Weekly Assignment Week 7 (Thurs. March 18th)

PROJECT 1: STEP 2: Gather Your Research

  1. Find 3 additional sources for your project.  For EACH source write down:

  • The title and author of your source
  • The genre of your sources (be VERY specific)
  • The proper MLA citation of your source
  • The reason you think this source might be helpful.

2. Write down 5-8 research questions (they can be based on the questions you wrote on your     KWL chart!).

DUE: TUES. March 23rd

27 Comments

  1. Hamely Jose Taveras

    Khelil, Amir Lanis. “Benefits of Sports to Students.” Master of Science in Technical Entrepreneurship and Management at the University of Rochester, 8 May 2015, http://www.rochester.edu/team/benefits-of-sports-to-students/.

    The author is Amir Lanis Khelil.
    The genre of this source is an opinion article.

    Holland, Kelley. “Shut out: Young Athletes Sidelined by Money.” CNBC, CNBC, 25 July 2014, http://www.cnbc.com/2014/07/25/shut-out-young-athletes-sidelined-by-money.html.

    The author is Kelly Holland
    The genre of this article is a news informative article.

    Odphp. “The Benefits of Playing Sports Aren’t Just Physical!” The Benefits of Playing Sports Aren’t Just Physical! – News & Events | Health.gov, 30 May 2012, health.gov/news-archive/blog/2012/05/the-benefits-of-playing-sports-arent-just-physical/index.html.

    The author of this article is ODPHP from the health department.
    The genre is a news, blog, informative article.

    Question
    why are low-income schools not getting enough funding?
    why are people not talking about it?
    What are the benefits of sport?
    Is there an equal distribution of funds?
    Where is the funding going?
    What can we do to help low-income schools have a very sports program?
    How can we make a change and help?
    How do schools get funded?
    Where is the funding coming from?
    Why are sports so important in low-income schools?

  2. mustapha

    1.“Media – Gathje: ‘Outside of Conor McGregor, Khabib Has Probably the Most Toxic Fans.’” Sherdog Forums | UFC, MMA & Boxing Discussion, forums.sherdog.com/threads/gathje-outside-of-conor-mcgregor-khabib-has-probably-the-most-toxic-fans.4141162/page-4.
    The genre of this article is informational. I think this source will be useful because it gives an insight to the bad side of the community.
    2.Holland, Jesse. “Jessica Eye Has a Little Message for Critical A-Holes in the UFC Community…” MMAmania.com, MMAmania.com, 15 June 2020, http://www.mmamania.com/2020/6/15/21291745/jessica-eye-has-message-critical-haters-ufc-community-mma.
    The genre of this interview is an educational one. I believe this source will be useful because its straight from a fighters mouth as to how toxic the community is
    3.Hannigan, Dave. “Money Talks as ESPN and UFC Still Cling to Toxic Conor McGregor Brand.” The Irish Times, The Irish Times, 27 Jan. 2021, http://www.irishtimes.com/sport/other-sports/money-talks-as-espn-and-ufc-still-cling-to-toxic-conor-mcgregor-brand-1.4469180. The genre for this article is intellectual, but it’s heavily influenced by the writers bias or opinion. This source will be useful because it shows that not only the fans are toxic. Maybe this is where the fans draw inspiration from?

    Research questions:
    1. Why the toxicity comes out so severely during big bouts
    2. Why does it seem like they are fueled by racism
    3. What the good of us in the community can do to combat this hate
    4.Why do they wait until the community is excited or angry to be hateful
    5.Is this a community worth saving
    6.Should/could there be gatekeepers/leaders implemented so as to lower the risk of another toxic attack.

    • Rebekah Coleman

      Great questions, great sources, check the genres, be more specific around the genre of articles.

