Subject:           500-Word Summary of Article About Object-oriented Programming (OOP)

To: Prof. Ellis
From: Hamzat Olowu
Date: Oct. 6, 2021
Subject: 500-Word Summary of Article About Object-oriented Programming (OOP)

The following is a 500-word summary of a peer-reviewed article about object-oriented programming (OOP) and its role in computing. The authors discussed the traditional procedural approach and how OOP made it obsolete. According to Hinsch et al., “Applications today do not offer the consistency and flexibility needed to make the computing environment more productive for end-users.” [1, p. 1]

The complexity of programming projects led to the popularity of the Object-oriented programming (OOP) approach, this is because the approach breaks down a complex problem into smaller and simpler chunks of problems that are isolated and then solved. This approach to problem solving led to OOP being much easier to read and understand. OOP was such a unique and refreshing concept that it quickly rose to fame after it was devised, the invention of C++ and Object Pascal made the concept break into the technical community and more articles have been written that surrounds the OOP approach.

Applications without OOP concepts are not as consistent and as flexible as the ones made with OOP concept, this is making programming more difficult because technologies keep expanding and the traditional approach to problem solving and programming can’t keep up. There are many benefits that OOP has to offer, not only for programmers but for the users as well, these benefits include manipulating objects easily on a desktop, system-level services that does not need the user’s knowledge to run, and control of apps with scripts. For developers, using OOP will allow them to improve productivity and development of applications that needs a graphical interface will become easier.

There are three different groups that will be affected in different ways by the advent of object-oriented programming. The first is the power user, although a power user will not recognize the programming concepts, they will still realize that problems are easier to solve, and their jobs is easier. The second is the general business programmer, who will have a better time when developing graphical based application and database applications, because they will be developing these applications with ease unlike before. Systems-level developer are the ones that fully understands the full capabilities of OOP, using the OOP and its tool they will create the most innovative and complex applications, through which they will contribute the most to the expansion of the computing industry.

Before OOP approach was the traditional procedural approach which are too linear in nature to be used when there is interaction with the user or other programs. Traditional programming can get repetitive when trying to accomplish the same task but on different objects like delete character, delete word, and delete paragraph. This was one of the disadvantages the OOP solved. The primary approach to OOP is to enclose data into what is known as classes, which are a group of objects sharing the same methods and information. Classes can have subclasses that inherits data and methods from the parent classes, this concept is called Inheritance. This makes it possible to reuse software codes which simplifies integration of other applications which also increases productivity while decreasing programming time.

Reference: [1]       Hinsch, Kathryn, et al, (1990). “Object-oriented programming: its role in computing,” Library Software Review, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 18+, Jan.-Feb. 1990. Gale Academic OneFile.

500-word summary about the SYVR system.

To: Professor Ellis
From: Jiaqi Huang
Date: Oct 6, 2021
Subject: 500-word summary about the SYVR system. 

The following is a 500-word summary of an article about the possibility of SYVR system. The SYVR virtual assembly 5g integrated system has multiple functions, it can construct stable virtual scenarios, capturing multidimensional industrial data, simulate virtual assembly process, and presenting the data visualization result based on its physical simulation which can save time and cost, create more value, improve the quality of product and more efficiency for industrial areas. With the 5G high-speed networks, mainstream VR graphic engines are mainly focused on games, movies, and education areas, the results achieved in industry areas are slightly less and can not meet demand, and are not being diverse enough. 

The performance of virtual technology with 5g high-speed networks in virtual manufacture industries are not mature enough and there are many important problems that need to be solved, like the transfer of the real-time data, the generation and visual display under high-speed networks, the build models in a virtual sense, and the implementation of high-level physical simulation techniques, etc.

Based on the article, the system can build virtual environments by using realistic physics simulation and real-time rendering techniques for various industries. We also can adjust data in real-time, present complex scenes, and build the interactive system under the 5g high-speed network environment. And the industrial virtual manufacturing system can import models, process data, and provide visual presentations to users. 

