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Daily Writing: Magazine Article Summary, Defining a Term, and Two Bibliographic Citations

For today’s beginning of class writing assignment, create a memo addressed to a co-worker whose name you make up. A suggested subject line is “Interesting article about ___”. The blank should be filled in with a term, phrase, or an example of jargon contained in the article.

In the body of your memo, write a brief summary of the article (only 2-3 sentences). In your summary, mention the term that you selected from the article.

Then, start a new paragraph and explain that you looked up the term in the Oxford English Dictionary, which defines it as: “quote from the OED” (“term”, year).

End your memo with a new section titled “References.”

Write APA citations for the article and the definition from the Oxford English Dictionary.


Here’s some information about using the Oxford English Dictionary (on-campus link or off-campus link). In the search box on OED.com, type in your term and hit enter. While the OED has most words in the English language, it might not have all technical jargon. If you can’t find a term, you can switch to a different term for the purposes of this exercise.

When you quote a definition from the OED in your memo, put quotation marks around the definition and end the sentence with a parenthetical citation like this: (“Term,” year).

To find out the year of publication, Click the “Cite” link on each OED definition to quickly get the bibliographic information that you need, but you will need to reformat it in APA style as I have demonstrated below for your references list.

RAM, n.6. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from https://www.oed.com/view/Entry/269056.

or

integrated, adj., b. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from https://www.oed.com/view/Entry/97354.

Be sure to remove/correct the proxy information in the URL if you’re off campus.

Liuming Chen’s 500-Word Article Summary

           Wang et al. published an article about some of the key technologies of 5G cellular network in IEEE communications magazine, titled “Cellular architecture and key technologies for 5G wireless communication networks”. Major technologies discussed in the articles include a new heterogeneous 5G cellular architecture, some key technologies that can be implemented into 5G to improve performance, and some future challenges.

           The article proposes the next-generation wireless communication technology 5G needs to be constructed in a new type of heterogeneous cellular architecture to achieve maximum, seamless coverage and high mobility. The new architecture will be separate indoor and outdoor access point because of the short-range RF (Radio Frequency) spectra of 5G. Outdoor base stations will be equipped with large antenna arrays. These antennae will connect to wireless access point inside buildings for indoor users. This will solve the short-range and penetration loss through walls issue. Not just stationary wireless communication has issues that need to be addressed, high mobility wireless communication also. According to Wang et al., “High-speed trains can easily reach 350 up to 500km/h, while 4G networks can only support communication scenarios up to 250 km/h” (Wang et al., 2014, p.123). The MFemtocell (Mobile Femtocell) concept, which combines the concepts of mobile relay and femtocell, is proposed to accommodate high mobility uses such as users in vehicles and highspeed trains. Access points can be deployed inside highspeed transportation. Instead of communicating directly to outdoor base stations, devices will be connecting to access points inside of these highspeed transportations.

           Some key technologies have mentioned in the article that can improve the performance and power efficiency of 5G system. They are the following. Massive MIMO (Multiple Input Multiple Output) systems, by adding more antennae to a MIMO system to increase performance, reliability, spectral efficiency, and energy efficiency. SM (Spatial Modulation), a MIMO technique for low-complexity implementation of MIMO system. It can mitigate interchannel interference, interantanna synchronization, and multiple RF chains in conventional MIMO systems. This technique can be used in MIMO system with any number of transmit and receive antennae, even unbalanced MIMO system. CR (Cognitive Radio) network, an innovative software technology to improve the utilization of the RF spectrum. A large portion of the radio spectrum is underutilized most of the time, a CR network can detect, share, and use these spectrums when the system is loaded. Another viable technique that helps mitigate spectrum bottlenecks in RF communication is VLC (Visible Light Communication), which uses LED light as a signal transmitter. It can be implemented using the current lighting infrastructures.

           Many technologies have proposed and discussed in this article, but there are still many challenges needs to be addressed. Such as realistic channel models for 5G wireless systems, reducing signal processing complexity for Massive MIMO, interference management for CR networks, and more importantly, green communications. A tremendous amount of base stations will be deployed in the 5G era because of the short-range signal. Performance is admittedly important, but it also needs to be energy efficient to reduce CO2 emission.

