How to obtain acceptable physical health

 

Physical Health is one of the many areas of self-care and probably the most noticeable one. The fact that one’s physical health is so noticeable makes it really important, however doing so is easier said than done. Physical health is health involving hygiene, medical, diet, sleep, and fitness so to truly have acceptable physical health, these 5 are completely necessary. Because these 5 areas are essential to obtaining good physical health, I will be researching each topic individually and explaining the importance of each one and how to take full advantage of each area.
Credibility is huge for topics like this because of the advice given so because of that it is necessary to mention those with a lot of credibility to the topic. Personal Trainer and Strength Coach, Joe Dowdell who I’ll reference on his fitness advice along with Wellness Visionary, David Kirsch. Kirsch is not only a professional in the area of physical health, but he has books written on both the area of fitness and the area of dieting which are two major components when it comes to improving your physical health which I’ll be referencing. Another reference I feel like would be very helpful to incorporate is those who practiced physical health a lot simply because they were very unhealthy/out of shape. To be more specific I will look into those who have been on the television show “The Biggest Loser”, aside from the fact that it’s just a show for entertainment, I feel like these people who forced themselves to lose a lot of weight must have information that some fitness trainers don’t even have. The physical health training they put themselves through is definitely worth mentioning. 

Lastly, the relationship between self-help and physical health. I want to go in depth about how important physical health is as a self-help topic. It wouldn’t make much sense to just write about HOW to achieve good physical health and not write about WHY we should do this in the first place.

RobbyDeleonPresentation

The Privilege of it All; What does Self Care look like for those in a lower class?

The research presented, takes a look at what self-care looks like in those who are in a lower class. Within doing that, what is also being presented is the “one size fit- all” aspect of self-care, but the “one size” is typically white people and in this case white women.  Self-care ideas go back centuries and many of the tools used in the industry stem from Buddhism. As the years continued, self-care became a booming 11 million dollar industry due to the simple fact the industry has expanded. There are books, videos, social media accounts, retreats, etc, all created about self-care. But this increased commodification has drawn the industry even further away from being a “one-size-fits-all” fix because those who want to practice the self-care that is presented and do not come from a place of privilege,  are now limited in their ability to do so. Poverty can affect people of any ethnicity and race but this research dives deeper into how self-care looks for BIPOC who are from a lower class. In the era of The 1950s- 70s, the Civil Rights Movement used the ideas of self-care radically and as a political statement. And the Women’s liberation movement followed suit. Their motive behind doing so was to expose the systematic injustice created by white patriarchy. These two groups felt that their needs were not being taken care of within society so they used self-care as an ode to taking back some of their power. Fast forward several years later, with self-care practices becoming so extensive and expensive, it is difficult for BIPOC to utilize that aspect of self-care as it has derived from its origins. Self-care is presented as something that everyone has the ability to do, and there is potential for it to become that. But as the industry continues to commodify itself, more and more people are being excluded.

Presentation: The Privilege of it All (English Presentation)

Research Project & Presentation

Practicing self love can be very hard when you put others’ needs before yourself. Self-love is a state of appreciation for oneself that grows from actions that support our physical, psychological and spiritual growth. Self love to me means taking care of your own needs and not sacrificing your well-being to please others. Self love can mean something different for each individual because we all have different ways to take care of ourselves. I’ve read three articles about self- love. The first article is about different ways to practice self love and to be good to yourself. The second article talks about the importance of self love and the third article talks about how to practice self love when you have a low self esteem. The first article listed different ways to practice self love. A few caught my attention but I only chose three to describe in my PowerPoint. I do want to talk about one of them, which is finding your happy place. I already do this, for example if im not having a good day I would just find a positive place where I can think to myself and think positive. My happy place is my balcony because I can enjoy the weather from high up and allow myself to be present in the moment. This is how I practice self love but other people may cope with practicing self love differently. The importance of self love is accepting your emotions for what they are and putting your social well being first. When you practice self love you become more confident and accepting of yourself. Accepting who you are may be difficult if you don’t admit your mistakes or own your outcomes, etc. “The importance of self love” by Zubayer Khan Zakir talks about self love and it’s benefits,etc. In this article the author says,” we all like to spread love, but the question is — do we produce enough for ourselves?” I like this quote because this is a question I need to ask myself, I just honestly don’t know how to go about it. In my opinion I feel I don’t produce enough love for myself because as I said before I like putting other people I care about before myself.

