My Instruction Manual for Installing the Oracle VM can be found online here.
TO: Prof. Jason Ellis
FROM: Rameen Khan
DATE: Oct. 27, 2021
SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of Linux
The goal of the Word Expanded Definition Term memo is to emphasize on technical terms and temporal development, as well as compare and contrast its interpretation. And to highlight the most used words in the Computer Information System major. I looked up concepts such as networks, information technology and data analysis beside others related to CIS Major, and considered how extensive the word may be. Linux is the word I’ve picked for my Expanded Word Definition project. Other names I considered include Hardware, Software, CPU, RAM, Encryption, CenOS and Decryption. Based on my preliminary research, I would first describe the word’s historical use, implication, and signification. The earliest use of this word started in 1991 by L. B. Torvalds and in this project, I will talk about how this word has been used differently based on this use of a term over time. Sources that I looked into through (The City Tech) library database will be used to perform my expanded definition, and I wound up utilizing the Oxford English Dictionary, Gale eBook, Oxford English and IEEE Xplore to look for these phrases. My main area of interest in computers is networking and Linux is an important part of the operating system which manages a system’s hardware and resources, like CPU, memory and storage. Linux is also compatible with personal computers, mobile devices, tablet computers, routers, and other embedded systems.
Linux has a long history, dating back to 1991. This phrase has evolved over time to mean different things while maintaining the same notion. The Oxford English Dictionary Linux defines it as “An open-source operating system modelled on Unix, available in a number of different varieties for use in PCs, servers, and other computing devices” . This Definition tells us that Linux is an open-source operating system which is the software that controls the hardware and functions of a computer, such as the CPU, memory, and storage. Continuing on to the next phase, the word’s definition had been more comprehensive of what it truly is. By 2002 a book was published which was named as “Advanced Linux Networking” by Roderick W Smith. This book talked about Linux being one of the most reliable, secure and worry-free operating systems available and embedded systems across the globe. According to Gale eBooks “Since its inception in 1991, it has attracted widespread attention because of its compatibility with different platforms, and also because Linux is considered by many users to be faster, more robust, and more economical compared to other operating systems.” . The Linux operating system for computers was developed by a Swedish computer scientist. Torvalds began developing this system while a university student in Finland, and it is now freely available over the Internet. A Software developer Torvalds not only made one of the most widely supported operating systems. But also gave freedom to study how the program works and freedom to run the program, for any purpose.
While Linux has been useful for over two decades, and how It is built in a variety of ways. Technology Researchers, Suchakrapani Datt Sharma, D.N Sonawane, Tanushri Chakravorty, Tushar Patil wrote in an article, the e-Learning era has brought in new ways of influencing education. According to this novel, “An E-learning system is networked, which makes it capable of instant updating, storage/retrieval, distribution and sharing of instruction or information; It is delivered to the end-user via a computer using standard Internet technology; It focuses on the broadest view of learning solutions that go beyond the traditional paradigms of training” . In another word, E-learning methodologies are essential for both student education and employee career progression in the workplace. Moving forward to a different journal by Vincent F. Scalfani, who talks about how he switched from Microsoft Windows to Linux and why he now prefers using Linux. One of the reasons is, “Some of the reasons reported for using Linux are that it is available at no cost, can be customized, runs well on older hardware, and offers an opportunity to support free and open-source communities, which may be more in-line with personal or institutional motivations and philosophies” . As I mentioned earlier, Linux is an open-source operating system which is software. And one of the most dependable, secure, and there’s no cost to enter… as in, it’s free. Linux can be installed on as many computers as you want without having to pay for software or server licensing.
All these definitions are similar in that they both illustrate how Linux can be useful in a variety of ways. According to definitions dating back to the 1991 and more current definitions. Linux is an operating system, just like Windows, iOS, and Mac OS. An operating system is a piece of software that controls all of the hardware resources on your computer or laptop. Simply explained, the operating system is in charge of coordinating the connection between your program and your hardware. The software would not work without the operating system (OS). Why Linux? To respond to that question, Linux has evolved into one of the world’s most dependable computer ecosystems. When you combine that dependability with the fact that there is no fee of entry, you have the appropriate desktop platform.