Reference:

Wang, C. X., Haider, F., Gao, X., You, X. H., Yang, Y., Yuan, D., … & Hepsaydir, E. (2014). Cellular architecture and key technologies for 5G wireless communication networks. IEEE communications magazine, 52(2), 122-130.

Project: 750-1000-Word Expanded Definition Phase 1

Our class syllabus describes the 750-1000-word expanded definition project as:

Individually, you will write a 750-1000 word expanded definition of a technical or scientific term, with cover memo, which demonstrates:

1. correct memorandum format.

2. knowledge of the etymology and historical development of the term.

3. examples of the term’s use in various written contexts.

4. ability to compare and contrast various uses of the term.

5. use and citation of sources with proper attribution.

6. awareness of audience.

At least three library-sourced citations are required and should be cited following APA format.

In this project, you will want to select a term, example of jargon, or phrase with special or significant meaning to your major or future career. With this term, you will research and discuss what the term means, how the term’s meaning evolved over time, how its meaning invites debate, and how the term is used in real contexts.

Before delving too deep into the project, it is imperative that you select a meaningful and useful term for your project. The term should be relevant to your interests and studies. I would recommend that you choose a term that is more specific and less broad, but there could be exceptions to this recommendation.

To begin the process of writing this project, I would like you to write a brief memo addressed to Prof. Ellis with the subject: “Expanded Definition Phase One.” Begin with a sentence describing how this memo provides a record of your brainstorming. Then, write a list of at least 20 terms, words, acronyms, or phrases relevant to your studies and/or career. It is from this list that you’ll choose the one that you write your expanded definition project on. For now, you don’t have to choose which one. After you’ve completed your list, copy-and-paste it into a comment to this post, and leave your memo open in the word processor that you used to write it (for the next step).

We will discuss your memos before moving on.

Next, let’s learn about your terms. With your memo still open in your word processor of choice, choose three of the terms that you feel the most strongly about. Move them to the top of your memo’s list of terms. Using the Oxford English Dictionary (on-campus link or off-campus link), find definitions of these terms, copy the definition and etymology into your memo, indent the definition as a block quote, and follow it with an APA bibliographic citation, for example:

RAM, n.6. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from https://www.oed.com/view/Entry/269056.

or

integrated, adj., b. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from https://www.oed.com/view/Entry/97354.

Click the “Cite” link on each OED definition to quickly get the information that you need, but you will need to reformat it in APA style as I have demonstrated above.

Be sure to remove/correct the proxy information in the URL.

Save your memo and use this as the basis for your research.

Before our next class, consider these three terms and choose one that you want to write your project about. With the term selected, you should familiarize yourself with the Wikipedia entry (or associated entry) for that term. While you won’t be citing Wikipedia for this project, you can learn from what is shared there, and you can use the citations included on the entry for your own research.

Also, use the online reference books available through the library to learn more about the term that you selected. This is high-quality content written by experts.

Be prepared to work on this project with a selected term for our next class. The more that you learn about the term now, the easier your research and writing will be. Keep track of any research that you do by adding links to your memo and saving PDFs to your personal storage.

Julia Shin’s 500-Word Article Summary

TO: Prof. Jason W. Ellis

FROM: Julia Shin

DATE: Sept. 17, 2019

SUBJECT: 500-Word Summary of Andrea Zanella’s et al “Internet of Things for Smart Cities”

Andrea Zanella et al discusses the implementation of IoT (Internet of Things) in order to develop a smart city in the article “Internet of Things for Smart Cities” from the IEEE Internet of Things Journal. The concept of the Smart City was created to be more efficient and to provide better services all while reducing costs. The IoT will be the key to turning this concept into a reality. There are, however, some concerns regarding the IoT that may pose as a threat. Despite this, the “Padova Smart City” project provides an example of a possible application of urban IoT network and could act as a catalyst for the whole process. 

One major problem concerning the use of the IoT is its complexity. There are many layers involved in this whole network that must be considered in order to produce the best results. For instance, some key characteristics include its “capability of integrating different technologies with the existing communication infrastructure in order to support a progressive evolution of the IoT” as well as easy accessibility by both the citizens and the authorities (Zanella et al, 2014, p. 25). The different elements of the IoT system will be responsible for protecting these key characteristics. 