  3. Annie

    Three sources of information for project 2 would be:

    This article is about when compared to white women in the United States, African-American, Native American, and Alaska Native women are approximately three times more likely to die from pregnancy-related causes.

    https://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/07/health/pregnancy-deaths-.html

    This is an article on a lawyer site where a pregnant woman died victim of racism .
    https://www.salvilaw.com/blog/death-of-pregnant-26-year-old-black-woman-highlights-racial-disparities-in-maternal-mortality/

    This is a PBS television news station dedicating a part of their morning routine to the mortality rate of black womens and their babies .
    https://www.pbs.org/newshour/show/why-are-black-mothers-and-infants-far-more-likely-to-die-in-u-s-from-pregnancy-related-causes

  4. Annie

    Source 1: MLA citation Rabin, Roni Caryn. “Huge Racial Disparities Found in Deaths Linked to Pregnancy.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 7 May 2019, http://www.nytimes.com/2019/05/07/health/pregnancy-deaths-.html.
    It was written by Roni Caryn Rabin and the title is huge racial disparities found in deaths linked to pregnancy. It might be useful because there is evidence of reports and statistics talks in the article.
    Source 2: MLA citation Mangan, Marcie. “DEATH OF PREGNANT 26-YEAR-OLD BLACK WOMAN HIGHLIGHTS RACIAL DISPARITIES IN MATERNAL MORTALITY.” SSP Trial Lawyers, 13 July 2020, http://www.salvilaw.com/blog/death-of-pregnant-26-year-old-black-woman-highlights-racial-disparities-in-maternal-mortality/.
    It was written by Marcie Mangan and the title is death of pregnant 26 years old black women and it might be useful because it described a real situation and how real the issue is .
    Source 3: MLA citation NewsHour, PBS. “Why Are Black Mothers and Infants Far More Likely to Die in U.S. from Pregnancy-Related Causes?” PBS, Public Broadcasting Service, 18 Apr. 2018, http://www.pbs.org/newshour/show/why-are-black-mothers-and-infants-far-more-likely-to-die-in-u-s-from-pregnancy-related-causes. a PBS television news station dedicating a part of their morning routine to the mortality rate of black womens and their babies .
    The questions:
    What can be done to prevent act of racism towards minorities in the health care system?
    What are the proper law and steps to be taken when a health care employee are depicting signs of racial disparities?
    Why are black women at such high risk of dying from pregnancy complications?
    What are the major factors that contribute to minority women to their deaths?
    What are the trusted facilities that could help?

  5. Tenzin Namgyal

    Faith, Ian. “The Toxic Meritocracy of Video Games: Why Gaming Culture Is the Worst, Christopher A. Paul (2018).” Journal of gaming & virtual worlds 11.1 (2019): 85–89. Web.
    https://cuny-ny.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/01CUNY_NY/a6lp2f/cdi_crossref_primary_10_1386_jgvw_11_1_85_5
    The genre of this piece is informative and is about how toxicity is a big part of gaming culture and how gaming can actually fuel toxicity because of how not all players are the same in skill or race or sexuality. This source can be useful since all these things can lead to toxicity being fueled in the gaming community.
    Tang, Wai Yen, Felix Reer, and Thorsten Quandt. “Investigating Sexual Harassment in Online Video Games: How Personality and Context Factors Are Related to Toxic Sexual Behaviors Against Fellow Players.” Aggressive behavior 46.1 (2020): 127–135. Web.
    https://cuny-ny.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/01CUNY_NY/a6lp2f/cdi_crossref_primary_10_1002_ab_21873
    The genre of this article is also informative and is about how a major issue in the gaming community is the online sexual harassment that prevents women from even wanting to play video games due to the fear of this happening to them. This source can be useful because a big issue in the community is how female gamers are treated.
    Maher, Brendan. “Good Gaming: Scientists Are Helping to Tame Toxic Behaviour in the Worlds Most Popular Online Game.” Nature (London) 531.7596 (2016): 568–. Print.
    https://cuny-ny.primo.exlibrisgroup.com/permalink/01CUNY_NY/a6lp2f/cdi_gale_infotraccpiq_448338496
    The genre of this informative and has some of the authors own experiences in it as well. It talks about what can be done to help lessen and in the long term hopefully stop toxicity in games completely. This source can be useful because it mentions ways in which we can lessen the toxicity in the gaming.
    Questions:
    1. What can be done to lessen the amount of toxicity in the gaming community?
    2. Why are women a big target for the toxicity in the gaming community?
    3. What causes the players to be so hostile and toxic?
    4. Is it even possible to stop this culture of toxicity in the gaming community?
    5. Is the toxicity fueled by factors than just the game such as gender, race and sexuality?

    • Rebekah Coleman

      Excellent sources. Be more specific about the genre of articles. Good questions.