The SYVR engine saves a lot of time and cost and brings more value to industrial production and the equipment manufacturing fields by providing virtual test and design simulation because it can construct virtual experiment scene based multi-dimensional industrial data input and processing, also can show user effect in visual and create interactive simulation system but all these functions need to under the 5g high-speed network and the virtual environment. 

The SYVR system supported real-time operation guidance, daily inspection, dynamic 3D production display, and employee training which means users can get enough training in the simulation of the realistic industrial production line so as to reduce the number of accidents and improve the quality of products with higher efficiency. The system can provide a high quality of industrial VR/AR while keeping the high bandwidth and low delay based on its strong calculation and real-time simulation, it also can build the industrial digital application system by using its data simulation platform to help 5g high-speed networks make contributions in different areas. Thanks to the development of the 5g high-speed network, it can help the SYVR system make advances on its high-performance industrial real-time simulation graphics rendering engine too so as to have a higher level of simulation effects. 

The SYVR project can improve the safety and correct percentage of key operation by using its functions like virtual operation guidelines, daily inspections, and real-time data visualization effects and the need of this system also can speed up the development of 5g virtual technology which expands its application in industrial, medical areas. “Large-scale applications, upgrade the existing VR experience level, provide more possibilities for industrial, medical and other scenarios with high requirements on low latency, and explore more commercial 5G + VR intelligent manufacturing solutions.”[1,p2]

I believe this system can provide people with a work environment with more safety and efficiency.

Reference[1]Y. Liu, Y. Tang, J. Zhao, O. Sun, M. Lv and L. Yang, “5G+VR industrial technology application,” 2020 International Conference on Virtual Reality and Visualization (ICVRV), 2020, pp. 336-337, doi: 10.1109/ICVRV51359.2020.00090.

500- Word Summary of Article About Improving Safety and Performance Testing for EV Batteries

To: Professor Ellis
From: Mohammed Sakib Islam
Date: 10/06/2021
Subject: 500- Word Summary of Article About Improving Safety and Performance Testing for EV Batteries

Below is a 500-word summary of a peer-reviewed article about improving safety and performance testing for EV batteries. While creating an electric vehicle that is functional, safe, and durable, battery technology can be considered as the first important thing to keep in mind. This technology will be required in the coming period to help Europe transition to a low-carbon, resource-efficient economy. To ensure the protection and sustainability of European customers, the Government and The Industry should compose a list of procedures for inspections so that any oversight can be rectified. Testing a certain battery pack before the initiation into the market and making sure it needs no alteration which could have an impact on customers is a crucial step to follow. Tests such as Performance, endurance, reliance, and abuse tests are done on the batteries to ensure if a battery pack can be hazardous to customers and are done in controlled environments so that further improvements can be done before deployment into the market. According to the authors, “Given that EVs have been prioritized as a ‘green’ solution to decarbonize Europe’s transport sector, it is also important for pre commercialisation tests to measure their environmental impact over their entire lifecycle” [1, p. 2].

Test procedures established to a certain standard at the international level may be subject to evaluation by the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC) and the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). Some examples of IEC and ISO standards are given to give a brief specification of the need for battery testing such as IEC 626601, 2; IEC 61982; IEC 624853; ISO 64691, 2, 3; ISO 124051, 2, 3; Both EUROBAT and JRCIET share the same belief that if all batteries are manufactured to a certain set of global standards before they are assembled into an EV for safety. To raise awareness at the international and national level, EUROBAT has collaborated with EU institutes, and they even participate in official meetings between European and Chinese regulators to raise awareness. their security awareness. EUROBAT and JRCIET have concluded a memorandum of understanding demonstrating their cooperation in the study of battery performance tests and evaluations as well as regulations for clean and efficient batteries and safe electricity storage particularly for transport. Cooperation from mutual partners offers a favorable opportunity to resolve issues during battery testing to ensure that issues can be resolved during BESTEST battery testing activities. The BESTEST activity aims to strengthen the relationship between JRCIET and relevant European industries and their representative associations. EUROBAT and JRCIET understand that such cooperation can pave the way for a better future for Europe’s transition to a low-carbon economy as well as a much better relationship between the United States and Europe regarding the safety of batteries in electric vehicles prior to their market deployment.


