimum wage affects businesses and the state at large. It will also help to know if the minimum wage is good or bad for a sate.

    Bellafante, Ginia. The $15 Minimum Wage Is Here. Why We Need $33 an Hour. Jan 4, 2019 The New York Times.
    Link : https://www.nytimes.com/2019/01/04/nyregion/the-15-dollar minimum-wage-is-not-enough.html
    The article explores the problem of the minimum wage in relation to households. It discusses a different type of families and households living in the city and what the minimum wage will mean to them. It highlights why the minimum wage is associated with the recent reports on food insecurity in New York, where children were going hungry as well as how it will affect the household incomes. It also draws a comparison of New York with other cities and argues why the minimum wage has been a challenge in the state. I will use this article to show how income levels affect families and individuals when it comes to meeting basic needs.


    Samuel ugweje

    Source 1: KUH, GEORGE. “How to Help Students Achieve”, 15 June. 2007

    In this source, a study is done on how to help students achieve and basically get more out of the education they receive. It was concluded that a high percentage of students coming out of high school will need some form of postsecondary education in order to be successful, and in order for the nation to remain economically competitive. For the majority of students, that postsecondary education is college. This article also many of the circumstances that students face that are jeopardizing their chances of succeeding, and yet there not enough studies being done on how higher-education institutions can help students thrive in college. The article also provides six ways to improve the experiences of college students.

    This source will help me explain some of the general issues students face while in or transitioning into college, and how these issues may affect their ability to learn at the pace they want to learn at. I can also use this source to explain how beneficial this information is to the professor to know, in order to work better with students.


    In this source, there is a study done on preservice teachers to identify their beliefs about effective educational practices, both instructional and personal. It makes a valid point about how important it is for a professor to see themselves in the eyes of their students, in order to strengthen their own practices. In this study, researches were done using http://www.ratemyprofessors.com and there were results stating what students expect from their professors, such as understanding how they are viewed by the students, the professors ability to explain information based on the level of understanding that the student had, and more.

    This source will help me find solutions to the problem being faced in my discourse community. It breaks down the problem from the students point of view, and specifically states what the students want to be done.

    Source 3: Conley, David “The Challenge of College Readiness” “The Prepared Graduate Pages 23-29”. April, 2007

    In this source, we discover another problem that contributes to poor performance in college students, and that problem is the incredible switch between high school experiences and college experiences, it discusses issues like the faster rate at which information is expected to be processed, and issues like how colleges expect students to be independent, and should be responsible for their own learning, by seeking help from their professors, fellow students and other sources. The study also shows how the expectations in college readiness does not match high school experiences most of us were exposed to, and essentially high school problems required little cognitive engagement. This source also provides solutions to tackle the problem.

    This source helps me understand that there are hundreds of thousands of students across different college systems are facing similar issues when it comes to college learning. This source helps explains how hard it is to be prepared for college.

    Source 4: Reis, Rick “Tomorrow’s Teaching and Learning” “Student Motivation: Problem Solved?”

    This source discusses how it may seem out of the instructors control that students have a hard time performing well in class, but in fact, faculty members can take ownership of students’ motivation when it comes to learning, the responsibility for a students education shouldn’t be all on the students head. The article also points out how some teachers are stuck in their own ways of teaching, ways that could have been inherited for the teachers around their era. This poses as a huge risk because we are in a new age on education which requires new effective ways that improves learning in every educational facility.

    This source helps me find more solution. I will use this article to explain ways we can improve learning in every educational institute, and how to keep students motivated to learn through their, value, confidence and mood.



    “Gale – Product Login.” Accessed October 14, 2019. https://galeapps.gale.com/apps/auth?userGroupName=cuny_nytc&origURL=https%3A%2F%2Fgo.gale.com%2Fps%2Fretrieve.do%3FtabID%3DT003%26resultListType%3DRESULT_LIST%26searchResultsType%3DSingleTab%26searchType%3DAdvancedSearchForm%26currentPosition%3D1%26docId%3DGALE%257CA16832035%26docType%3DArticle%26sort%3DRELEVANCE%26contentSegment%3DZGPP-MOD1%26prodId%3DITOF%26contentSet%3DGALE%257CA16832035%26searchId%3DR1%26userGroupName%3Dcuny_nytc%26inPS%3Dtrue&prodId=ITOF.