  6. Arian Qosaj

    Source 1 – Title: “The Dangers of Mandated Overtime For Nurses” by Sarah Stasik
    Genre: Informative
    MLA Citation: Stasik, Sarah. “The Dangers of Mandated Overtime For Nurses”. Onward Healthcare.
    This source might be helpful because it explains what kind of health problems overtime can lead to and how it can affect a patients safeness.

    Source 2 – Title: “The Potential Effects of Sleep Loss on a Nurse’s Health” by Linda Eanes
    Genre: Formal
    MLA Citation: Eanes, Linda EdD, MSN, RN. “The Potential Effects of Sleep Loss on a Nurse’s Health”. Lippincott Nursing Center.
    This source might be helpful because it talks about how poor sleep quality affects a nurses personal health and the way it affects a nurses work performance.

    Source 3 – Title: “The Longer the Shifts for Hospital Nurses, The Higher the Levels of Burnout and Patient Dissatisfaction” by Amy Witkoski Stimpfel, Douglas M. Sloane, and Linda H. Aiken
    Genre: Formal
    MLA Citation: Stimpfel, Amy Witkoski et al. “The longer the shifts for hospital nurses, the higher the levels of burnout and patient dissatisfaction.” Health affairs (Project Hope) vol. 31,11 (2012): 2501-9. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2011.1377
    This source might be helpful because it points out specific ideas about how overtime may cause nurses to view their job differently and cause nurses to experience burnout.

    Research questions:
    1. What are the risks of having mandatory overtime for nurses?
    2. What health issues can mandatory overtime lead to?
    3. Can mandatory overtime cause sleep deprivation?
    4. How can overtime affect a patients safeness?
    5. How long is an overtime shift for nurses?
    6. Can mandatory overtime cause nurses to experience job dissatisfaction?

    • Rebekah Coleman

      Excellent sources and citations. Great questions. Please make sure to fix the genre.

  7. Hanting Hu

    “Williamsburg Brooklyn Asthma and Environment Consortium.” United States Environmental Protection Agency, cfpub.epa.gov/ncer_abstracts/index.cfm/fuseaction/display.highlight/abstract/7883/report/F.
    Title: Williamsburg Brooklyn Asthma and Environment Consortium
    Genre: Formal

    “5 Disposal Services For Commercial Waste Management Brooklyn NY.” Action Environmental Services, 14 July 2020, actioncarting.com/blog/commercial-waste-management-brooklyn-ny.
    Title:5 Disposal Services For Commercial Waste Management Brooklyn NY
    Genre: eCommerce Websites

    Nichols, Adam. “NYC Is Among Smoggiest Cities In Nation, Report Says.” Patch, 24 Apr. 2019, patch.com/new-york/new-york-city/nyc-among-smoggiest-cities-nation-report-says.
    Title: NYC Is Among Smoggiest Cities In Nation, Report Says
    Genre: News

    Research Questions:
    What is the cost of garbage removal?
    Why is New York so polluted?
    What is the air quality index?
    Why is there so much trash on the streets of Brooklyn?
    Who do the garbage on the sidewalk is private or public?

    • Rebekah Coleman

      Good questions and good sources. Please fix the genre.

  8. Elma Kastrat

    1.
    – “Grocery Workers Are Beginning to Die of Coronavirus” by Abha Bhattarai
    – The newspaper article
    – I think it may help because it explains how cashiers struggled in the the beginning of coronavirus and what they were going through
    – Bhattarai, Abha. “Grocery Workers Are Beginning to Die of Coronavirus.” The Washington Post, WP Company, 7 Apr. 2020, http://www.washingtonpost.com/business/2020/04/06/supermarket-workers-deaths-coronavirus-/.

    2.
    – “Supermarket cashiers have become critical employees amid coronavirus pandemic” from YouTube
    – “What It’s Like to Work at Grocery Store During the Coronavirus Panic” from YouTube
    – I think it may help because it explains cashiers situations because stores got empty and left without groceries.
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FqdedG1a_QU
    https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=FzLMzJt2zNk

    3.
    Interview with bookkeeper in my store (SuperFresh supermarket)
    – It may help to tell me how many problems they have experienced because of coronavirus, how they survive with employees and what did they lose because of coronavirus.