[1]       A. Westgeest and L. Brett, “Improving safety and performance testing for EV batteries,” 2013 World Electric Vehicle Symposium and Exhibition (EVS27), 2013, pp. 1-4, doi:10.1109/EVS.2013.6914940

500-Word Summary of Article About 5G technology

TO:                         Prof. Ellis
FROM:                  Shuaixiang Feng
DATA:                   Oct 5, 2021
SUBJECT:             500-Word Summary of Article About 5G technology

The following is a 500-word summary of a peer-reviewed article about D2D communication in 5G. Following the increased number of devices, we require a faster, extensive, and reliable network. 5G network can satisfy the demand. D2D communication will be an excellent solution for providing a better network service. D2D communication is used for the “physical proximity” of communication devices. In D2D communication, devices will skip the indirect connection between the device to the Base Station and directly connect with another device. According to the authors, “D2D functionality supports high baud rates and reduces latency between devices, making it particularly important in meeting the standards set for 5G network deployment.” [1, p.987]

The authors list four possibilities to explain the difference between traditional wireless communication and D2D communication in a two-layer 5G cellular network. The main feature of D2D communication makes it different from traditional communication: avoid the Base Station or Access Point if two devices are close enough. The devices must establish a connection with Base Station at first to make a connection with others. The second part is devices also controlled by Base Station, but they directly connect because of D2D communication. The third part of the image means devices require much more relays to transfer source to destination if the connection without inclusion the Base Station. The Fourth image shows two devices still direct connecting without Base Station.

D2D communication has more advantages besides the higher security and reduction of costs. It has better coverage, great data transmission speed, reliable communication, using the same radio frequency to transfer more data than others, higher energy efficiency, heterogenous linkage, and low latency. Also, D2D networks can be used in M2M communication in IoT for responses in real-time and support low latency. Also, D2D communication can contribute to IoT in smart cities as its efficient usage of the radio source and small energy cost. Further, between the vehicle-to-vehicle data transmission of data sharing, D2D communication can be used for the V2V communication.

On the essential functions of D2D application, users may find each other for using a social application and transmission data or services on HD video recording device set high requirements for the base network and the spectrum resources. D2D enables in reducing the transmission pressure of the network.

D2D is necessary to enhance the regular security system prepared for every threat. Currently, D2D security is created by many cryptographic algorithms such as Diffie-Hellman and River Shamir Adleman. The paper’s authors identify the potential security vulnerabilities and classify the attacks, such as Impersonation and IP Spoofing, which may create a severe security threat.

D2D communication is a new wireless technology that can reduce the network’s load and become a new social networking tool. In addition, D2D is one of the critical technologies in 5G network, which enables it to support low latency, fast transmission speed, wide-coverage, and low energy consumption.


[1] Čaušević, Samir, Adisa Medić, and Nedžad Branković. “D2D Technology Implementation in 5G Network and the Security Aspect: A Review.” 2021-05-27, TEM Journal 10.2 (2021): p.987–995. Web.

500- Word Summary of Article About Malware Detection In Self Driving Cars

TO:       Prof. Ellis
FROM:     DeAndre Badresingh
DATE:     Oct. 6, 2021
SUBJECT:  500-Word Summary of Article About Malware Detection In Self-Driving Cars

    Since transportation becomes more intelligent, it leaves it more vulnerable to cyber-attacks. There has been many times where users have lost control of their vehicle due to someone attacking their system. This is typically caused by various forms of malicious software. Malicious software replicates an already authorized software for self-driving vehicles. Methods and experiments have been put In place to analyze detection of compromised self- driving cars. Vehicle to vehicle protection is important because it allows external connections to not only provide comfort for the driver but also update the security. Security technology is analyzed and scans the security of the car for intrusion detection. 

The main method for hackers getting access to information is through the use of malicious code which allows them to gain or deny access to a user’s system. To combat this, Machine learning algorithm using the software called Adware and General Malware (AW&GM) is used to differentiate normal code from malicious code used by hackers. 

