Biology II

Circulation and Cardiovascular Systems

Ventricle – Pumps out blood (2 lower chambers)

Atrium – Receives Blood (2 upper chambers)

Fish 2 Chambers

Frog 3 Chambers (2 atriums, 1 ventricle)

Bird 4 Chambers  (2 atriums, 2 ventricles)

Septum – Separates the heart into left and right

Muscle contractions help pump the blood little by little throughout the body

Superior Vena Cava – Pumps upper blood into left ventricle

Inferior Vena Cava – Pumps lower blood into right ventricle

Heart Blood Route

SV,IV – RA – RV – PA – PV – LA – LV – Body System

Atrioventricular valves

Tricuspid valve between right atrium and ventricle

Bicuspid valve between left atrium and ventricle

Semilunar valves

Pulmonary semilunar valve between ventricle and pulmonary trunk

Aortic semilunar valve between left ventricle and aorta

Pulmonary Circuit – takes poor oxygen to the lungs and returns rich blood to the heart

Systematic Circuit – takes rich blood from the heart to tissues throughout the body returning poor oxygen blood to the heart through venae cavae

Liver detoxifies

Kidney filters

Systole – heart contraction

Diastole – heart relaxation

Sinoatrial node

Epinephrine hormone helps with relaxation

120/80 normal blood pressure (systolic and diastolic)

(LDL) Low Density Lypo protein – Good Cholesterol

(HDL) High Density Lypo protein – Bad Cholesterol

Biology II Review Test 3

– Characteristics of animal? Vertebrate and invertebrate?

Animals, fungi, and plants are all multicellular eukaryotes , but unlike plants, which make their food through photosynthesis. Vertebrates at some point of their lives have a spinal cord, whereas invertebrates don’t have a backbone.

– Characteristics of sponges?

Sponges are the only animal to lack true tissues and to have only a cellular level of organization.  They produce asexually by budding (multiplying)

– Animal with circulatory system?*

– The only animal in which digestion occurs within cells

The only animal which does the above are sponges

– Characteristics of cnidaria

Sea anemones, jelly fish, corals are all cnidaria’s specialized in stinging cells around the body in order to function as a carnivore

– Mode of infection by flat worm and fluke worm

Similar to cnidarians having a single opening, no body cavity. Fluke worms inhabit liver, lung , and blood flukes

– Organisms contacting both sex organs within the same organisms.

Worms way of reproducing, inverted sex organs to reproduce

– Protostome, mouth develops before the anus in the embryo

– Deuterostome, anus develops before the mouth in the embryo

– Types of characteristics of tissue (woven)

Epithelial Tissue (lines body cavities and covers body surfaces)

+ Simple

+ Stratified

+ Glandular

Connective Tissue

+ Fibrous

+ Supportive

+ Fluid

Muscular Tissue

+ Smooth

+ Cardiac

Nervous Tissue

+ Neurons

specialized cell that has 3 parts, dendrite is a process  has conducts signals to the cell body. axon conducts nerve impulses away from the cell body

+ Neuroglia

supports and nourishes the neurons

– Which tissue contains goblet cells?

Columnar epithelium

– What type of fiber accounts for the strength of various connective tissues?


– What type of tissue is striated, contains cells with one nucleus, and is not under voluntary control?

Cardiac muscle

– The correct sequence of increasing organizational complexity is

cell, tissue, organ , organ system, organism

– What type of tissue lines body cavities and covers body surfaces?

epithelial tissue

– What type of tissue contracts and accounts for movements of organs of the entire body?

muscular tissue

– What type of tissue is bone and cartilage?

connective tissue

– Functions of the skin

covers the body, protecting underlying parts. equipped with sensory structures that monitor touch, pressure, temperature, and pain.