    1)In this source, a coach helps athletes become better in the classroom by teaching them study methods, which are similar methods used in physical training. An academic advisor for student-athletes at a Division I school said that they are convinced that there is a very sharp overlap that Skills and methods that are used to improve in a sport are very similar to those used to improve in the classroom. Every coach learned that preparation is the key to success and a primary purpose of practice is to work on weaknesses, coaches have to warm players that there is someone who is practicing harder than you and is going to be better when you go up against each other. Smart athlete will pick and begin pushing themselves harder in practice and also recognize that good work ethic preparation and practice will guarantee success in the classroom. This source will help me connect the relationship between physical activity and school work.

    2)Catoire, Milène, et al. “Pronounced Effects of Acute Endurance Exercise on Gene Expression in Resting and Exercising Human Skeletal Muscle.” PLoS ONE, edited by Frank Seebacher, vol. 7, no. 11, Nov. 2012, p. e51066. DOI.org (Crossref), doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0051066
    In this source, it says that regular physical activity positvely influences the body energy metabolism. Exercise training is recognized as a powerful preventive and therapeutics strategy for diseases like type 2 diabetes, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Exercising regularly improves cardiac and lung function, increase muscle mass and decrease liver fat. It also improves strength in the immobilized or untrained limb. In this source i will learn more in depth about the benefits of exercise and what genes are triggered when we exercise. This source may also be used as a counterclaim and claim, and help me explain more about my paper.

    “Benefits of Exercise on the Brain: How Does Exercise Help and Tips!” CogniFit’s Blog, August 7, 2017. https://blog.cognifit.com/benefits-of-exercise-on-the-brain/.

    3)In this source, it says that you might have heard before that your brain is like a muscle and you new to exercise it regularly. We can’t flex our brain like muscle we do with our muscles. But the body’s muscles can help our brain in many ways. Just like exercise promotes growth of new muscle cells, it can help the growth of neurons, when we exercise our muscles. Exercise causes your heart to pump more blood to all part of your body. The benefits of exercise on the brain, allow the body to get more oxygen and nutrients it needs. More resources to the brain helps you think clearer, concentrate better, and retain more information. This source would help me prove that exercising come with benefits and to also support my research. This source will help me go in depth in my paper.

    Reynolds, Gretchen. “Does Exercise Really Make Us Smarter?” Well (blog), November 19, 2014.

    4)In this source, it says that exercise seems to be good for the human brain, many recent studies suggest that regular improves memory and thinking skills. A new interesting study asks whether a visible reason that benefits from exercise are real or just a placebo effect. it say we think we will be smarter after exercise, the answer has significant suggestion for any people hoping to utilize exercise to keep our minds sharp throughout our lives. Also some scientists have begun to question whether beneficial effects of exercise on thinkinking be a placebo effect.
    This source may be used as counterclaim in my paper.



    In this source, journalist Emily guendelsberger talks about her experiences fast-food employees. At the beginning of the article, she asked the readers a question ”if you had to make a rat depressed how do you think you’d go about it”.Then she started to explain an experiment scientist has done in rats to test our new antidepressant. The scientists observed how the rats started to lose interest in things they used to enjoy, like sugar. The rats lost interest due to ”chronic mild stress”. She has mentioned several times how aggravating and depressing low wage jobs can be. In the texted article she stated,” you’re always feeling rushed, you’re on a time crunch for literally right hours straight, you’re never allowed to have one moment just to chill `.This is can be a helpful source for my essay since I have experienced the related pressures at work when I was 16.


    “Fast Food Sweatshops: Franchisors as Employers Under the Fair Labor Standards Act”.This article will be beneficial to my essay, especially the introduction. In the introduction the author discussed the fair labor standards act also he mentioned how fast-food workers talked off their jobs in New York City with a unified demand. The employees wanted a raise from $12 to $15 hourly. The employer are making millions of dollars off their cheap labor. Many fast-food workers can’t afford their family expenses with the money they earn. In my essay, I discuss those issues.