 NiyomiPresentation

The Importance of Self-Love

As stated by the article intitled, ‘Self-Love and What It Means,’ “Self-love is a state of appreciation for oneself that grows from actions that support our physical, psychological and spiritual growth. Self-love means having a high regard for your own well-being and happiness. Self-love means taking care of your own needs and not sacrificing your well-being to please others. Self-love means not settling for less than you deserve.” The purpose of this paper is to explain the importance of self-love and in romantic relationships, especially the positive and negative impacts it has. The importance of self-love first comes from within, which focuses on the areas of things such as moving away from perfectionism, self-compassion, learning to listen to yourself, doing yoga and meditation, and many more.

Practice self-love by becoming mindful. People who have more self-love tend to know what they think, feel, and want. Another action is taking actions based on need rather than want. By staying focused on what one needs, it can help turn away from automatic behavior patterns that get one into trouble, keep one stuck in the past, and lessen self-love. One also needs to act on practicing good self-care. One can love their self more when they take better care of their basic needs. People high in self-love nourish themselves daily through healthy activities, like sound nutrition, exercise, proper sleep, intimacy, and healthy social interactions. Lastly, there is making room for healthy habits. One should start truly caring for their self by mirroring that in what they eat, how they exercise, and what they spend time doing. Do stuff, not to “get it done” or because one “have to,” but because one care about their self. Self-love plays a pretty big role in one’s relationships with others. When one shifts their mindset to view their relationship with their self just like any other relationship, they desire with someone else, their relationship will thrive. Do not forget that the relationship one has with their self is the one relationship that one knows for sure they are going to have for the rest of life, so why not make it the best relationship?

Presentation: Importance of Self-Love

Research Project + Presentations

Self Esteem Project Abstract

Self esteem is something that everyone struggles with at least once in their life. It does not matter where you are from, who you are ,how big or small you are, or what you stand for (your beliefs). In particular self esteem in the early adolescence period can affect many things including the following. Families, schools and the lifestyle of an individual which play a key role .The stability of handling your personal skills, the ability to interact with peers and the ability to boost self-efficacy. Self esteem can simply affect your perspective on life, it also tends to be the lowest in childhood as it can gradually increase during the adolescence period as well as adulthood. With this being said, self esteem is much similar to stability of personal traits over time (variation of change over time). If you have a firm/healthy handle on personal traits, you may have a firm handle on your skills. Success in school as well as receiving support from peers all contributed to help compensate for family problems and would help boost self-efficacy.

As anyone with low self esteem may feel less obligated to make or reach personal goals for themselves. Having a firm supportive cast can change the mindset of the individual and the response toward their goals or overall perspective and approach on any or all situations resulting in an outcome being positive. Depression in early adolescence increases sharply from around 2% to 18% in early adulthood. Low self esteem has been an important factor that lead to vulnerability in depression.

https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1lrU-Uxu4wkiwEknhAJjCQLZ9i1hqZW9YVF1sA0wgyck/edit#slide=id.gd643ff05ba_0_0