 “Linux,” in Oxford English Dictionary. 3rd ed. Oxford, UK: Oxford Univ. Press, Dec, 2009, def. 1. [Online]. Available: https://www-oed com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/view/Entry/251510?redirectedFrom=linux
 L. Fundukian. “Gale Encyclopedia of E-Commerce,” L. Fundukian, Ed. Gale, a Cengage Company, 2012. Available: Linux – Document – Gale eBooks (cuny.edu)
 J. Lee, Y. Kim and S. Kim, “Design and Implementation of a Linux Phone Emulator Supporting Automated Application Testing,” 2008 Third International Conference on Convergence and Hybrid Information Technology, 2008, pp. 256-259, DOI: 10.1109/ICCIT.2008.84.
 S. Vincent, “Using the Linux operating system full-time: Tips and experiences from a subject liaison librarian,” College & Research Libraries News. Oct2021, Vol. 82 Issue 9, p428-431. 4p, Oct 2021. [Online]. DOI: 10.5860/crln.82.9.428
TO: Prof. Ellis
FROM: Rameen Khan
DATE: Oct, 06, 2021
SUBJECT: 500-Word Summary of Article About Operating System
The following is a 500-word summary of peer-reviewed article about Hardware/Software Partitioning of Operating Systems. The authors discuss an operating system is the primary software that manages all the hardware and other software on a computer. The operating system, also known as an “OS,” interfaces with the computer’s hardware and provides services that applications can use. According to Vincent J. “An Operating System (OS) implements in software basic system functions such as task/process management and I/O” [1, p. 1].
According to this article “RTOS/SoC codesign where both the multiprocessor SoC architecture and custom RTOS (with part potentially in hardware are designed together” [ 1, p. 1]. In another word, A SYSTEM-ON-A-CHIP (SoC) architecture with reconfigurable logic and multiple processing elements sharing a common memory. An RTOS (Real Time Operating System) performs these functions while also being uniquely designed to run programs with high accuracy timing and a high degree of consistency.
In this article, in Figure 2 “A Graphical User Interface (GUI) allows the user to select desired RTOS features most suitable for the user’s needs [ 1, p. 1]. By summarizing this quote, GUI is a form that interacts between humans and computers occur; it consists of information output from the machine, as well as a set of control elements for the user to perform certain actions.
In this Article “The Hardware/Software RTOS generation framework takes as input the following four items: Hardware RTOS Library, Base System Library, Software RTOS Library and User input” [1, P. 1,2]. By elaborating this quote, the SoCLC, SoCDDU, and SoCDMMU are among the RTOS hardware IP accessible in the framework. In a shared memory multiprocessor SoC, the SoCLC stores lock variables in a separate lock cache outside the memory system, decreasing lock latency, lock delay, and bandwidth usage.
According to the author of this Article “Hardware RTOS components have well-defined interfaces to which any PE (Process Element) can connect and thus use the hardware RTOS component features” [ 1, p.2]. By Summarizing this quote, SoC target operating model that address people, Processes and technology, along with business-aligned goals and applicable metrics.
Conclusion: The entire sequence of events that occur for hardware and software interaction is under the control of OS. All the driver software helps the OS to communicate with the hardware, to execute the application software. The purpose of an operating system is to provide an environment in which a user can execute programs in a convenient and efficient manner. The hardware/software partitioning process is a critical component of the codesign technique. It is involved with determining whose functions will be implemented in hardware components and which will be implemented in software components. Applications invoke these routines through the use of specific system calls. This underlying structure and its design are called the system architecture
Reference  V. J. Mooney, “Hardware/software partitioning of operating systems [SoC applications],” 2003 Design, Automation and Test in Europe Conference and Exhibition, 2003, pp. 338-339, doi: 10.1109/DATE.2003.1253630.