Hector Dextre’s 750- Word Expanded Definition of Artificial Intelligence

Introduction

The purpose of this document is to discuss the concept of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and how it is applied in facial recognition and voice recognition areas. Also, the benefits and risks that represent the use of these technologies in terms of privacy and liberty.

Definitions

According to Oxford English Dictionary, Artificial Intelligence (AI) is “the capacity of computers or other machines to exhibit or simulate intelligent behaviour” (“Artificial Intelligence”, 2019) . The development is precise at the beginning because it gives me a partial idea of what it is, but the lack of expansion is evident at the end since no more details are provided. The most effective way to find the definition of AI is to observe in an encyclopedia. According to Henderson, Artificial Intelligence is defined as follows “ The development of the modern digital computer following World War II led naturally to the consideration of the ultimate capabilities of what were soon dubbed ”thinking machines” or  ”giant brains.” The ability to perform calculations flawlessly and at superhuman speeds led some observers to believe that it was only a matter of time before the intelligence of computers would surpass human levels”. (Henderson, 2009, p. 26) Deducing and combining “thinking machines”, “giant brains” and “perform calculations”, Artificial Intelligence is the proficiency of intelligent computer programs to carry out tasks cleanly. There is a difference between the first and the second definition since the second one is clearer and more expanded.

Context

One of the application areas in Artificial Intelligence is the facial recognition and voice recognition. According to Kugler, facial recognition is “the ability of computer vision systems to identify specific human faces in photos and video. This technology can identify and log facial details of individuals by using cloud infrastructure to process images from a computer, smartphone or camera.” and voice recognition is “the ability of natural language processing (NLP) software to “understand” human language”. (Kugler, 2019, p. 17-18). Facial recognition allows law authorities to identify criminals in a quick manner. China and Russia, on the other hand, go further than that. Chinese government would manage a facial recognition database of all its citizens to allow identifying them. Russian government uses facial recognition in the massive protests to identify those citizens who are against of Putin’s regime. In contrast, social networks such as Facebook, Instagram, Twitter and Snapchat use facial recognition to tag users’ friends, either in photos or messages. Examples of voice recognition are the most famous systems called Siri and Alexa. They work in three steps: hears individual’s voice, processes what he/she says and issues a response. Amazon and Google have sold millions of these voice assistant machines. Nevertheless, facial and voice recognition could represent a headache for individuals since their privacy and free expression would be affected. No problem at all when big technologies companies, law officials and governments use citizens’ facial data for checking theft identity and fraud; however, there is an issue when they used them for observing, checking, or keeping a continuous record of individuals’ actions. On the other hand, when voice recognition machines are hearing individuals’ voices and tracking them down permanently, individuals’ privacy might be compromised as well. However, technologies companies have refused those accusations alleging that their devices always listen but do not record.

Working Definition

According to the major I am pursuing for; Artificial Intelligence would be defined as the group of machines that have the capacity to carry out tasks in a smart way or is the intelligence performing non-natural by using a set of instructions or steps. Facial recognition would be defined as the group of computers highly sophisticated to reveal individuals’ identity by their faces and voice recognition would be defined as the group od devices that assist users by hearing their voices.

References

Artificial Intelligence, n. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online. Retrieved from https://www.oed.com/view/Entry/271625.

Henderson, H. (2009) Encyclopedia of Computer Science and Technology. (Rev. ed., Facts on File science library). New York: Facts On File. 26-27

Kugler, L. (2019). Being Recognized Everywhere: How facial and voice recognition are reshaping society. Communications of the ACM, 62(2), 17-19.

Hector Dextre’s 500-Word Article Summary

TO: Prof. Jason W. Ellis

FROM: Hector Dextre

DATE: September 17, 2019

SUBJECT: 500-Word Summary of Katare, Padihar and Qureshi’s “Challenges in the Integration of Artificial Intelligence and Internet of Things”

To understand better the challenges in the integration of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Internet of Things (IOT), it is important to know what these technological terms are. According to the authors, “Internet of Things (IOT) (‘Thing’ refers to a device which is connected to the internet and transfers the device information to other devices.)” and “Artificial Intelligence (AI) is the intelligence which is not natural but used by machine in some order based on instructions” (Katare, Padihar and Qureshi, 2018, p.10). IOT, usually located at an early stage of development due to the limited capacities of its processor, needs an AI’s speed injection to allow the increase of the capabilities of IOT. Knowing more about IOT and their applications, AI and its uses cases and their challenges will permit individuals to comprehend the rapid development of technology.

Internet of Things are the access to objects with the use of internet. The authors stated, “the main goal of development of IOT is to connect the internet with physical world and the environment with wireless networks” (Katare, Padihar and Qureshi, 2018, p.10). In other words, IOT is basically a network of physical gadgets and it is a system of apparatuses equipped with information gathering technologies so they can interact and interchange data with one another. There are many applications of IOT, but just to indicate some of them that are applicable in agriculture, poultry, farming, health care, environment, education, technology, manufacturing, housing, finance, sports, energy and transportation.

Artificial Intelligence, according to John McCarthy, the father of AI, is “the science and engineering of making intelligent machines, especially intelligent computer programs” (Katare, Padihar and Qureshi, 2018, p.11). In other words, AI is the method of making a robot controlled by computing machine or software that thinks intelligently. The applications of AI are machine learning and deep learning with the capacity to automatically acquire and enhance performance from experience. The correlation between these two applications is that deep learning is a subcategory of machine learning which is made up of algorithms that train it to do every task like face recognition using large amounts of data. AI uses cases, just to indicate some of them, are image recognition, warehouse optimization, credit verification and medical diagnosis.

When IOT and AI connect, the challenges become more complex. First, in terms of security, it is indispensable to make sure that data is secure and in reliable hands. Second, in terms of compatibility and complexity, many devices that have many different technologies may cause many difficulties after merging all these devices in one. Third, in terms of artificial stupidity, the incapacity of AI program to do basic tasks perfectly. Fourth, in terms of lack of confidence, the concern of consumers and businesses about security to protect IOT devices. Fifth, in terms of cloud attacks, the unwished attention from detrimental viruses has been drawn by the quick growth of cloud computing technologies. Finally, in terms of technology, the biggest challenge is the competition of all technologies; however, we have many more challenges and having these challenges and giving competition to every technology is a very tough operation.

The integration of AI and IOT tends to arise rapidly, which will make the internet more useful. AI and IOT will change the future of humans but it requires the support and patience of us. Connecting them together will give a valuable innovation and experimental technology which will benefit companies and user by supplying good and efficient products.

References Katare, G., Padihar, G., Qureshi, Z. (2018). Challenges in the Integration of Artificial Intelligence and Internet of Things. International Journal of Systems and Software Engineering, 6(2), 10-15. Retrieved from http://search.ebscohost.com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=aci&AN=134633037&site=ehost-live&scope=site