– Exocrine glands secrete products into the surface of the skin and are classified as epithelial tissue

– Exocrine glands

glands which secrete their product into ducts

– Endocrine glands

are glands with no duct

– Body fluids-blood lymph, hemolymph *

– Homeostasis

all organ systems of animals contribute to homeostasis, allows the organism to keep a constant internal environment

– Which has a four-chambered heart like humans?


– Which of these white blood cells are phagocytosis


– How many chambers are there in the human heart?

Four Chambers

– The valve between the left ventricle and aorta is called: the semilunar valves

– The importance of coronary arteries

when there’s plaque a heart attack is more likely to occur

– Which type of blood component is involved in the initiation of clotting?


– The structure that absorbs nutrients from the small intestines and delivers the nutrients in the blood to the liver is called the

hepatic portal vein

– Major cardiovascular disorders

Hypertension – High blood pressure

Atherosclerosis – Accumulation of fatty materials be the inner linings of arteries

Stroke – A distribution of blood supply to the brain

Heart Attack – Coronary artery becomes completely blocked

– What is the correct order of blood flow through the cardiovascular system?

Heart – artery – arterioles – capillaries – venules – veins

– What is the main difference between blood and hemolymph

Blood is always contained within the blood vessels while lymph fills the body cavity.

– Blood groups

A, B, AB, O

– Which of the following cardiovascular diseases is caused by a narrowing of the arteries causing the heart to work harder when pumping?


The Lymphatic and Immune Systems

Immunity – The capability of removing or killing foreign substances (Provide physical and chemical)

Lymphatic System – works closely with the cardiovascular and immune systems, provide innate immunity

– Lymphatic capillaries absorb a lot of tissue fluid and return it to the bloodstream

– In the small intestine, lymphatic

– Innate immunity

Lymphatic System Orgsns

– Red bone marrow

– Thymus gland

– Lymph nodes

– Spleen

– Tonsils

– Peyer patches

– Vermiform appendix

Histamine – mainly secreted by tissue dwelling cells of the innate immune system called mast cells

Innate defenses

– barriers to entry

– protective proteins

– phagocytes and natural killer cells

– inflammatory response

Neutrophils – prevents bacteria

Eosinophils – prevents parasites

Interferon (cytokines) – used to treat cancer

Anything that has to go through immune system is an antigen

Lymphocytes produce antibody(protein)

Acquired Immunity

B cell produced antibodies

T cell (helper cell) helps B cell produce antibodies

Cytotoxic T cell kills virus infected cells

HIV Infections

– infects immune cells (lymphocytes/T cells)

– T cell count will decrease

– Cancer killing cells are reduced

– Causes immune deficiency

Adaptive Immunity

– Antibody from mother (Passive)

– Vaccination consists of inactive diseases (Active)

Auto-immune Disease

When some cells become abnormal, the immune system will recognize them as abnormal and try to get rid of them (works against own)


Organ Transplantation Rejection

Xenotransplantation – transplantation of animal tissues and organs into humans

Biology Review Test IV

– Differences between vertebrate and invertebrate immune system

– Antigens

B cell receptors bond directly to antigens, these divide and result in adaptive immunity

– Antibodies

plasma cells produce and secrete antibodies

– Lymphoid Organs

red bone marrow, thymus gland, lymph nodes, spleen, tonsils, Peyer patches, and vermiform appendix

– Inflammation Symptoms

redness heat swelling pain and loss of function

– B lymphocytes

responsible for humoral immunity relating to antibodies

– T lymphocytes

are involved in cell mediated immunity

– Which statement is not true of T cells

T cells change into plasma cells and produce antibodies when stimulated

– Which kind of T cell is most important in the removal of cancer cells or virally infected cells?

cytotoxic T cells

– Maturation of T cells occurs in the

thymus lymphoid organ

– Non specific defenses against disease include

physical barriers, protein defenses, cellular defenses, inflammation, and fever

– Which of the following T cells are mismatched with their functions?

memory t cells mediate apoptosis

– Is the first line of defense against invading microorganism is nonspecific?

skin is the first line of defense

– Which adaptive immune response is stronger?