There seemed to be a pattern of spotting issue with what is used today. For example, HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol) is not suitable for constrained devices due to its limiting nature. CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol) will combat the issues of HTTP and provide a more reliable service. A HTTP-CoAP intermediary will be the key in allowing transparent communication between the two protocols as well as devices that utilize HTTP. All of this effort, and more, is put into creating a unified system that will work with the devices that exist today while simultaneously working towards the goal. 

In contrast to the intricate details that go into the IoT system, the goals are quite simple. The use of devices like sensors will play an important role to improve services such as smart lighting and monitoring energy consumption. These sensors will be responsible for collecting data that will be stored and processed by the backend servers. For instance, the smart lights will know when to provide light and how much in accordance to the time of day and weather conditions. In the case of the Padova Smart City project, the street lamps were equipped with photometer, temperature, humidity, and benzene sensors. After analyzing the data collected from these sensors over the course of a couple of days, it was observed that generally the light, temperature, and humidity measurements reached saturation levels during the day and dipped back down for the night. Benzene levels also typically decreased during the night as a result of less traffic. 

Realizing the dream of creating a Smart City is no easy task; it is the combination of all these complex systems that make it work. However, the project that took place in Padova, Italy showcases the potential of implementing such a concept. The authors not only acknowledged a lot of the issues that critics may have, but also provided possible solutions. This shows that although the reality of a Smart City may not be perfect yet, it is still worth investing time into. For so long, advancements of technology have caused major environmental problems, but the use of the IoT systems may be what we are all looking for. The future for a Smart City truly looks bright.

References

Zanella, A., Bui, N., Castellani, A., Vangelista, L., & Zorzi, M. (2014). Internet of things for smart cities. IEEE Internet of Things Journal, 1(1), 22–32.

Daniel.L 500-Word Summary

To: Jason Ellis

From: Daniel Lawrence

Date 9/17/19

Subject: 500-Word Summary by Wood, Nagpal and Wei “Flight of the Robo-bees”

  Finding an article or news piece of what has been done already is one thing, but what’s more interesting is the news stories on what is to come. The purpose of this memo is to provide readers feedback of this academic journal entry. Members from Harvard University report on their status and hopes for creating a network hive of robotic bees under the article title “Flight of the Robo-bees” in Scientific American. This memo is to discuss How it works, Complications on creating a larger scale of a hive network and mainly their brain behind its creation. 

After reading the article published by Scientific American the University went down an interesting path of looking how actual flies operate with their sensory capabilities in hopes of doing something similar with these robotic bees. This aspect posing one of the most significant problems was thought to have been avoided by programing a visual system into the bees brain to map out 3-D map of its environment. Based on the article, the plan for creating the sensory component was concluded to use hardware accelerators that will allow for the bees to complete specific pre-desired task. Including something of this magnitude however may cause issues with the individuals bee miniscule body. It’s evident that the group attempting this invention thinks outside the box based on the different avenues that has been explored for the creation of the brain.

Proceeding forward now realizing the difficulty of effectively programing one robo-bee, the team takes on creating a whole hive or network of bees. The path through this the team choose was to create a programing language thats viable for colonies. One way they choose to do so was to create an impromptu language incorporating something called the Karma system. This kind of system is something thats new to me, apparently it’s best described as the stimuli taken from each individual thats sent to the hive in order to adjust the hive’s behavior.

 “Swarms of small, agile and potentially disposable robots can enable many new applications — pollination, for example, or search and rescue in a disaster scenario — that are not possible with individual robots.” ( Wood, Nagpal and Wei. Mar2013. p60-65). This quote from the report really reenforce the limitless applications for undergoing a project like this. Not only for the purpose rescue in disaster scenarios as was mentioned, in addition these bees could be beneficial in the medical field or transportation in a drastic way. However as of now things for the team are just getting started and those applications may prove to be to much for right now. Progress made on the other hand appears to be moving forward as the team holds an open view on different ways the bees can be effective. 

So far the teams tangible goal for these bees is to pollinate fields based on the report. So for now they are focused on the communication between bees.

This article proved beneficial because it showed that projects as unique as this aren’t stoping however are tackled by members of a university.

