For this project, I created an instructional manual that details how to use windows 2012 server r2 as an admin.
Subject: According to the oxford dictionary, Malware is defined as “Programs written with the intent of being disruptive or damaging to (the user of) a computer or other electronic device; viruses, worms, spyware, etc., collectively” (“malware”, 2019.)
Reference: Firmware, n. (2019) In Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from https://www-oed-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/view/Entry/267413?redirectedFrom=malware#eid
This paper will thoroughly examine and evaluate the term “malware” which is an integral part of the new age of technology. Malware is one of the biggest and original attacks that have been used for years by hackers in order to compromise systems. This paper will look into its origins. Dialogues pertaining to the topic of malware, and among other interesting things. I will be using various articles, books, and dialogues that I have found in order to dive deep into the term malware.
As generally defined by Kramer, “Intuitively, malware is software that harmfully attacks other software…Logically speaking, a harmful attack on a software system is nothing else than the falsification of a necessary condition for the correctness of that system. Hence, pieces of malware are falsifiers of the correctness hypothesis made de facto by the shipment of the software system”(Kramer, 2019). This definition given by Kramer, offers the definition that malware is an attack on computing systems through which falsified data is sent to systems in order to compromise individuals and exploit their vulnerable systems. Another definition given by Damshenas of malware is as stated, “Malware is a general term, which stands for malicious software and has many shapes (codes, scripts, active content and others). It has been designed to achieve some targets such as, collecting sensitive data, accessing private computer systems, even sometimes harming the systems“ (Damshenas, 2013). This author dives deeper into the definition of malware, where he says that malware takes on many different shapes . It’s not always just codes that are used to compromise a system, but scripts are used, ads, content, etc. This is why it is so hard to detect because there isn’t a single attack mechanism that is used in malware, it takes on various attacks. Similar to Kramer’s definition, this author also states that malware is used to cause intentional harm to a computer system for the purpose of accessing unauthorized information. The third definition given by Britannica’s book “From privacy to piracy” states, “Malware, or “ mal icious soft ware ,” is any kind of malicious computer program, such as a virus, trojan, spyware, or worm. Malware typically infects a personal computer (PC) through e-mail, Web sites, or attached hardware devices” (Britannica, 2011). The authors of this book define malware as being a code of malice which can be used as many different forms of attacks which are then injected into a person’s computer using false emails and sites. This definition is also similar to the ones prior to it , where it too defines malware as an intended attack towards another individual using different techniques . These authors don’t really differ in their definition of malware, some offer a more in-depth definition than the other, but they all lean towards the same denotation of the word “malware”.
In conclusion, with all the definitions and examples of malware that could be found throughout various sources and cites I have generated a working definition of the term after doing much research. Malware can be defined as a malicious software program, that can be injected into a system via email, pdf, etc, using various techniques such as coding, scripting, phishing, etc which in turn falsifies itself as a reliable entity, and when it is trusted by an end-user and opened it can then spread throughout a system compromising it, and leaving valuable information exposed to an outside entity. Malware is only growing more and more as technological advancements continue to grow. Finding a stop to malware has become more and more of a challenge due to the advancement of technology and the tools that come with it which are available to hackers for use.
1.Kramer, Simon, and Julian C. Bradfield. “A General Definition of Malware.” SpringerLink, Springer-Verlag, 29 Sept. 2009, https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s11416-009-0137-1.
2.Damshenas, M., Dehghantanha, A., & Mahmoud, R. (2013). A survey on malware propagation, analysis, and detection. International Journal of Cyber-Security and Digital Forensics, 2(4), 10+. Retrieved from https://link-gale-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/apps/doc/A359172420/AONE?u=cuny_nytc&sid=AONE&xid=906ba4aa
3.Britannica, Educational Publishing Staff. Issues in Cyberspace : From Privacy to Piracy, edited by Robert Curley, Rosen Publishing Group, 2011. ProQuest Ebook Central, http://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/citytech-ebooks/detail.action?docID=798344.
Created from citytech-ebooks on 2019-10-10 14:42:38.
4.Razak, M., Anuar, N., Salleh, R., & Firdaus, A. (2016). The rise of “malware”: Bibliometric analysis of malware study. Journal of Network and Computer Applications, 75(C), 58-76.
5.Sanger, D. E., & Perlroth, N. (2015, February 14). Bank Hackers Steal Millions via Malware. Retrieved from https://www.nytimes.com/2015/02/15/world/bank-hackers-steal-millions-via-malware.html.
6.Bulletin, V. (n.d.). Mysql.com hacked, serving malware. Retrieved October 12, 2019, from https://www.virusbulletin.com/blog/2011/09/mysql-com-hacked-serving-malware/.
7.Halliday, J. (2011, February 27). Hackers attack European governments using ‘MiniDuke’ malware. Retrieved October 13, 2019, from https://www.theguardian.com/technology/2013/feb/27/hackers-attack-european-governments-miniduke.
Subject:500 word summary of Fang’s “A physiological and behavioral feature authentication scheme for medical cloud based on fuzzy-rough core vector machine”.
Liming Fang’s article “A physiological and behavioral feature authentication scheme for medical cloud based on fuzzy-rough core vector machine” on medical cloud computing and its importance on the impact of cloud storage to medical facilities.
`Cloud storage is used all across the globe in order to store important information through technology. It allows for institutions and individuals to securely store information . With cloud data comes security risks such as hacking. Because cloud is an online storage system, hackers tend to try to find ways to break into it and steal very important and valuable information. Medical institutions are the main institutions that are liable to be attacked due to the important information such as hospital records that it stores on its databases. The author states, “Although cloud storage provides convenience for media data sharing, it suffers from potential security attacks. In recent years, cloud storage data theft occurred frequently, so it is necessary to improve the security of cloud data storage” (Fang, 2019 p. 5).
According to the article, the medical system consists of three main categories which are data collection, analysis, and storage. These three things are what collect and hold medical data. ALl three of these things must work together. Without data collection hospitals are unable to collect medical information and then store them in databases. With this data collection, comes security. Computer security is essential to the assurance of data integrity. This article details the fact that doctors and other hospital personnel are liable to be victims of attack because they use simple account logins which can be breached by outside attackers anytime. Data leakage is more liable to happen. The author(s) offer an approach to improving security authentication mechanisms through what is called fuzzy-rough approach.
This fuzzy-rough approach was implemented through a simulated attack environment with real life participants, which uses various tests to see whether an actual employee of a medical institution is trying to access data, or an outside entity is attempting to gain unauthorized access to the system. In order for this approach to be put into place, researchers had started looking into the physiological and behavioral features of doctors that could be used as authentication. According to the article, the fuzzy-rough approach is highly efficient and reliable making it the best option for medical institutions. This fuzzy rough approach would essentially become a means of increasing security while at the same time enhancing authentication methods. This approach basically looks to create new authentication methods for doctors and other hospital personnel to use in order to identify themselves to the cloud system and then gain access. It would basically be much more advanced than biometric and fingerprint tough authentication methods. A machine called the “Fuzzy rough core vector machine” is what is going to be built which bought in gesture based authentication methods increasing and enhancing security. I found this article very persuasive because the author first identified and described the problems surrounding cloud data such as its security risks. Then he talks about he and his team’s research , and the benefits that it could bring.
Fang, L. (2019, August 9). A physiological and behavioral feature authentication scheme for medical cloud based on fuzzy-rough core vector machine. Retrieved from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0020025519307546?via=ihub