Expanded Definition of Digital

TO:                         Prof. Ellis
FROM:                  Shuaixiang Feng
DATE:                    10/25/2021
SUBJECT:              Expanded Definition Term: Digital, Final Draft


The purpose of the Word Expanded Definition Term memo is to focus a term on its etymology and historical development, looking for the inconsistent meaning and how it uses in a different area. Digital is the word I have chosen for the Word Expanded Definition Term project. This paper will discuss digital in two different working areas and how this term defines the meaning of those two kinds of audiences—also contrasting the definition in different timelines to investigate how its context changes.


Digital can define as “Chiefly humorous. Any of the fingers (including the thumb) of the hand.” [1] This etymology was around the 1300s. In human history, people like to use their fingers as a calculator. People are familiar with defining digital as their fingers of the hand. Another definition has its distinct vision. Digital is “composed of data in the form of especially binary digits.” [2] Digital has become a concept that is using in the computing area. Currently, the development technology can observe digits, but in the past, people could only use their fingers to represent the whole number between one to nine. While people used their fingers to count one to nine, that was the origin of Math and Algorithm. Every number we knew started from understood the finger of our hands. From first-person definite and use this term as meaning to 2021, the definition of digital is increasing and updating. However, the digital, composed of data and binary digits, is still a Math and Algorithm.


Following Fraser’s magazine for town and country, “Hundreds of thousands vanish at the touch of royal digitals,” [3] by James Fraser. The word digital is used as a noun in this sentence. “At the touch of royal digitals’, where people used to touch something? So digital represent a hand from Britain, which means the power of Britain eliminated thousands of people in Fraser. In so many countries, military power is loyal to the king or noble for protecting their life and property. So, they control their military power like controlling their hand because no media and others can affect the military.

Another author states his point of view on the word digital. “In today’s digital age, technology has a firm grasp on practically every aspect of human life; consequently, there is growing cross-sector demand to help individuals build digital competencies such as digital literacy, digital skills, and digital readiness.” [4] Over here, digital uses as an adjective and means any composed of the data item. The author states that the word digital means an electronic product composed of data, and binary digits are essential today. Electronic products are increasing numerous amounts in many industries. No digital industry is decreasing, which makes authors wondering is it require to help the employee build digital literacy, digital skills, and digital readiness. As we know, a considerable number of elders are working in many industries. They are still using the old cell phone, which can only take a call and send mail. Suppose a company is not wanting to quit those experienced employees. Those companies require to update or rebuild the digital knowledge of those elders.

Working Definition

Currently, in CST, digital is always used as an adjective and surrounds every people work in CST. Every product has a screen and OS that can call as digital items such as smartphones or laptops because every byte in the program and OS are all meaning data. So, all electronic products can definite as digital. Following the technology development, Artificial Intelligence may join in with some industries; computer science technology is the possible area that Artificial Intelligence joined. Artificial Intelligence looks much different from other electronic products, and it has intelligence. However, Artificial Intelligence is still defined as digital because AI is a program made by data. That is why Artificial Intelligence can call as a digital item. As programmer uses computer language to establish and create more new technology, the word is becoming more digital.


[1] “digital, n. and adj.” OED Online, Oxford University Press, September 2021, www.oed.com/view/Entry/52611. Accessed 4 October 2021.

[2] “Digital.” Merriam-Webster.com Dictionary, Merriam-Webster, https://www.merriam-webster.com/dictionary/digital. Accessed 4 Oct. 2021.

[3] James Fraser,” Fraser’s magazine for town and country.” Fraser’s Mag. 22 397, 1830

[4] “IEEE Standard for Digital Intelligence (DQ)–Framework for Digital Literacy, Skills, and Readiness,” in IEEE Std 3527.1-2020 , vol., no., pp.1-47, 15 Jan. 2021, doi: 10.1109/IEEESTD.2021.9321783.

500-Word Summary of Article About 5G technology

TO:                         Prof. Ellis
FROM:                  Shuaixiang Feng
DATA:                   Oct 5, 2021
SUBJECT:             500-Word Summary of Article About 5G technology

The following is a 500-word summary of a peer-reviewed article about D2D communication in 5G. Following the increased number of devices, we require a faster, extensive, and reliable network. 5G network can satisfy the demand. D2D communication will be an excellent solution for providing a better network service. D2D communication is used for the “physical proximity” of communication devices. In D2D communication, devices will skip the indirect connection between the device to the Base Station and directly connect with another device. According to the authors, “D2D functionality supports high baud rates and reduces latency between devices, making it particularly important in meeting the standards set for 5G network deployment.” [1, p.987]

The authors list four possibilities to explain the difference between traditional wireless communication and D2D communication in a two-layer 5G cellular network. The main feature of D2D communication makes it different from traditional communication: avoid the Base Station or Access Point if two devices are close enough. The devices must establish a connection with Base Station at first to make a connection with others. The second part is devices also controlled by Base Station, but they directly connect because of D2D communication. The third part of the image means devices require much more relays to transfer source to destination if the connection without inclusion the Base Station. The Fourth image shows two devices still direct connecting without Base Station.

D2D communication has more advantages besides the higher security and reduction of costs. It has better coverage, great data transmission speed, reliable communication, using the same radio frequency to transfer more data than others, higher energy efficiency, heterogenous linkage, and low latency. Also, D2D networks can be used in M2M communication in IoT for responses in real-time and support low latency. Also, D2D communication can contribute to IoT in smart cities as its efficient usage of the radio source and small energy cost. Further, between the vehicle-to-vehicle data transmission of data sharing, D2D communication can be used for the V2V communication.

On the essential functions of D2D application, users may find each other for using a social application and transmission data or services on HD video recording device set high requirements for the base network and the spectrum resources. D2D enables in reducing the transmission pressure of the network.

D2D is necessary to enhance the regular security system prepared for every threat. Currently, D2D security is created by many cryptographic algorithms such as Diffie-Hellman and River Shamir Adleman. The paper’s authors identify the potential security vulnerabilities and classify the attacks, such as Impersonation and IP Spoofing, which may create a severe security threat.

D2D communication is a new wireless technology that can reduce the network’s load and become a new social networking tool. In addition, D2D is one of the critical technologies in 5G network, which enables it to support low latency, fast transmission speed, wide-coverage, and low energy consumption.


[1] Čaušević, Samir, Adisa Medić, and Nedžad Branković. “D2D Technology Implementation in 5G Network and the Security Aspect: A Review.” 2021-05-27, TEM Journal 10.2 (2021): p.987–995. Web.