    This will be a helpful source for my essay because the author examined the impact of recent changes in the federal minimum wage on a low wage labor market. The draw four main conclusions and discuss them throughout the text. first, he discusses survey results which indicates that less than 5 percent of fast-food restaurants use the new minimum wage before the new minimum went into effect. The author also mentions how the price of meals changes but not the wages of the employees. I can use the data from the survey to support my claim and make it powerful.

    I can make a connection between this article and my personal experience. In the article, the author talks about the obstacles a fast-food employee face on a daily basis. In the article he stated ”if the drive-thru wasn’t moving quickly enough according to sensor that monitor card pulling up to order, Clark claimed, the store management and, by extension, the crew members were in trouble”.I can relate to this.


    Jamir Campbell

    Annotated Bibliography
    “Gentrification of sneakers is killing the sneaker game”

    One of the sources I used was the complex “ Gentrification of Sneakers is killing the sneaker game” article. This article talks about a lot of different things, one thing they talk about is how something that was once cool has now been turned into a race to wear the same sneaker. In the article it says “ The biggest change was the art of the hunt”. Searching for sneakers was one of the most important things you can do as an avid sneakerhead. Now you just go online to buy overpriced sneakers or your forced to buy from a reseller who probably triple the original price. Companies say these sneakers are limited and only a certain amount will be sold , when in reality they will re release them in a couple of months. This makes people pay a high price for the shoes because they believe they will seem different and cool with the sneakers because there supposed to be limited. Also a lot of kids go on youtube and watch videos that talk about the best sneakers to buy , which makes a lot of kids buy the same sneaker. It seems as if no one is original anymore everyone copies each other. I think this article will be useful because it talks about a lot of problems in the sneaker reselling community. “Highsnobiety are resellers killing the sneaker game”
    The Highsnobiety article stated “ Gone are the days a pair of jordans would stay on the shelves for weeks”. Nowadays, high-profile releases are met with riots and week-long campouts, while frustrated sneakerheads are forced to pay large markups for sold-out kicks on the secondary market. At the nike x supreme foamposite release the NYPD decided to cancel the release because too many people were outside the store, the majority of people were resellers. This shows some of the negative effects that reselling has. They have taken sneaker reselling to far and made not fun to participate in. Not everyone feels this way though , In the Highsnobiety article Josh stated “It still sucks when you can’t get a shoe you want at retail.” Josh told us. “And resellers are easy to blame. But let’s be honest, that’s the game. Do you really want a world with only general release sneakers?” That sums things up, really. side effect of the market for limited edition footwear. Sneakers that aren’t considered limited edition are typically easy to buy. Resellers also help a lot when it comes to rare or limited sneaker release. Without them it seems almost impossible to find some sneakers. This article is useful because it does show a good side to the sneaker reselling business. “Sneaker culture”
    In the “Sneaker Culture” article it talks about the ultimate score to be one of the first people to acquire “that” sneaker. The sneaker that has been marketed for months with endless television and Internet ads is finally here. An accessory geared to materialistic teenage boys and financially struggling college-aged men, giving them an individual style of their own and above all, endless praise. Sneakers have led to the creation of a culture driven by freedom of expression and economic success. The trend also raises questions about the implications of race and masculinity. I find this article to be useful because it talks about the reason for why people sneakers so serious or why they have they have the love for sneakers
    . “The forbes article” The global athletic footwear market size is expected to reach $95.14 billion by 2025, according to a new report by Grand View Research Inc. Much of the sales are motivated by a sneaker’s identification with a specific athlete. This cachet or “cool factor” especially drives the sales from a younger market. This article shows why companies don’t really care about the culture of sneakers and reselling, I think that will be useful because it gets to the root of the problem. The big companies are all about money and nothing else.