Attempted breaches come in many forms which includes malicious messages, denial of service, or even adware. A method which involves reconfiguring electronic control units uses a control module known as mitigation manager that scans for cyber-attacks. Another method for controlling these types of attacks involves an algorithm that scans for unusual patterns in within the vehicles network. Furthermore, another concept in mind was the use of cloud defense framework which allows only one gateway to monitor all traffic going into and out of the network. 

Since self-driving vehicles are usually connected to public networks security is key to protecting them due to higher chances of having the operating system compromised. On a most recent machine learning algorithm study, intrusion detection was installed into the vehicles which allows the unit to actively see real-time changes in behavioral rhythm. With this new software, the algorithm can determine the intrusion more accurately by learning, verifying, and evaluating messaging patterns.

In the event of unusually high network traffic, intrusion detection relies on scaling. Scaling prevents under or overflow of data when undergoing experiments. When the environment is right, the multiple rounds of test begins. More tests are required during the experimental phase because they may come back as false positives.  

To conclude, IDS go through the three phases of data preprocessing, modeling, and detecting. Simulated results are compared to proposed algorithms. Benign code, adware, and general malware are known as classification scenarios.

Using random forest, also known as RF, has been proven to have a higher predication accuracy. It has been concluded that using an algorithm with short learning time can use used to prove the mode accurate results. Receiver operating characterizes are also used to calculate the results from the tests. Each use of these methods revealed to have a different success result. Since transportation is ever-changing, security has to keep up to protect users.


[1] S. Park and J.-Y. Choi, “Malware detection in self-driving vehicles using machine learning algorithms,” Journal of Advanced Transportation, vol. 2020, pp. 1–9, 2020. 

500-Word Summary of Article About Software Protection

To: Professor Ellis
From: Roshel Babayev
Date: 10/5/2021
Subject: 500-Word Summary of Article About Software Protection

Computer systems have many vulnerable points with the most vulnerable aspect being the system administrators. A very common attack is known as a man-at-the-end attack (MATE) is performed via tampering based on information obtained by reverse engineering (which is highly illegal). To stop these types of attacks from occurring, we try our best to ensure all items are in proper order by verifying their signature. We implement obfuscation to prevent (or at least slow down) the reverse engineering process and to preserve integrity of the software. For a MATE attack to process, the malicious user must get their hands on the software and is required to reverse engineer it but with software protection being implemented, it makes their task much harder. Utilizing a MATE attack could be just something to assist you from paying your bills to something catastrophic especially when is it utilized as a terroristic attack. 

Today, the video gaming market is one of the most significant aspects of the US economy but with cheaters producing their own virtual in-game item (which has value in the real world), they essentially devalue the economy. The major issue with these attacks is that all our information is stored digitally including military secrets and if someone could get their hands on this information especially if it is an outside party, could cause severe damage to us. Software protection isn’t a full-proof way to stop these sorts of attacks, it only delays the inevitable. There are four basic categories in which software protection falls under: code obfuscation, tamper-proofing, watermarking and birthmarking. Code obfuscation makes it much harder to reverse-engineer software. Tamper-proofing has the basic purpose of ensuring the file has not been modified in any such way via implemented checks. Watermarking allows for a fingerprint on the software indicating who is the owner of said reverse-engineered software and is often combined with tamper-proofing. 

In a sequence of articles, Mariano Ceccato and Paolo Tonella wrote an article detailing a concept which allow the client to have a stub which when ran would stream the real code from the server to the client but each time it would be streamed, it would be mutated so that you could never pull the original code out. Following that article’s release, another article was developed showcasing the new Trusted Platform Module chips which are found regularly on computers these days and allow for more effective use of tamper-resistance. As a method to avoid others from stealing proprietary code, open-source development allowed for a license in-place to prevent others from stealing your code. Since code didn’t have a proper means to be copyrighted, a new license was introduced which was a service license based on ODRL-S. While software protection is a must these days, the major downside is performance taking a hit when using many security methods. 

[1] Falcarin, Paolo et al. “Software Protection.” IEEE software 28.2 (2011): 24–27.