THE POLARITY (2 sides) of SELF- CONSCIOUS EMOTIONS

Like 2 sides of a coin self-consciousness can be either good or bad depending on how one uses it. Unfortunately, there is no physical wall that separates the good from the bad side. So, a person can easily fall into the bad side of self-consciousness while attempting to get into the good side. The good side can be defined as the healthy way to live out your emotions. While the bad side can be defined as the negative way of handling your emotions. It is important to distinguish emotions from feelings. Emotions are formed at the spot, as a response to a stimulus and some experts are able to measure emotions. Whereas feelings are formed over time in our minds (mental associations) consequently measuring them is not possible, at least not in an accurate way yet. The importance of self-awareness of our emotions goes beyond the individual, it is also necessary to create healthy social relationships. Self- emotions appear in our lives around our second year of life and only after we develop self-recognition. In other words, if the infant can not even recognize himself in a picture or in the mirror, there is no way he can have self-awareness of his/her emotions. Nevertheless, such infant does experience emotions, he/she just has no reach yet the “self-consciousness of emotions” milestone. It is also worthy to note that self-consciousness of emotions develops in 2 stages. The first group is composed of embarrassment, empathy, and envy. While the second group is conformed of  guilt, shame, and pride. This second group develop only after the toddler has capacity to understand some basic social rules that allow him/her to express either (1) shame (for failing a task), (2) guilt (of doing something not acceptable), or (3) pride (for successfully achieving a required chore).

Bottomline, being aware of your emotions and having discipline (to not fall into the bad or extreme side) is a must because only when you know about the problem, you can do something about it. Awareness and knowledge are the first step, honesty is the second and discipline & consistency are the third step in order to be on the good side of self-consciousness of emotions.

Here is the power point       2-3 min PRESENTATION THURSDAY

Practicing Self-love

  I am going to be doing my research project on practicing self love. Before I do start I would like to start by making sure we understand what self love means. Self-love is a state of appreciation for oneself that grows from actions that support our physical, psychological and spiritual growth. Self-love means having a high regard for your own well-being and happiness. I chose this topic because I feel like I haven’t been putting myself first. I’m always putting myself second. I tend to put other people’s needs before my own and that’s not bad but it’s also not good. 

So I just want to take the time to research how to take care of myself and my needs in order to benefit my life. Self-love can mean something different for each person because we all have different ways to take care of ourselves. The questions I hope to address are like why self help is important and why should we start practicing it. I found three articles that I will be discussing in my paragraphs. 

  The first article i’m going to be talking about is“30 ways to practice self love and be good to yourself” by Jessie Hays. This article gives plenty of ways you can practice self love. Jessie says,”Find your happy place. Where’s the one place you feel totally at ease, calm, happy, positive, high on life? Go to that place when you are going through hard times, or imagine yourself being there. Think about how it feels, what it smells like, what it looks like”. I can relate to this quote so much because when I’m mad or upset I go to my balcony which is my happy place. I would enjoy the fresh breeze and allow myself to be present in the moment. This works for me but it may not work for other people because as I said before people cope with practicing self love differently. Another quote that caught my eye was when she says,”Treat others with love and respect. It makes us feel better about ourselves when we treat others the way we hope to be treated. That doesn’t mean everybody will always repay the favor, but that’s their problem not yours”. This quote is basically saying to treat others how you want to be treated. So being available and helpful to those in need. I can connect this quote to “The Secret” by Rhonda Byrne because in the book she says,” when you do not treat yourself the way you want others to treat you, you can never change the way things are. Your actions are your powerful thoughts, so if you do not treat yourself with love and respect, you are emitting a signal that is saying you are not important enough, worthy enough or deserving”. The rule of treating others as you would want to be treated in their place will ultimately lead to your own happiness. This quote connects to what I was saying because it’s the same idea. Make it a habit to try to place yourself in the shoes of another person because you never know what the other person is going through. It doesn’t matter if it’s a friend, family member or even someone on the street. 

  The second article i’m going to talk about is “The importance of self-love” by Zubayer Khan Zakir. This article was stating the important aspects of self-love. The author says,”When our loved ones make a mistake we often forgive them easily, but when we make a mistake we are often too hard on ourselves”. I can relate to this quote because I am so hard on myself when it comes to making mistakes. I act like it’s the end of the world when it really is not. Everyone makes mistakes, but learning how to learn from these errors, let go, move on, and forgive yourself is important for well-being. I need to learn how to forgive myself because if I do then I can move on with my life instead of ruminating over past events that can’t be changed. 