    Iris Olmos

    Source 1: Washington Post, “Her school’s restroom didn’t have Pads or Tampons” December 29th, 2018

    1. This source talks about how we aren’t getting enough feminine products we need at school for girls. Natalie talks about not being able to have the availability of feminine products in her middle school and high school. It became a struggle that she became the president of the club at Justice High’s Girl Up Chapter which was international gender equality. She started off by wanting to outfit the girl restroom with feminine products. Later on, she puts out feminine products for girls in containers in the bathroom and lets them know to take whatever they need. Natalie had also seen that some girls were embarrassed to ask their teacher for these products since they don’t carry them at their bathroom. It got so big that they started to supply menstrual supplies to women at shelters.

    2. This source is helpful for my paper because it talks about the difficulty young girls go through when it comes to asking or needing feminine products at schools and not having the availability for it. It also helps because this showed that any young girl can get out there and start an organization and change the system and help other girls out just like she needed help.

    Source 2: “Free Feminine Products coming to 25 Public School”, April 1, 2016

    1. This source talks about Council Member Julissa Ferreras-Copeland and the New York City Department of Education (DOE) and Congresswoman Grace Meng and Education Chair Daniel Dromm having feminine products coming to public school because it’s necessary to have them for every girl. They also say it’ll help and I quote “Having easy access to feminine care products is essential to ensuring that girls in our schools have the support they need to focus on learning and feel comfortable during classes” this say’s a lot because it shows that they really want a change in their environment when it comes to having the availability of these feminine products.

    2. This source is helpful because it really helps me understand and know that we have people from the DOE wanting a change for their school environment and this helps me in my paper because it shows that I’m, not the only one that thinks having the availability for feminine products is important.

    Source 3: Get with the Flow, September 19, 2019. Alexandria Duque.

    1. This source is about fighting the stigma of not having able to have feminine products available for them and not having to worry about whether they can afford it or not. It also talks about not being able to have these resources can lead women and young girls to use unhygienic products such as socks, napkins or old shirts they would also miss work or school due to this. One thing that really stood out in this article is where it says, “Change starts with power and there is power in numbers.” this is very important because when we all women gather together and fight to get feminine products for free we can win.

    2. This is useful to my paper because there are a lot of good reasons to make feminine products not taxed and have them for free everywhere and know that we can all come together to get this done.

    Source 4: Give students Free Tampons, Evie Blad. January 28, 2019
    1. This source is about giving free feminine products to girls at schools who don’t have the money to buy and bring from home to school. They start giving out free feminine products to girls from grades 6 to 12 at school this is very good because they are showing that they can trust the teacher’s school and not feel embarrassed to ask. It’s also about how many don’t reach put to have these products because they cost money and some schools can’t afford to buy it yearly. They also want to have these products available to stop having many absences.

    2. This is helpful to my paper because I need to know how much not having these products available can affect young girls when it comes to school and not being able to ask because they feel shy or embarrassed to even ask and know whether their schools can afford these products.

    • This reply was modified 2 years, 11 months ago by Iris Olmos.


    Cunha, Darlena. “What Are the Benefits of Part-Time Jobs for Students?” Work – Chron.com, http://work.chron.com/benefits-parttime-jobs-students-9248.html. 29 June 2018.
    This website provides information on both the negative aspects of working-class students and the positive aspects of it. As for the main negative component of student workers, it indicates the lack of time students have to distribute their everyday life activities. However, as for the positive components of student workers, this time distribution can help students develop better time management and lessons on budgeting. This website is useful to my topic paper because it provides me information that generalizes my topic and briefly explains the two sides of working-class students.

    Danta. “Daily problems working students face every day” Education – https://essayrepublic.net/blog/daily-problems-working-students-face-every-day. 10 March 2016.
    This website consists of a post that is written by a student who has experienced the hardships of working while attending college. He explains mostly the negatives of being a working student and states that students never have enough time to balance both academics and work. His main points state “you never have enough time for all the reading”, “there is never time for anything”, “you start losing weight”, “you never sleep”, and “all work no play”. This source is useful to my paper because he gives strong examples of the negative aspects of being a working student and that time needs to be committed into a job to support themselves more than school.