    Questions:
    1. Why are customers so rude to cashiers?
    2. Did they have problems and get sick because of coronavirus?
    3. Did they get better benefiting or more hours?
    4. What do they do to help customers?
    5. What did they experience in the beginning of coronavirus and now?
    6. Is there any cashier that left the job because of coronavirus?
    7. Should people appreciate their work or judge them?

    • Rebekah Coleman

      Excellent sources and questions. Please add the genre of the sources.

  9. Kevin Yu

    Boeing 777 grounding explained visually: Pratt and Whitney engine failure involved in two incidents on the same day
    MLA: Petras, George, and Janet Loehrke. “Boeing 777 Grounding Explained Visually: Pratt and Whitney Engine Failure Involved in Two Incidents on Same Day.” USA Today, Gannett Satellite Information Network, 24 Feb. 2021, http://www.usatoday.com/in-depth/travel/news/2021/02/22/boeing-777-grounding-engine-failure-pratt-and-whitney-united-flight-328-who-makes-the-engines/4541359001/.
    Genre: Formal

    Yet another Boeing plane has a problem
    MLA: Isidore, Chris, and Rene Marsh. “Yet Another Boeing Plane Has a Problem – CNN Business.” CNN, Cable News Network, 11 Sept. 2019, http://www.cnn.com/2019/09/10/business/boeing-777x-safety-test/index.html. |
    Genre: News

    Engine Maker Under Scrutiny After Series of Aircraft Mishaps
    MLA: Chokshi, Niraj, et al. “Engine Maker Under Scrutiny After Series of Aircraft Mishaps.” The New York Times, The New York Times, 23 Feb. 2021, http://www.nytimes.com/2021/02/22/business/boeing-pratt-whitney-engines.html.
    Genre: Formal

    Question:
    How much is spent on keeping 777 fleets?
    How Reliable are the Pratt and Whitney engines?
    Is Boeing covering up their own issues?
    How much does it cost to maintain engines per flight?
    Can Boeing live up to its Promises?
    How good is Boeings Reputation?

    • Rebekah Coleman

      Excellent sources and questions. Please fix the genre!

  10. Shaniyah

    Source one: Article
    Haskett, Lindesay . ” Study examines traumatic impact of Pandemic on nurses”. Indiana University. 20th May. 2020,
    Impact of COVID-19 Care on Nurses: Coronavirus: Our Strengths: Research Impact: Indiana University (iu.edu)
    This article focuses in on the mental health of nurses from seeing their patients get so sick, and they can’t offer much help. The article takes a different stance about how the nurses actually suffer mentally watching their patients be isolated and kept away from their families.
    Source two: Article
    Pearce, Lynn. ” How Covid is affecting nurses mental health and what to do about it”. RCNI. 11 January. 2021,
    How COVID-19 is affecting nurses’ mental health, and what to do about it | RCNi
    This article bought a view on the affect of the pandemic on nursing because we get to actually see how the nurses really feel. In this article I learned how Nurses feel about possibly getting their family members sick.
    Source three: Blog
    Spacek, Brooke. ” A nurse’s notes from the frontlines of the Covid 19 pandemic” University of Texas ULA. 6th May. 2020,
    This was so interesting because of the point of view it came from, this was written from an actual nurse who is currently working during this pandemic. She mentioned some things you wouldn’t even think nurses miss, being that working in a pandemic is very different then regular times.
    Source four: Blog
    Levine, David. Us News. ” A day in the life of a nurse during the Covid 19 pandemic” 6th May. 2020,
    This is my favorite source because we get a point of view from a nurse who actually isn’t fearful of catching the virus and passing it on, because where she works is very reliable with protective equipment.
    Research Questions:
    What is the biggest problem nurses face working in the pandemic?
    Are hospitals doing enough to ensure the safety of their nurses ?
    What mental effect has this pandemic had on nurses ?
    Has any nurses died from corona?
    What is patient care like during the pandemic, has it changed ?

    • Rebekah Coleman

      Excellent sources and questions. Please be more specific with some of the questions!