  The third article I’m going to talk about is “How To Practice Self-Love When You Have Low Self-Esteem”. This article is about how you can navigate the journey of self love and the best way to improve self-esteem when you are feeling stuck. Self-esteem associated with the way you view yourself. I have low self esteem when it comes to certain things like lack of confidence. The author says,”It can be a struggle to accept any compliments or comments on your finer qualities”. I can relate to this because I’m very insecure about my self and when I get compliments I just find it hard to accept. 

 

Work Cited 

https://www.lifehack.org/articles/communication/30-ways-practice-self-love-and-good-yourself.html

Hays, Jessie. “30 ways to practice self love and be good to yourself.” 

https://docs.google.com/viewer?a=v&pid=sites&srcid=ZGVmYXVsdGRvbWFpbnxjb3Ntb2Rlc2lnbjM2MHxneDo0MTY0MzFjMmQzNmU3ZWI2

Byrne,Rhonda.”The Secret”

https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.thedailystar.net/lifestyle/reader%25E2%2580%2599s-chit/news/the-importance-self-love-1684162%3famp

Khan Zakir, Zubayer.”The importance of self-love”. January 8,2019 at 12:00AM

https://www.google.com/amp/s/www.goalcast.com/2020/12/23/self-esteem-self-love-how-to-love-yourself/amp/

“How To Practice Self-Love When You Have Low Self-Esteem”

 

How useful is the beauty industry in times of crisis?

The beauty industry is a booming business, many depend on it for their everyday activities but what about during a crisis… how does the beauty contribute to self-care during times of crisis.

Covid-19 has been a global nightmare with everyone quarantined so is beauty standards and makeup still something that exists and is used in a time that no one sees each other. Many people tend to consciously and subconsciously do things because of societal standards but during a pandemic where does the beauty industry fall in the scale of needs.

Does the beauty industry help us and contribute to our self care when a time of crisis hits. Think about  specific time of crisis for you.. a sick day, a passing of a loved one, a breakup, a global pandemic…. did the beauty industry serve you any aid in recovering during those times?

Sources:

https://www.premiumbeautynews.com/en/the-cosmetics-industry-getting,18252

https://www.mckinsey.com/~/media/McKinsey/Industries/Consumer%20Packaged%20Goods/Our%20Insights/How%20COVID%2019%20is%20changing%20the%20world%20of%20beauty/How-COVID-19-is-changing-the-world-of-beauty-vF.pdf

https://www.mckinsey.com/industries/consumer-packaged-goods/our-insights/how-covid-19-is-changing-the-world-of-beauty#

Communicating in crisis: How beauty brands are reaching customers during the COVID-19 pandemic

https://www.ft.com/content/98e8ab63-0676-4c87-9ae3-071486773dea

https://www.usehero.com/news/virtual-retailing-how-beauty-brands-are-flourishing-during-a-time-of-crisis/

https://www.cosmeticsdesign-europe.com/Article/2020/05/25/COVID-19-crisis-impacts-beauty-financials-hard-personal-care-fares-better

Do You Wear Makeup When You’re Sick?

The After Math of Meditation Meeting Schizophrenia   

 

Courtney LaGrange 

Jill Belli 

ENG 3402-OL20 

05/04/21 

The After Math of Meditation Meeting Schizophrenia   

The question presented is whether meditation is a viable treatment for patients with schizophrenia. To set the stage for such an opinion we must have a thorough background of what meditation is and how it affects the brain with potential side effects. Then understand schizophrenia and its complications and how it affects an individual.  Through comparing the findings and the market for meditation as an alternative treatment one can make the opinion whether it is worth the risk or the ladder.  

