BIO2312 lab Fall 2020

Stephanie Jacob

BIO2312 Lab Section OL-57

 

LAB ACTIVITY BLOOD 

Image 1 (19-05_2): This image shows the  Recycling of Red Blood Cell Components. Macrophages in spleen, liver, and red bone marrow. Macrophages monitor the condition of circulating RBCs, engulfing them before they hemolyze (rupture), or removing Hb molecules, iron, and cell fragments from the RBCs that hemolyze in the bloodstream. Events Occurring in the Red Bone Marrow, Developing RBCs absorb amino acids and Fe2+ from the bloodstream and synthesize new Hb molecules. Events Occurring in the Liver Bilirubin released from macrophages binds to albumin and is transported to the liver for excretion in bile. Events Occurring in the Large Intestine Bacteria convert bilirubin to urobilin and stercobilin. Feces are yellow-brown or brown due to the presence of urobilin and stercobilin in varying proportions. Events Occurring in the Kidney, the kidneys excrete some hemoglobin, as well as urobilins, which gives urine its yellow color.

 Image 2 (19-06_2): This diagram shows the Stages of RBC Maturation: Erythropoiesis. Day 1: Proerythroblast, Erythroblasts Day 2: Basophilic erythroblast, Day 3: Polychromatophilic erythroblast, Day 4: Normoblast, Day 5-7: Reticulocyte, Day, Lastly a Mature red blood cell.

Image 3 (19-08_2): This image shows the different types of blood groups/types, their antigens, and their antibodies Starting off with (PART A) – The first picture is Type A blood which has RBCs with surface antigen A only. If you have Type A blood, your plasma contains anti-B antibodies, which will attack type B surface antigens. The second picture is Type B blood which has RBCs with surface antigen B only. If you have Type B blood, your plasma contains anti-A antibodies, which will attack Type A surface antigens. The third picture is Type AB blood has RBCs with both A and B surface antigens. If you have Type AB blood, your plasma has neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies. The fourth picture is Type O blood has RBCs lacking both A and B surface antigens. If you have Type O blood, your plasma contains both anti-A and anti-B antibodies.

 (PART B) –  This image shows in a cross-reaction, antibodies react with their target antigens causing agglutination and hemolysis of the affected RBCs. In this image, anti-B antibodies encounter B surface antigens, which cause the RBCs bearing the B surface antigens to clump together and break up.

 Image 4 (19-10_2): This image shows Hemolytic Disease of the Newborn. The most common form of hemolytic disease of the newborn develops after an Rh− woman has carried an Rh+ fetus.During first pregnancy, problems seldom develop during a first pregnancy, because very few fetal cells enter the maternal bloodstream resulting in the mother’s immune system to not be stimulated to produce anti-Rh antibodies. Hemorrhaging at Delivery, exposure to fetal red blood cell antigens generally occurs during delivery, when bleeding takes place at the placenta and uterus. Such mixing of fetal and maternal blood can stimulate the mother’s immune system to produce anti-Rh antibodies, leading to sensitization. Maternal Antibody production, about 20% of Rh− mothers who carried Rh+ children become sensitized within 6 months of delivery. Because the anti-Rh antibodies are not produced in significant amounts until after delivery, a woman’s first infant is not affected. During the second pregnancy, if a future pregnancy involves an Rh+ fetus, maternal anti-Rh antibodies produced after the first delivery cross the placenta and enter the fetal bloodstream. These antibodies destroy fetal RBCs, producing a dangerous anemia. The fetal demand for blood cells increases, and they leave the bone marrow and enter the bloodstream before completing their development.

Image 5 (19-11_2): This image shows the different types of White Blood Cells (WBC). Picture A is a Neutrophils WBC. Neutrophils are very active phagocytic cells that attack and fight bacteria and can live in the bloodstream for 10 hours or less. Picture B is a Eosinophils (acidophils) WBC. Eosinophils release enzymes that reduce inflammation caused by mast cells and neutrophils and are sensitive to allergens. Picture C is a Basophils WBC. Basophils cross capillary endothelium and accumulate in damaged tissues. Picture D is a  Monocyte WBC. Monocytes are large, spherical cells that remain in the bloodstream for 24 hours then enter peripheral tissues to become macrophages. Picture E is Lymphocytes WBC. Lymphocytes are Slightly larger than RBCs where they continuously migrate in and out of the bloodstream mostly in organs of the lymphatic system and connective tissues other than blood.

 

BLOOD GROUP IDENTIFICATION ACTIVITY 

 

Image 1(19-09_1): This image shows Compatibility testing performed in advance of transfusions. Cross-match testing reveals cross-reactions between donor’s RBCs and recipient’s plasma. Type A blood has Anti-B antibodies. Type B blood has Anti-A antibodies.Type O blood has both anti-A and anti-B antibodies and is the universal donor but cross-reactions can still occur because at least 48 surface antigens exist besides A and B. Type AB blood has neither anti-A nor anti-B antibodies only sensitized Rh blood has anti-Rh antibodies. 

Image 2 (19-09_2.jpg): This image shows A blood-type test shows four blood-type reactions to antibody serums. The First Row is blood Type A reaction to Antibody serums. The Second Row is blood Type B reaction to antibody serums. The Third Row is blood Type AB reaction to Antibody serums. The Fourth Row is blood Type O reaction to Antibody serums. 

 

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