References; Wood.R , Nagpal.R , Wei.G. (Mar 2013). Flight of the RoboBees. Scientific American, Vol. 308 Issue 3, p60-65. Retrieved from http://web.a.ebscohost.com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/ehost/detail/detail?vid=7&sid=5a682085-463c-41aa-b27b-f80504de1789%40sessionmgr4007&bdata=JnNpdGU9ZWhvc3QtbGl2ZSZzY29wZT1zaXRl#anchor=AN0085941834-17&AN=85941834&db=a9h

Alain Palmer’s 500-word article summary

TO: PROFESSOR ELLIS

FROM: ALAIN PALMER

DATE: 9/16/19

SUBJECT: Enhancing of robots’ abilities using the Cloud, Neuromorphic Computing, and Big Data Analytics.

In this paper “Design of Cloud Based Robots using Big Data Analytics and Neuromorphic Computing” by Satyanarayana, Kusyk, Chen et al discusses some important things about enhancing robots’ abilities. It explained that it is crucial to know the functions and capabilities of the human brain in order to develop robots that will have the ability to link with its environment. Three main functions that was introduced to assist in the enhancement of robots’ abilities are Neuromorphic Computing, Cloud Robots, and Big data Analytics.

Neuromorphic Computing will play a major roll in this project of enhancing robots’ abilities. Neuromorphic Computing is a very large-scale integrating system which included tens to hundreds of transistors per microchip, this was created to imitate the neuro-biological patterns in the nervous system. There has been an increasing demand in neuromorphic computing for its cognitive and brain like computing. With cognitive computing, optimum memory usage, high-speed performances, and low power consumption gives neuromorphic chips its powerful advantages and is also projected to lead the line in rise of robots in the robot industry.  There is also a Zeroth processor chip that is created to mimic brain behavior to help robot learn through training and feedbacks instead of hard coding to behave human like.

Second is Cloud Robots. This is the idea to utilize cloud computing. Cloud-Based Robots would be driven by a brain centered cloud for robots. This would work in the way where all robots attached to the cloud will share information that each other can retrieved as soon as it is uploaded to the cloud. A proposed system called RoboEarth is just like humans sharing humans sharing information online, instead it is for robots. Robo earth has an online database for its cloud engine and it is called Rapyuta, which is to perform heavy-weight processing in the cloud. RoboEarth and Rapyuta main job is to process information from various sources and put them in a format that the robots can execute.

Third is the Big Data Analytic. Big data Analytic was first used to indicate large data for visualization. Big Data can enhance and evolve the robot’s Sense, Plan, and Act (SPA) cycle. With that being said, it means that the with Big Data, robots will be more advance in their environment and will be able to predict their next move in any complex situation encountered without being commanded to do so. Quoted (i) “descriptive analytics to understand why something happens, (ii) predictive analytics to predict what could happen, and (iii) prescriptive analytics to suggest what a robot should do in a complex environment (Satyanarayana, Kusyk, Chen et al, 2018 p3). This is what I explained in the previous sentence.

This summary is to highlight the attempt to cover cloud computing, big data analytics, and neuromorphic computing to enhance the control architecture of robotics. In short, to use a very advanced cloud systems to operate robots and decrease the use of the command center.

References

H. Markram, “Understanding the brain: Organizational and scientific

challenges,” From Physics to Daily Life, pp. 179–190, 2014.

S. Furber, “Large-scale neuromorphic computing systems,” Journal of

Neural Engineering, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1–14, 2016.

D. Monroe, “Neuromorphic computing gets ready for the (really) big

time,” Comm. of the ACM Mag., vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 13–15, 2014.

W. Zhao and et al., “Nanotube devices-based crossbar architecture:

toward neuromorphic computing,” Nanotechnology, vol. 21, no. 17, pp.

175–202, 2010.

Devina Budhan’s 500-Word Article Summary

TO: Professor Ellis

FROM: Devina Budhan

DATE: September 17, 2019

SUBJECT: 500-Word Summary of Margot Douaihy’s “Facing the Future: Harnessing the Power of Facial Detection and Facial Recognition in Pro AV”

            “Facing the Future: Harnessing the Power of Facial Detection and Facial Recognition in Pro AV,” by Margot Douaihy discusses biometric AI (artificial intelligence) technology in terms of facial recognition and detection as well as its security and privacy. In today’s world we rely a lot on AI such as Amazon’s Alexa or Google Assistant and more. However, facial recognition and detection has been the newest and steady growing tech of AI starting from 2017 when smartphones started implementing this feature as a password. I will explain further the difference between facial recognition and detection as well as the legality of it in terms of security and privacy.