  11. Jsantana

    Brito, Christopher. Nike Executive Resigns after Report Reveals Teen Son Used Her Credit Card to Fund Resale Sneaker Business. https://www.cbsnews.com/news/nike-exec-ann-hebert-resigns-son-joe-sneaker-resale/. Accessed 22 Mar. 2021. The genre is opinion based. This source might be helpful because it holds detailed information about the scandal.
    Matthews, David, and David Matthews. “Nike’s Executive Quits over Son’s $132K Sneaker Purchase.” Daily News, New York Daily News, 2 Mar. 2021, https://www.nydailynews.com/news/national/ny-nike-business-head-quits-son-sneaker-purchases-resale-company-20210302-fddfcktdvrhaxf47xhi2qshcgy-story.html. The genre of this article is accusatory. This source might be helpful because it shows a perspective from someone who wants to hold the nike exec responsible for their actions.
    Brito, Christopher. “Nike Exec Resigns after Son Used Her Credit Card to Fund Sneaker Business.” Yahoo News, 3 Mar. 2021, https://news.yahoo.com/nike-exec-resigns-son-used-195857877.html. The genre of this article is blog and opinion based.
    Questions:
    What can big sneaker companies, such as Nike, do in the future to prevent this from happening?
    How can Nike consumers be reimbursed for the lack of access to sneaker releases?
    Should investigations be implemented to seek out other family connections in companies?

  12. Isael Castillo

    Balram, Armita. “How online learning can affect student health.” The Johns Hopkins News-Letter, 20 April. 2020,https://www.jhunewsletter.com/article/2020/04/how-online-learning-can-affect-student-health. The genre of this article is science-based. I think this source is helpful because it shows the mental and physical impact that online learning has.

    Loeb, Susanna. “How Effective Is Online Learning? What the Research Does and Doesn’t Tell Us.” Education Week, Education Week, 23 March. 2021, https://www.edweek.org/technology/opinion-how-effective-is-online-learning-what-the-research-does-and-doesnt-tell-us/2020/03. The genre is opinion-based. The source is helpful because it provides the cons and pros of remote learning and how students view it.

    Northenor, Katherine. “Online school has more negative impacts than positive.” The Sting, 26 Sept. 2020, https://theroswellsting.com/5200/opinion/online-school-has-more-negative-impacts-than-positive/. This article is opinion-based. I found it helpful because it tells how students are feeling about online learning and the negative impact on their success.

  13. BrandonP

    Holmes, Evelyn. “Ford City Mall Shooting: Man Shot 6 Times inside Foot Locker Store, Police Say.” ABC7 Chicago, WLS-TV, 20 Feb. 2021, abc7chicago.com/ford-city-mall-shooting-chicago-breaking-news/10354335/.

    The genre of this article is an informative article.

    Ciment, Shoshy. “How a Self-Taught Developer with No Formal Training Made $700,000 in Sales This Year from His Sneaker Bot, Splashforce, That Nabs Hyped Pairs in Just Milliseconds.” Business Insider, Business Insider, 18 Sept. 2020, http://www.businessinsider.com/how-to-get-splashforce-bot-for-yeezy-supply-nike-sneakers-2020-9.

    The genre of this article is also informative.

    Butler-Young, Sheena. “What You Need to Know About Nike’s New Sneaker Raffles.” Footwear News, Footwear News, 26 May 2020, footwearnews.com/2015/business/retail/nike-air-jordan-twitter-sneaker-raffle-system-37146/.

    This last article is another informative article helping others obtain the knowledge of what is occurring.

    Questions:

    Can bots ever be stopped as technology keeps advancing?

    Is there a safe way for these employees at sneaker stores to handle customers?

    Is a raffle system the fairest chance for somebody to get a shoe.

  14. Christina Bethelmy

    Meyer, Susan, “Understanding the COVID-19 Effect on Online Shopping Behavior” bigcommerce, Accessed Friday April 16 https://www.bigcommerce.com/blog/covid-19-ecommerce/#understanding-panic-buying-and-coronavirus
    JAIN S ANAMIKA, “Top 10 Benefits and Disadvantages of Online Shopping” toughnickel, May 4, 2020 https://toughnickel.com/frugal-living/Online-shopping-sites-benefits
    Canning, Nikki, ECOMMERCE, INSTAGRAM, “Social Shopping: How Instagram is Changing the Way We Shop”, Later, November 11, 2020 https://later.com/blog/how-instagram-changing-shopping/
    Questions:
    How would you know if the reviews are real or not?
    Should I trust others opinions over my own?
    Are some of these sellers scam artists, resellers?
    Is everything involving the products authentic?
    Should I write a negative review, even if it may make a negative impact on a seller’s business?