    Reyes, Madeline. “The Struggles of Being A Working College Student” La Verne Contributor • Money + Career – https://www.hercampus.com/school/la-verne/struggles-being-working-college-student. 7 April 2018.
    This website presents a post written by a girl named Madeline Reyes. She mainly explains how working a job while being a student can be manageable. She provides tips on self care, time management, finance abilities, all while understanding the hardships of being a working student. I used this source because it provides me information on how it can be helped instead of simply stating the pros and cons of being a working student. Therefore, it helps my paper to also provide different information.

    Anoynmous. “The Effects of Working While in School” https://sites.psu.edu/workingstudents/background-2/ , No date
    This website has very little information on the author and establishment, thus, making it hard for me to cite. However, this source provided me with plentiful facts and information. It states the background of the topic of working class students and also provides factual evidence and statistics. I chose to use this source because it was different from other relevant sites. It consisted of a study on working students and treated it almost as like a science experiment. Providing me with background, methods, results, and the sources used to put this post together made it very useful to my paper.


    Osmaldy Zalazar

    Source1 <studies.html”>https://www.nytimes.com/2019/08/05/sports/trump-violent-video-games-studies.html

    This article focus on the idea that video games aren’t to blame for violence such shooting. the article. In the article have many evidence showing that video game don’t make act violence neither movies make you act aggressive. Many court rejected the studies about video games because they don’t prove video game make you act aggressive. in article is state it Dr Ivolary and his colleagues studied 6814 new account of mass shooting, they found coverage of mass shooting specifically video games were 8 times as likely to be brought up when person is black then when the shooter is black.


    This article focus on a new studies showing that there no connection between violent video game on teenagers. in this studies “used a combination of subjective and objective data to measure teen aggression in violence games”. Also in the article give an example that use British 14 to 15 year olds and equal numbers of parents , totaling about 2008 subject , the result that they found out is that there no connection between violent video game and teenagers. the article point out blaming video games for teenager aggression hold no weight , that video game also have cognitive benefit.


    In this source talk about over the years how video games and violent movies have been blame by shootings. in the article the go in detail explaining that video games and movies aren’t the cause of shooting. in the article they compare 10 country relate to 100,000 gun murder versus video game spending per capita found no positive correlation, they found a weak correlation between the too. also in the article explain that South Korea and Netherland spend over twice that the U.S on video game they have a vastly lower rates of gun violences and mass shooting.


    Osmaldy Zalazar

    Source1 <studies.html”>https://www.nytimes.com/2019/08/05/sports/trump-violent-video-games-studies.html

    This article focus on the idea that video games aren’t to blame for violence such shooting. the article. In the article have many evidence showing that video game don’t make act violence neither movies make you act aggressive. Many court rejected the studies about video games because they don’t prove video game make you act aggressive. in article is state it Dr Ivolary and his colleagues studied 6814 new account of mass shooting, they found coverage of mass shooting specifically video games were 8 times as likely to be brought up when person is black then when the shooter is black.


    This article focus on a new studies showing that there no connection between violent video game on teenagers. in this studies “used a combination of subjective and objective data to measure teen aggression in violence games”. Also in the article give an example that use British 14 to 15 year olds and equal numbers of parents , totaling about 2008 subject , the result that they found out is that there no connection between violent video game and teenagers. the article point out blaming video games for teenager aggression hold no weight , that video game also have cognitive benefit.


    In this source talk about over the years how video games and violent movies have been blame by shootings. in the article the go in detail explaining that video games and movies aren’t the cause of shooting. in the article they compare 10 country relate to 100,000 gun murder versus video game spending per capita found no positive correlation, they found a weak correlation between the too. also in the article explain that South Korea and Netherland spend over twice that the U.S on video game they have a vastly lower rates of gun violences and mass shooting.


    Yan Tao

    Hope, Joan. “Free Community College Brings Campuswide Benefits.” Successful Registrar, vol. 16, no. 8, 2016, pp. 1–5.
    This article talks about a community college in Tennessee has provided free tuition for most of the student if they are under a good standard. It stated the before and the after of allowing the free tuition. Before the free tuition, most students in that college just go to the campus solely for attending the class. But after the free tuition, most students stay on campus all day and join programs that can increase their graduation rate. This source is useful in my paper because it can clearly show the improve in college quality after allowing people to attend college for free.

    Goldrick-Rab, Sara, and Andrew P. Kelly. “Should community college be free? Education next talks with Sara Goldrick-Rab and Andrew P. Kelly.” Education Next, vol. 16, no. 1, 2016, p. 54+. Gale In Context: Opposing Viewpoints, https://link.gale.com/apps/doc/A441690176/OVIC?u=cuny_nytc&sid=OVIC&xid=0a3a935e. Accessed 15 Oct. 2019.
    This article is about the opinion of Sara Goldrick-Rab and Andrew P. Kelly about Obama’s plan on making every public community college to be free for every student. This source is useful.because it can show different people’s view on making college free for students/

    Sherwin, Amanda. “Could CUNY Be Tuition-Free Again?” Gotham Gazette, 20 July 2016, http://www.gothamgazette.com/city/6444-could-cuny-be-tuition-free-again.
    This article talks about the changes in the CUNY tuition over the past dozen years. Since the states slower decrease the budge that goes to the public college, the college starts to charge and increase the tuition. The current governor of New York announced a program to provide free college to most of the lower and middle-income students. Unfortunately for most people they still need to pay for their tuition since only a small percentage of the student who applies for that program got accepted. This source is useful in my paper because it can show that the reason why CUNY start charge tuition. By looking at the reason, I can talk about the possibility of reverse the situation back to its original place where tuition is free.

    Ford, James. “After Introducing Tuition-Free College, Cuomo Gets Heat for a Tuition Hike.” PIX 11, 20 July 2018, pix11.com/2018/07/19/after-introducing-tuition-free-college-cuomo-gets-heat-for-a-tuition-hike/.
    This article talks about how the New York governor wanted to increase the CUNY tuition after he announced his free tuition program. The governor was planning to have an increase of $200 in tuition per year which make most student upset since they though the tuition is not going to increase because of the free tuition program. Student was standing out and talk about how the change in tuition can really make a big difference in their daily life and that the tuition doesn’t seem to be used to improve the CUNY environment. This source is useful in my paper because I can talk about that only a few percentage of people get free tuition but the rest is going to have higher tuition. Which it can be worst since there are more people who are getting an increase in their tuition other than getting free tuition.


    These Sources just gives a background information or my topic which is going to be about whether of not the usage of Reusable straws and paper bags are really helpful in our environment or is just benefitting the companies that implements/ sells it.

    Source 1 : https://www.nrdc.org/stories/will-shifting-reusable-straws-really-make-difference

    According to NRDC “Will Shifting to Reusable Straws Really Make a Difference?” in this article it talks about how there are some occasions that a straw would be needed. Also, it says that we don’t really have to use straw every-time we drink, for we can always drink through the glass but if ever we have to use straw it’s better if we use reusable straws because for every person that uses a straw there’s an equivalent of 1 plastic straw that would contribute to the waste.
    I feel like its gonna be useful for my paper because it’s gonna set an argument/ debate about whether or not it really does help.
    Source 2: https://yourstrawguy.com/blogs/tips/the-stainless-steel-straw

    According to YourStrawGuy ” The Stainless Steel Straws” using stainless steel straws has it’s benefits for instance it can help saves the planet because it reduces the amount of plastic wastes that is being thrown and it’s also sturdy enough which means unlike our regular straws that could be bent easily and becomes useless this new invention is much more reliable; however, because it’s so durable it’s dangerous to be around kids for they can hurt them selves using it improperly which may cause more harm. Also, it cost more to buy this reusable straws compared to the regular straws that are free which is why only few people were able to help in this change or movement. In my opinion this would also help me in writing my paper because this is focused on the pros and cons of using stainless steel straws.

    Still need to do more research cause most of the result shown in the web states the same things which is why I only had this much i don’t think it’s worth it to put a different source that would be basically saying the same thing as the one I have.

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