Macrophages and dendritic cells

– Interferons function in immune response?

Cytokines a collection of plasma bonds to virus cell and kill it

– Which of the following is not an autoimmune disease?

type 2 diabetes

– Which of the followings are part of the innate immune response?

basophils monocytes lymphocytes neutrophils

– Which of the following type of WBC are important to kill bacteria?


– HIV infection causes destruction to which of the following type of blood cells?

helper T-cells

– Which of the following is called passive immunity?

occurs when an individual received another persons antibodies

may be used to prevent illness Ina patient who has been exposed to ferris  infectious agents or toxins

– Autoimmune disease?

immune system mistakenly attacks their body’s own cells or molecules

– Salivary gland

secrete saliva and contain digestive enzyme for carbohydrates

– salivary amylase

initiates starch digestion

– Chyme is produced in

the mixing movements of the stomach wall aid in producing a semi fluid paste of food particles and gastric juice

– which of the following is the function of the mouth in the digestion of food?

teeth chew food; tongue tasted and pushed food for chewing and swallowing

– _______ is contained in the pancreatic juice to neutralize the acidity of chyme from the stomach

sodium bicarbonate

– An example of an animal with an incomplete gut is


– Food is prevented from entering  the trachea by the


– Which of the following human digestive enzymes is NOT matched to its substrate?

trypsin-nucleic acid

– The digestive juices found in the stomach include

pancreatic and salivary amylase

trypsin and Maltese

– Accessory organ of digestion?

liver, gallbladder, and pancreas

– The function of the human stomach (Small intestine and large intestine)

small intestine (major site of digestion and absorption of food and nutrients)

large intestine (absorption of waste and salts; storage of waste; secretions of

mucus; absorption of vitamin k)

– In the body glucose is stored in the liver as


– in humans digestion of starches begins in the


– The finger-poor projections along the surface of the small intestines are called


– microvilli serve to

increase the surface area of villus for the absorption of nutrients

– amino acids and essential amino acids?

adequate protein formation requires 20 different types of amino acids

nine essential amino acids are required in the diet

– Which digestive enzyme is produced in the pancreas and is responsible for the breakdown of protein into peptides?

HCL and pepsin stomach is about 2.0ph

– Pancreas as a gland

– Functions of gall bladder

stores bile from liver; sends it to the small intestine

– Digestive enzymes-lipase, Maltese, pepsin, trypsin etc.

salivary amylase (starch + h2o -> maltose)

pepsin (protein + h2o -> peptides)

pancreatic amylase (starch + h2o -> maltose)

trypsin (protein + h2o -> peptides)

Maltese (maltose + h2o -> glucose + glucose)

peptides (peptides + h2o -> amino acids)

bile salts (fat -> fat droplets)

fat droplets + h2o -> glycerol + 3 fatty acids)

– function of glucagon and insulin

hormones to regulate blood glucose levels

– bacteria present in the large intestine is important/ causes:

breaks down indigestible material and produces vitamins  (K) needed for clotting

– function of liver?

detoxification of the blood

storage of iron and some vitamins

production of plasma proteins

regulation of blood glucose levels

production of urea

removal and storage of iron and vitamins

production of bile

removal of bilirubin

regulation of blood control

– which of the following in the benefit of having fibers in your food?

stimulates movement in the large intestine, preventing constipation

– which of the following is the correct sequence of human digestive tracts?

mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine , anus

Marine Boney Fish

passive loss of water through gills

drink sea water

Freshwater Fish

passive gain water through gills

does not drink water

Osmoregulation by Terrestrial Vertebrates

Sea Birds salt excreting glands are near the eyes

Human Urinary System

human kidney – 3 major components, renal cortex, renal medulla, and renal pelvis

urinary bladder


composed of over 1 million tiny tubules, it produces the urine

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