Alain Palmer’s Expanded definition of cyber

TO: PROF. Jason Ellis

FROM: Alain Palmer

DATE: 10/15/19

SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of Cyber


Ileana Stefan once said, “The use of web presents a series of advantages and disadvantages.” This quote couldn’t be any more honest when it comes to the truth being told. With such advanced usage of technology now, the usage of computer and the internet isn’t just beneficial now. Technology affiliation to crime is now a major problem. With the advancement in our technology, computers over the internet are now being used in countless malicious ways by some individuals and organizations. One term that I thought of immediately is Cyber. This term is used in many ways over the years and are defined differently as well.


I wanted to know the very meaning of cyber. I was able to understand cyber as it is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) “In predicative use. Of, relating to, or involving (the culture of) computers, virtual reality, or the internet; futuristic” (Cyber, 2019). This relates back to the quote in the introduction by Ileana Stefan about the advantages and disadvantages of using the web. This means that it allows good and bad. When it comes to malicious ways over the internet, cybercrime is a word derived from cyber for bad activity. Cybercrime in the OED is defined as “crime or a crime committed using computers or the internet” (Cybercrime, 2019). This means that there are now official ways of committing crimes over the internet. As there are always consequences to crimes that are committed that has nothing to do with technology, there are also consequences to crimes committed using technology. Cyber-attack is another word that derived from the term cyber. It is defined in the OED as “the use of information technology to infiltrate or disrupt computer systems; an instance of this” (Cyber-attack, 2019). This is the deliberate attack over the internet carried out by an individual or an organization in an illegal way to get a hold of sensitive information of an individual or an organization. Another word that is derived from the term cyber is cybercriminal. Cybercriminal is defined in the OED as “a person who commits crime using computers or the internet” (Cybercriminal, 2019). This is an individual who uses computer or the internet with the means of robbing anyone or anything that they can get a hold of that will be beneficial to them


“The use of a password by a user, even he or she received the password from another user, cannot be considered a crime. On the other hand, if the password was stolen and used, this can be considered a cybercrime” (Stefan, 2011. P2). Stefan explains that if an individual were to get a password from another individual and use it then it will not be considered as a cybercrime. If the was stolen and used, then that would label the individual as a theft and that would then be labeled as a cybercrime. “Cyber criminals are driven by financial gains and target consumers and businesses. They are not organized, and their skill level ranges from basic to intermediate” (Warikoo, 2014. P5). Warikoo explained that there are reasons for cyber criminals’ schemes. Their schemes are driven by beneficial factors and the most important one is financial gains meaning whatever they are doing is causing them to receive money. Warikoo also explains that cyber criminals are not professionals. They lack professional skills and the skills they possess are quite basic to intermediate. There is a big problem profiling these guys because they can be the inside people who has privileged/administrative access to IT system. Because of that, it is hard profiling these criminals until they have committed their crime. “A cyber-attack is defined as an assault on the system’s security, any type of offensive maneuver that targets computer information systems, infrastructures, computer networks, or personal computer devices” (Cangea, 2018. p 2). Cangea explains that any unethical and malicious actions on any network or IT systems is an attack in the cyber world. “The essential purpose of the informational safety concerns the insurance of three main security objectives: confidentiality, integrity and availability” (Cangea, 2018. p 1). This highlights the importance of what needs to be secured the most, which are availability, confidentiality, and integrity. Because those 3 categories are so important to any organization, it became cyber-attackers top target. It is much more than a small financial gain, cracking though these is the big league in breaching systems as a cyber-attacker.

Working Definition

In conclusion, the examples and definition that I have found throughout my research on the term cyber. It is in relation to my field of study where I am focused on network security, I was able to understand that cyber is culture using computer, web, and the internet while it has its advantages and disadvantages. I was taught to look out for the disadvantages before affiliating myself with anything, this is what inspired to research the disadvantages of cyber.


Cangea, O. (2018) Ethical Hacking Solution to Defeat Cyber Attacks, from

Stefan, I. (2011) Cyber Crime, from

Warikoo, A. (2014) Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling, from

Cyber (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online, from

Cybercrime. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online, from

Cyber-attack. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online, from

CyberCriminal. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online, from

Alain Palmer’s 500-word article summary



DATE: 9/16/19

SUBJECT: Enhancing of robots’ abilities using the Cloud, Neuromorphic Computing, and Big Data Analytics.

In this paper “Design of Cloud Based Robots using Big Data Analytics and Neuromorphic Computing” by Satyanarayana, Kusyk, Chen et al discusses some important things about enhancing robots’ abilities. It explained that it is crucial to know the functions and capabilities of the human brain in order to develop robots that will have the ability to link with its environment. Three main functions that was introduced to assist in the enhancement of robots’ abilities are Neuromorphic Computing, Cloud Robots, and Big data Analytics.

Neuromorphic Computing will play a major roll in this project of enhancing robots’ abilities. Neuromorphic Computing is a very large-scale integrating system which included tens to hundreds of transistors per microchip, this was created to imitate the neuro-biological patterns in the nervous system. There has been an increasing demand in neuromorphic computing for its cognitive and brain like computing. With cognitive computing, optimum memory usage, high-speed performances, and low power consumption gives neuromorphic chips its powerful advantages and is also projected to lead the line in rise of robots in the robot industry.  There is also a Zeroth processor chip that is created to mimic brain behavior to help robot learn through training and feedbacks instead of hard coding to behave human like.

Second is Cloud Robots. This is the idea to utilize cloud computing. Cloud-Based Robots would be driven by a brain centered cloud for robots. This would work in the way where all robots attached to the cloud will share information that each other can retrieved as soon as it is uploaded to the cloud. A proposed system called RoboEarth is just like humans sharing humans sharing information online, instead it is for robots. Robo earth has an online database for its cloud engine and it is called Rapyuta, which is to perform heavy-weight processing in the cloud. RoboEarth and Rapyuta main job is to process information from various sources and put them in a format that the robots can execute.

Third is the Big Data Analytic. Big data Analytic was first used to indicate large data for visualization. Big Data can enhance and evolve the robot’s Sense, Plan, and Act (SPA) cycle. With that being said, it means that the with Big Data, robots will be more advance in their environment and will be able to predict their next move in any complex situation encountered without being commanded to do so. Quoted (i) “descriptive analytics to understand why something happens, (ii) predictive analytics to predict what could happen, and (iii) prescriptive analytics to suggest what a robot should do in a complex environment (Satyanarayana, Kusyk, Chen et al, 2018 p3). This is what I explained in the previous sentence.

This summary is to highlight the attempt to cover cloud computing, big data analytics, and neuromorphic computing to enhance the control architecture of robotics. In short, to use a very advanced cloud systems to operate robots and decrease the use of the command center.


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time,” Comm. of the ACM Mag., vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 13–15, 2014.

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