            Facial detection is software that can detect a human face by using AV (audio/video). Facial recognition uses a data base to match faces that facial detection picks up by analyzing patterns and features on a person’s face. The senior director of marketing for ELAN, a company for home security system, states that detection is nothing more than what detects human faces in AV whereas recognition takes it a step further to identify whose face is who. Both recognition and detection work hand in hand because without one you are unable to find the other.

However, the senior technical account manager of Samsung SDS America, Joseph Warner, has a different view of facial recognition and detection. According to him, “The Samsung Nexshop analytics solution doesn’t use facial recognition. We use PII-compliant facial analysis…” (Douaihy, 2019, pg. 6). In other words, PII (personally identifiable information) uses an algorithm that analyzes facial features and assigns the person a code such as “male” or “female” without really identifying who they are. Going back to the company ELAN, they believe by using facial recognition and detection, they can personalize the control experience. For example, an employee at a bar or restaurant will have their own profile that gives them access to certain features provided by their manager to help better accommodate their customers without risking others getting into their profiles hence facial recognition.

On the other hand, this brings up the issue of security and privacy. Warner, from Samsung SDS America, made it clear that people’s information collected from the Nexshop sensor is not specific and is actually anonymized when information is collected. Instead of specifically labeling who they are, each feature of that person is given an identification number where it still remains anonymous and safe. Many people are not happy with being recorded or having any kind of picture taken but, in this day, and age, especially in big business everyone is being recorded all the time. However, to compromise with the privacy issue, big corporations tend to have their workforce sign off on a policy that states it will protect their identity by data retention.

Margot Douaihy’s “Facing the Future: Harnessing the Power of Facial Detection and Facial Recognition in Pro AV,” focuses on how biometric AI technology has grown and along with that growth so does the issue of security and privacy. The article explains how AI of facial recognition and detection can put a person’s information out there but at the same time I disagree and believe that this new form of AI can be quite efficient. Yes, it may be costly at first but once the system has all the information it needs in terms of facial features and patterns, it can help speed up the processes of punching a timecard or having someone steal your information. It also negates the notion of passwords in which this day and age a lot of people have issues with because they forget it and constantly have to reset before it locks them out and then turns into a bigger mess. AI in terms of facial recognition and detection is still fairly new in present day, however I believe it will be a breakthrough in the near future once it is perfected in terms of security and privacy.  

Reference:

Doaihy, M. (2019). Facing the Future: Harnessing the Power of Facial Detection and Facial Recognition in Pro AV. TWICE: This Week in Consumer Electronics, 34(13), 6-7

Karmoko Sillah’s 500 Word Essay

To:Profesor Ellis

From:Karmoko Sillah

Date:09/17/2019

Subject:500 word summary of Fang’s “A physiological and behavioral feature authentication scheme for medical cloud based on fuzzy-rough core vector machine”.

 

Liming Fang’s article  “A physiological and behavioral feature authentication scheme for medical cloud based on fuzzy-rough core vector machine” on medical cloud computing and its importance on the impact of cloud storage to medical facilities. 

`Cloud storage is used all across the globe in order to store important information through technology. It allows for institutions and individuals to securely store information . With cloud data comes security risks such as hacking. Because cloud is an online storage system, hackers tend to try to find ways to break into it and steal very important and valuable information. Medical institutions are the main institutions that are liable to be attacked due to the important information such as hospital records that it stores on its databases. The author states, “Although cloud storage provides convenience for media data sharing, it suffers from potential security attacks. In recent years, cloud storage data theft occurred frequently, so it is necessary to improve the security of cloud data storage” (Fang, 2019 p. 5). 

 

According to the article, the medical system consists of three main categories which are data collection, analysis, and storage. These three things are what collect and hold medical data. ALl three of these things must work together. Without data collection hospitals are unable to collect medical information and then store them in databases. With this data collection, comes security. Computer security is essential to the assurance of data integrity. This article details the fact that doctors and other hospital personnel are liable to be victims of attack because they use simple account logins which can be breached by outside attackers anytime. Data leakage is more liable to happen. The author(s) offer an approach to improving security authentication mechanisms through what is called fuzzy-rough approach.

