TO: PROF. Jason Ellis
FROM: Alain Palmer
SUBJECT: Expanded Definition of Cyber
Ileana Stefan once said, “The use of web presents a series of advantages and disadvantages.” This quote couldn’t be any more honest when it comes to the truth being told. With such advanced usage of technology now, the usage of computer and the internet isn’t just beneficial now. Technology affiliation to crime is now a major problem. With the advancement in our technology, computers over the internet are now being used in countless malicious ways by some individuals and organizations. One term that I thought of immediately is Cyber. This term is used in many ways over the years and are defined differently as well.
I wanted to know the very meaning of cyber. I was able to understand cyber as it is defined in the Oxford English Dictionary (OED) “In predicative use. Of, relating to, or involving (the culture of) computers, virtual reality, or the internet; futuristic” (Cyber, 2019). This relates back to the quote in the introduction by Ileana Stefan about the advantages and disadvantages of using the web. This means that it allows good and bad. When it comes to malicious ways over the internet, cybercrime is a word derived from cyber for bad activity. Cybercrime in the OED is defined as “crime or a crime committed using computers or the internet” (Cybercrime, 2019). This means that there are now official ways of committing crimes over the internet. As there are always consequences to crimes that are committed that has nothing to do with technology, there are also consequences to crimes committed using technology. Cyber-attack is another word that derived from the term cyber. It is defined in the OED as “the use of information technology to infiltrate or disrupt computer systems; an instance of this” (Cyber-attack, 2019). This is the deliberate attack over the internet carried out by an individual or an organization in an illegal way to get a hold of sensitive information of an individual or an organization. Another word that is derived from the term cyber is cybercriminal. Cybercriminal is defined in the OED as “a person who commits crime using computers or the internet” (Cybercriminal, 2019). This is an individual who uses computer or the internet with the means of robbing anyone or anything that they can get a hold of that will be beneficial to them
“The use of a password by a user, even he or she received the password from another user, cannot be considered a crime. On the other hand, if the password was stolen and used, this can be considered a cybercrime” (Stefan, 2011. P2). Stefan explains that if an individual were to get a password from another individual and use it then it will not be considered as a cybercrime. If the was stolen and used, then that would label the individual as a theft and that would then be labeled as a cybercrime. “Cyber criminals are driven by financial gains and target consumers and businesses. They are not organized, and their skill level ranges from basic to intermediate” (Warikoo, 2014. P5). Warikoo explained that there are reasons for cyber criminals’ schemes. Their schemes are driven by beneficial factors and the most important one is financial gains meaning whatever they are doing is causing them to receive money. Warikoo also explains that cyber criminals are not professionals. They lack professional skills and the skills they possess are quite basic to intermediate. There is a big problem profiling these guys because they can be the inside people who has privileged/administrative access to IT system. Because of that, it is hard profiling these criminals until they have committed their crime. “A cyber-attack is defined as an assault on the system’s security, any type of offensive maneuver that targets computer information systems, infrastructures, computer networks, or personal computer devices” (Cangea, 2018. p 2). Cangea explains that any unethical and malicious actions on any network or IT systems is an attack in the cyber world. “The essential purpose of the informational safety concerns the insurance of three main security objectives: confidentiality, integrity and availability” (Cangea, 2018. p 1). This highlights the importance of what needs to be secured the most, which are availability, confidentiality, and integrity. Because those 3 categories are so important to any organization, it became cyber-attackers top target. It is much more than a small financial gain, cracking though these is the big league in breaching systems as a cyber-attacker.
In conclusion, the examples and definition that I have found throughout my research on the term cyber. It is in relation to my field of study where I am focused on network security, I was able to understand that cyber is culture using computer, web, and the internet while it has its advantages and disadvantages. I was taught to look out for the disadvantages before affiliating myself with anything, this is what inspired to research the disadvantages of cyber.
Cangea, O. (2018) Ethical Hacking Solution to Defeat Cyber Attacks, from
Stefan, I. (2011) Cyber Crime, from http://web.b.ebscohost.com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/ehost/pdfviewer/pdfviewer?vid=21&sid=388b466c-167e-44ad-9957-4b9b2492446d%40pdc-v-sessmgr04
Warikoo, A. (2014) Proposed Methodology for Cyber Criminal Profiling, from
Cyber (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online, from https://www-oed-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/view/Entry/250878?rskey=2m1lH6&result=1&isAdvanced=false#eid
Cybercrime. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online, from https://www-oed-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/view/Entry/250879?redirectedFrom=cybercrime#eid11735280
Cyber-attack. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online, from https://www-oed-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/view/Entry/250879?redirectedFrom=cyber+attack#eid212385738
CyberCriminal. (2019). In Oxford English Dictionary Online, from https://www-oed-com.citytech.ezproxy.cuny.edu/view/Entry/250879?redirectedFrom=cybercriminal#eid11735284