  15. Kelvin Leon

    Source 1-

    “What Grocery and Food Retail Workers Need to Know about COVID-19” ~ Centers for Disease Control and Prevention

    Genre~ Scientific Journal Article

    MLA FORMAT~

    “What Grocery and Food Retail Workers Need to Know about COVID-19.” Cdc, NCIRD AND DIVISION OF VIRAL DISEASES, http://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/community/organizations/grocery-food-retail-workers.html#:~:text=As%20a%20grocery%20or%20food,%2D19%20have%20touched. Accessed Dec. 2020.

    Purpose~

    This source explains what COVID-19 is and gives solutions that I can write about in my article for the problems I write in my article.

    Source 2-

    “About 20% of grocery store workers had Covid-19, and most didn’t have symptoms, study found” ~ By Jen Christensen, CNN

    Genre~ Informational News Article

    MLA FORMST~

    Christensen, Jen Cnn. “About 20% of Grocery Store Workers Had Covid-19, and Most Didn’t Have Symptoms, Study Found.” CNN, 30 Oct. 2020, edition.cnn.com/2020/10/29/health/grocery-workers-increased-covid-19-risk-wellness/index.html.

    Purpose~

    To open the eyes at the risk grocery workers are put in due to this virus.

    Source 3-

    “Grocery store workers fear getting sick as coronavirus cases continue to climb”- Kate Gibson, Irene Ivanovo

    Genre- informational News article

    MLA FORMAT-

    Gibson, Kate, and Irina Ivanova. “Grocery Store Workers Fear Getting Sick as Coronavirus Cases Continue to Climb.” CBS News, 24 Nov. 2020, http://www.cbsnews.com/news/covid-cases-grocery-store-union-workers-fear-sick.

    Purpose~

    To show our everyday fear of catching COVID and the fear of spreading it to our family and loved ones.

    Source 4-

    “We haven’t learned’: Grocery workers face new challenges as Covid worsens, pandemic fatigue sets in”

    Genre – informational news article

    MLA FORMAT-

    Repko, Melissa. “‘We Haven’t Learned’: Grocery Workers Face New Challenges as Covid Worsens, Pandemic Fatigue Sets In.” CNBC, 23 Nov. 2020, http://www.cnbc.com/2020/11/23/grocery-workers-face-new-challenges-as-covid-worsens-fatigue-sets-in.html.

    Purpose-

    To show what challenges groceries workers go through. Nothings changed, this article opens the mind n pov of what grocery worker really face during these tough time.

  16. Arlene Perez

    Sources:
    1. New Directions For Veterans (LA County CA)
    https://ndvets.org/programs-services/mental-health/common-issues-facing-veterans/
    The genre is informative, and I think this will be helpful because it lists common issues the veteran community faces.
    2. Vogt DS, Tyrell FA, Bramande EA, Nillni YI, Taverna EC, Finley EP, Perkins DF, Copeland LA. U.S. Military Veterans’ Health and Well-Being in the First Year After Service. Am J Prev Med. 2020 Mar;58(3):352-360. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2019.10.016. Epub 2020 Jan 2. PMID: 31902684.
    The genre is informative, and I think this source will be helpful because it states facts about the first year a veteran transition to the civilian life.
    3. “The VA Claim Process after You File Your Claim.” Veterans Affairs, 10 Mar. 2021, http://www.va.gov/disability/after-you-file-claim/.
    The genre is informative, and I think this source will be helpful because it is from the direct source that is causing the issues within the veteran community.

    Research Questions:
    1. Why are there delays in the turnaround time on the decision making for a veteran’s service-connected disability claim?
    2. Why do so many veterans become homeless soon after transitioning back to the civilian life?
    3. Why is it difficult for a veteran to obtain gainful employment when finished with their military service?
    4. Why are the suicide rates in the veteran community such high numbers?
    5. What can be done to help lower it and bring more awareness for better prevention?

Leave a Reply to Rebekah Coleman Cancel reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *