Alain Palmer’s 500-word article summary



DATE: 9/16/19

SUBJECT: Enhancing of robots’ abilities using the Cloud, Neuromorphic Computing, and Big Data Analytics.

In this paper “Design of Cloud Based Robots using Big Data Analytics and Neuromorphic Computing” by Satyanarayana, Kusyk, Chen et al discusses some important things about enhancing robots’ abilities. It explained that it is crucial to know the functions and capabilities of the human brain in order to develop robots that will have the ability to link with its environment. Three main functions that was introduced to assist in the enhancement of robots’ abilities are Neuromorphic Computing, Cloud Robots, and Big data Analytics.

Neuromorphic Computing will play a major roll in this project of enhancing robots’ abilities. Neuromorphic Computing is a very large-scale integrating system which included tens to hundreds of transistors per microchip, this was created to imitate the neuro-biological patterns in the nervous system. There has been an increasing demand in neuromorphic computing for its cognitive and brain like computing. With cognitive computing, optimum memory usage, high-speed performances, and low power consumption gives neuromorphic chips its powerful advantages and is also projected to lead the line in rise of robots in the robot industry.  There is also a Zeroth processor chip that is created to mimic brain behavior to help robot learn through training and feedbacks instead of hard coding to behave human like.

Second is Cloud Robots. This is the idea to utilize cloud computing. Cloud-Based Robots would be driven by a brain centered cloud for robots. This would work in the way where all robots attached to the cloud will share information that each other can retrieved as soon as it is uploaded to the cloud. A proposed system called RoboEarth is just like humans sharing humans sharing information online, instead it is for robots. Robo earth has an online database for its cloud engine and it is called Rapyuta, which is to perform heavy-weight processing in the cloud. RoboEarth and Rapyuta main job is to process information from various sources and put them in a format that the robots can execute.

Third is the Big Data Analytic. Big data Analytic was first used to indicate large data for visualization. Big Data can enhance and evolve the robot’s Sense, Plan, and Act (SPA) cycle. With that being said, it means that the with Big Data, robots will be more advance in their environment and will be able to predict their next move in any complex situation encountered without being commanded to do so. Quoted (i) “descriptive analytics to understand why something happens, (ii) predictive analytics to predict what could happen, and (iii) prescriptive analytics to suggest what a robot should do in a complex environment (Satyanarayana, Kusyk, Chen et al, 2018 p3). This is what I explained in the previous sentence.

This summary is to highlight the attempt to cover cloud computing, big data analytics, and neuromorphic computing to enhance the control architecture of robotics. In short, to use a very advanced cloud systems to operate robots and decrease the use of the command center.


H. Markram, “Understanding the brain: Organizational and scientific

challenges,” From Physics to Daily Life, pp. 179–190, 2014.

S. Furber, “Large-scale neuromorphic computing systems,” Journal of

Neural Engineering, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. 1–14, 2016.

D. Monroe, “Neuromorphic computing gets ready for the (really) big

time,” Comm. of the ACM Mag., vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 13–15, 2014.

W. Zhao and et al., “Nanotube devices-based crossbar architecture:

toward neuromorphic computing,” Nanotechnology, vol. 21, no. 17, pp.

175–202, 2010.

Devina Budhan’s 500-Word Article Summary

TO: Professor Ellis

FROM: Devina Budhan

DATE: September 17, 2019

SUBJECT: 500-Word Summary of Margot Douaihy’s “Facing the Future: Harnessing the Power of Facial Detection and Facial Recognition in Pro AV”

            “Facing the Future: Harnessing the Power of Facial Detection and Facial Recognition in Pro AV,” by Margot Douaihy discusses biometric AI (artificial intelligence) technology in terms of facial recognition and detection as well as its security and privacy. In today’s world we rely a lot on AI such as Amazon’s Alexa or Google Assistant and more. However, facial recognition and detection has been the newest and steady growing tech of AI starting from 2017 when smartphones started implementing this feature as a password. I will explain further the difference between facial recognition and detection as well as the legality of it in terms of security and privacy.

            Facial detection is software that can detect a human face by using AV (audio/video). Facial recognition uses a data base to match faces that facial detection picks up by analyzing patterns and features on a person’s face. The senior director of marketing for ELAN, a company for home security system, states that detection is nothing more than what detects human faces in AV whereas recognition takes it a step further to identify whose face is who. Both recognition and detection work hand in hand because without one you are unable to find the other.

However, the senior technical account manager of Samsung SDS America, Joseph Warner, has a different view of facial recognition and detection. According to him, “The Samsung Nexshop analytics solution doesn’t use facial recognition. We use PII-compliant facial analysis…” (Douaihy, 2019, pg. 6). In other words, PII (personally identifiable information) uses an algorithm that analyzes facial features and assigns the person a code such as “male” or “female” without really identifying who they are. Going back to the company ELAN, they believe by using facial recognition and detection, they can personalize the control experience. For example, an employee at a bar or restaurant will have their own profile that gives them access to certain features provided by their manager to help better accommodate their customers without risking others getting into their profiles hence facial recognition.

On the other hand, this brings up the issue of security and privacy. Warner, from Samsung SDS America, made it clear that people’s information collected from the Nexshop sensor is not specific and is actually anonymized when information is collected. Instead of specifically labeling who they are, each feature of that person is given an identification number where it still remains anonymous and safe. Many people are not happy with being recorded or having any kind of picture taken but, in this day, and age, especially in big business everyone is being recorded all the time. However, to compromise with the privacy issue, big corporations tend to have their workforce sign off on a policy that states it will protect their identity by data retention.

Margot Douaihy’s “Facing the Future: Harnessing the Power of Facial Detection and Facial Recognition in Pro AV,” focuses on how biometric AI technology has grown and along with that growth so does the issue of security and privacy. The article explains how AI of facial recognition and detection can put a person’s information out there but at the same time I disagree and believe that this new form of AI can be quite efficient. Yes, it may be costly at first but once the system has all the information it needs in terms of facial features and patterns, it can help speed up the processes of punching a timecard or having someone steal your information. It also negates the notion of passwords in which this day and age a lot of people have issues with because they forget it and constantly have to reset before it locks them out and then turns into a bigger mess. AI in terms of facial recognition and detection is still fairly new in present day, however I believe it will be a breakthrough in the near future once it is perfected in terms of security and privacy.  


Doaihy, M. (2019). Facing the Future: Harnessing the Power of Facial Detection and Facial Recognition in Pro AV. TWICE: This Week in Consumer Electronics, 34(13), 6-7

Karmoko Sillah’s 500 Word Essay

To:Profesor Ellis

From:Karmoko Sillah


Subject:500 word summary of Fang’s “A physiological and behavioral feature authentication scheme for medical cloud based on fuzzy-rough core vector machine”.


Liming Fang’s article  “A physiological and behavioral feature authentication scheme for medical cloud based on fuzzy-rough core vector machine” on medical cloud computing and its importance on the impact of cloud storage to medical facilities. 

`Cloud storage is used all across the globe in order to store important information through technology. It allows for institutions and individuals to securely store information . With cloud data comes security risks such as hacking. Because cloud is an online storage system, hackers tend to try to find ways to break into it and steal very important and valuable information. Medical institutions are the main institutions that are liable to be attacked due to the important information such as hospital records that it stores on its databases. The author states, “Although cloud storage provides convenience for media data sharing, it suffers from potential security attacks. In recent years, cloud storage data theft occurred frequently, so it is necessary to improve the security of cloud data storage” (Fang, 2019 p. 5). 


According to the article, the medical system consists of three main categories which are data collection, analysis, and storage. These three things are what collect and hold medical data. ALl three of these things must work together. Without data collection hospitals are unable to collect medical information and then store them in databases. With this data collection, comes security. Computer security is essential to the assurance of data integrity. This article details the fact that doctors and other hospital personnel are liable to be victims of attack because they use simple account logins which can be breached by outside attackers anytime. Data leakage is more liable to happen. The author(s) offer an approach to improving security authentication mechanisms through what is called fuzzy-rough approach.


This fuzzy-rough  approach was implemented through a simulated attack environment with real life participants, which uses various tests to see whether an actual employee of a medical institution is trying to access data, or an outside entity is attempting to gain unauthorized access to the system. In order for this approach to be put into place, researchers had started looking into the physiological and behavioral features of doctors that could be used as authentication. According to the article, the fuzzy-rough approach is highly efficient and reliable making it the best option for medical institutions. This fuzzy rough approach would essentially become a means of increasing security while at the same time enhancing authentication methods. This approach basically looks to create new authentication methods for doctors and other hospital personnel to use in order to identify themselves to the cloud system and then gain access. It would basically be much more advanced than biometric and fingerprint tough authentication methods. A machine called the “Fuzzy rough core vector machine” is what is going to be built which bought in gesture based authentication methods increasing and enhancing security. I found this article very persuasive because the author first identified and described the problems surrounding cloud data such as its security risks. Then he talks about he and his team’s research , and the benefits that it could bring.


Fang, L. (2019, August 9). A physiological and behavioral feature authentication scheme for medical cloud based on fuzzy-rough core vector machine. Retrieved from


Jing Sheng Zhao’s 500-Word Article Summary

TO: Prof. Jason W. Ellis

FROM: Jing Sheng Zhao

DATE: 9/17/19

SUBJECT: 500-Word summary of Webster’s “Philosophy of Technology Assumptions in Educational Technology Leadership”

Mark David Webster talked about how the philosophy of technology assumptions has impact on technology leader’s decisions on technology, and he argued it with a quality research. Philosophy of technology is a branch of philosophy that involves examining the underlying assumptions of how technologies impact and transform human society in ways that are philosophically relevant (Kaplan, 2009). The research involved 31 participants from Virginia, there are 15 technology directors, and the others are instructional technology specialists.

Participants will be asked some related questions which constructed by a written questionnaire. The purpose of this study was to know what the K-12 technology leaders think of technology in education, and there are three research questions guided which the author focus on. First, Webster wanted to know about was how are the participants view the technology which we are currently using. Result showed three different views from the participants, one is Technology is a tool, they can control it. Another one is Technological change is inevitable, technology is unstoppable. And the last one is Technological optimism, they had positive view on using technology. Also, one category that frequently pointed out by most of the participants was Technology raises questions of human values, which author stated technology was value laden.

The next question Webster focus on was how are participants used the technology, and their opinions about it. Webster pointed out some participant’s ideas, and there were vary. One participant thought we should keep up the technology, and he addressed that we use technology because in order to achieve some objectives, technology is required, he also thought technology can prepare the student to get ahead. Another participant viewed it should consider the reason to use technology, which means we should drive technology rather than technology drive us, he said he wasn’t like technology, but if he uses it, he needs to see good reasons for it.  Also, one participant pointed out that we should not pursue technology just because the sake of technology.

As Technology Specialist 8 stated that not all the technology is good, and we can’t stop it growing, but we have to use it properly. However, some participants found out they felt so many stress by keeping up the technology. One participant mentioned the working condition he was in, he said it’s hard to keep up with the technology with the limited resource, but if he don’t, he will have left behind. In another hand, Technology Director 7 stated he will consider ethic while he made the technology decision, he said he has to responsible for it since he will deal with the elementary level. The third points author wanted to know was what technology may change in leader’s thinking or decision making. Author points out some participant’s view, it stated that since technology is inevitable, we have to use it and keep pace with the change of technology. And they gave an example on the rise of using eBook instead of paper textbooks, it’s to emphasized the technological imperative.

This article focuses on presenting the implications of the study for educational technology, while providing only a summary of the grounded theory methods used, as a full treatment of the research methods was previously published (Webster, 2016). In the end, the author concluded that philosophy of technology assumptions did change decision while education leader’s approaches to technology, and when they question about it, they are most likely can make a better decision whether or not to use technology within different situations.


Webster, M. D. (2017).  Philosophy of Technology Assumptions in Educational Technology Leadership.  Educational Technology & Society, 20 (1), 25–36.

Dominick Denis’ 500-Word Article Summary

TO: Prof. Jason W. Ellis

FROM: Dominick Denis

DATE: 9/17/19

SUBJECT: 500-Word Summary of L. Gourdo’s et al “Solar energy storing rock-bed to heat an agricultural greenhouse”

Researchers, such as Gourdo et al, have taken more consideration in the expansion of the boundaries surrounding agricultural production. Based on the article, “Solar energy storing rock-bed to heat an agricultural greenhouse” in Energy, it has been gathered that with the use of renewable energized heating technologies optimal growth for crops can be attained. As the technologies are being implemented within a greenhouse, they will be monitored through the seasons, as well as, the times in a day.

During the coldest periods of the year, maintaining agriculture is important in sustaining good land for a people. The land of Morocco, more specifically, in the region of Souss Massa areas have seen an increase in crops. Unfortunately, this increase was a part of a negative correlation as there had been a significant decrease in quality of production during the season of winter. The research of the Faculty of Science will test the effectiveness of a solar greenhouse heating system in order to make justify it as a viable solution for agricultural purposes.

As the heating systems serve as the best solution, farmers are forced to equip them only to meet the harvested products standards needed for export. The experimental heating systems of the renewable energy kind offer the most beneficial results compared to that of the conventional fossil fueled system. On the aspect of solar energy, several systems were studied but matters of pricing and installation considered obstacles. Researchers would, then, study an underground rock-bed that would be able to heat a 15 m² tunnel greenhouse. As the rocks stored solar energy from the greenhouse during the day, it would also restore it at night. To maintain the inside air temperature of a greenhouse was the goal, especially during extreme nights of winter.

The measurements of climate parameters, like temperature, relative humidity, and soil temperature, between the experimental and conventional greenhouses were taken and studied throughout the year. In order to measure parameters on the outside of the greenhouses a weather station was installed. Measurement on crop parameters weren’t disregarded as both greenhouses were fed by the same ferti-irrigation system. Specifications of rocks and layers of rock were recorded in order to facilitate the circulation of air in the reservoir of the rock-bed. Numerous tests were done on various aspects of this research in order to come to a final conclusion.

As the processes were put in motion, they eventually came to a halt. According to Gourdo et al, “In conclusion, greenhouse solar heating system, using rock-bed, is a profitable system, easy to install…” (Gourdo et al, 2019, 211). Requirements were met, from air temperature to an increase in yield. Ultimately, the efficiency of a solar heating system proved to be optimal.


Gourdo, L., Fatnassi, H. et al. (15 February 2019). Solar energy storing rock-bed to heat an agricultural greenhouse. Energy, Volume 169, Pages 206-212. Retrieved from ARTICLE1 solar energy store.pdf or