 

This fuzzy-rough  approach was implemented through a simulated attack environment with real life participants, which uses various tests to see whether an actual employee of a medical institution is trying to access data, or an outside entity is attempting to gain unauthorized access to the system. In order for this approach to be put into place, researchers had started looking into the physiological and behavioral features of doctors that could be used as authentication. According to the article, the fuzzy-rough approach is highly efficient and reliable making it the best option for medical institutions. This fuzzy rough approach would essentially become a means of increasing security while at the same time enhancing authentication methods. This approach basically looks to create new authentication methods for doctors and other hospital personnel to use in order to identify themselves to the cloud system and then gain access. It would basically be much more advanced than biometric and fingerprint tough authentication methods. A machine called the “Fuzzy rough core vector machine” is what is going to be built which bought in gesture based authentication methods increasing and enhancing security. I found this article very persuasive because the author first identified and described the problems surrounding cloud data such as its security risks. Then he talks about he and his team’s research , and the benefits that it could bring.

Reference:

Fang, L. (2019, August 9). A physiological and behavioral feature authentication scheme for medical cloud based on fuzzy-rough core vector machine. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020025519307546?via=ihub

 

Jing Sheng Zhao’s 500-Word Article Summary

TO: Prof. Jason W. Ellis

FROM: Jing Sheng Zhao

DATE: 9/17/19

SUBJECT: 500-Word summary of Webster’s “Philosophy of Technology Assumptions in Educational Technology Leadership”

Mark David Webster talked about how the philosophy of technology assumptions has impact on technology leader’s decisions on technology, and he argued it with a quality research. Philosophy of technology is a branch of philosophy that involves examining the underlying assumptions of how technologies impact and transform human society in ways that are philosophically relevant (Kaplan, 2009). The research involved 31 participants from Virginia, there are 15 technology directors, and the others are instructional technology specialists.

Participants will be asked some related questions which constructed by a written questionnaire. The purpose of this study was to know what the K-12 technology leaders think of technology in education, and there are three research questions guided which the author focus on. First, Webster wanted to know about was how are the participants view the technology which we are currently using. Result showed three different views from the participants, one is Technology is a tool, they can control it. Another one is Technological change is inevitable, technology is unstoppable. And the last one is Technological optimism, they had positive view on using technology. Also, one category that frequently pointed out by most of the participants was Technology raises questions of human values, which author stated technology was value laden.

The next question Webster focus on was how are participants used the technology, and their opinions about it. Webster pointed out some participant’s ideas, and there were vary. One participant thought we should keep up the technology, and he addressed that we use technology because in order to achieve some objectives, technology is required, he also thought technology can prepare the student to get ahead. Another participant viewed it should consider the reason to use technology, which means we should drive technology rather than technology drive us, he said he wasn’t like technology, but if he uses it, he needs to see good reasons for it.  Also, one participant pointed out that we should not pursue technology just because the sake of technology.

As Technology Specialist 8 stated that not all the technology is good, and we can’t stop it growing, but we have to use it properly. However, some participants found out they felt so many stress by keeping up the technology. One participant mentioned the working condition he was in, he said it’s hard to keep up with the technology with the limited resource, but if he don’t, he will have left behind. In another hand, Technology Director 7 stated he will consider ethic while he made the technology decision, he said he has to responsible for it since he will deal with the elementary level. The third points author wanted to know was what technology may change in leader’s thinking or decision making. Author points out some participant’s view, it stated that since technology is inevitable, we have to use it and keep pace with the change of technology. And they gave an example on the rise of using eBook instead of paper textbooks, it’s to emphasized the technological imperative.

This article focuses on presenting the implications of the study for educational technology, while providing only a summary of the grounded theory methods used, as a full treatment of the research methods was previously published (Webster, 2016). In the end, the author concluded that philosophy of technology assumptions did change decision while education leader’s approaches to technology, and when they question about it, they are most likely can make a better decision whether or not to use technology within different situations.

References

Webster, M. D. (2017).  Philosophy of Technology Assumptions in Educational Technology Leadership.  Educational Technology & Society, 20 (1), 25–36.