  1. Meditation Facts 
  • “The oldest documented images of meditation are from India and date back to 5000 to 3500 BCE. ”(Mead) So the creater is not clear, but it is clear India, China, and Japan had early variations of the goals of the techniques. 
  • 20th centry was the turning period for meditation in the West as a more mainstream practice option.  
  • When the science of meditation is explored from a historical perspective, this lack of objectivity has been a recurrent problem for a long time, at least forty years. Its root causes go back to early engagements between non-positivist knowledge systems and psychology.” (Stephan) This leads me to question whether the statements from a statistical point of view is correct in the terms of side effects when some are only reporting positive outcomes as priority.  
  • Side effects and EEG monitored meditation sessions to see brain activity.  
  1. Schizophrenia  
  • What is schizophrenia? “Affects less than one percent of the U.S. population. When schizophrenia is active, symptoms can include delusions, hallucinations, disorganized speech, trouble with thinking and lack of motivation.”(APA) 
  • Effects of medication – Side effects range from dry mouth to something as serious as diabetes according to Healthy place and Oxford Treatment Center.  
  • When did meditation become an option as treatment in general medically and when for schizophrenia? Herbert Benson, M.D comes to mind from the 1960s for cardiology patients soon more doctors followed suit according to Greider.  2005 studies documented for meditation used for schizophrenia in Dr Prem Community article 
  1. Pros and Cons of the use of medicinal meditation for schizophrenia 
  • Personal accounts-  
  1. Macel Armstrong in his book Living Thoughts: Glimpses into the Altered Reality of Schizophrenia” 
  1. Kurt Snyder’s account of his choice of medication over medicinal. 
  1. James Kingsl’s account of his friends.  
  • Side effect sources- 
  1. The Daily Meditation 
  1. The Convention 
  1. “The Relationship Between Focused Attention Meditation Practice Habits, Psychological Symptoms, and Quality of Life.” 
  1. Is Mindfulness Useful or Dangerous for Individuals with Psychosis?” 

By the end of my research, I would like to establish debatable questions if given all the information I provide would you think meditation is right for individuals with schizophrenia 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

               Sources 

 

  1. Mead, Elaine. “The History and Origin of Meditation.” PositivePsychology.com, 4 July 2019, positivepsychology.com/history-of-meditation/. 
  1.  Stephen, Author. “Meditation and Negative Side Effects: The Latest Research.” The Science of Meditation and Mindfulness, 12 Oct. 2020, thescienceofmeditation.org/2020/10/12/meditation-and-negative-side-effects-the-latest-research/. Accessed 5 May 2021. 
  1.  American Psychiatric Association. “What Is Schizophrenia?” Psychiatry.org, American Psychiatric Association, Aug. 2020, www.psychiatry.org/patients-families/schizophrenia/what-is-schizophrenia. 
  1.  “StackPath.” Healthyplace.com, 2019, www.healthyplace.com/thought-disorders/schizophrenia-articles/side-effects-of-the-medications-used-to-treat-schizophrenia. Accessed 9 Dec. 2019. 
  1.  “Side Effects of Antipsychotic Medication (Short and Long-Term).” Oxford Treatment Center, oxfordtreatment.com/substance-abuse/co-occurring-disorders/antipsychotics/. 
  1.  Greider, Linda. “Meditation as Medical Treatment Gaining Ground – AARP Bulletin.” AARPwww.aarp.org/health/alternative-medicine/info-04-2009/meditation_goes_mainstream.html. Accessed 6 May 2021. 
  1.  Burton, Neel. “A Brief History of Schizophrenia.” Psychology Today, 2017, www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/hide-and-seek/201209/brief-history-schizophrenia. 
  1.  History Cooperative. “Divine Madness: A History of Schizophrenia.” History Cooperative, The History Cooperative, 29 Jan. 2015, historycooperative.org/divine-madness-a-history-of-schizophrenia/. 
  1.   Dr Prem Community. “Mindfulness Exercises for Schizophrenia Can Be of Great Relief to the Patients.” DIY Health | Do It Yourself Health Guide by Dr Prem, 30 Mar. 2018, diyhealth.com/mindfulness-exercises-for-schizophrenia-can-be-of-great-relief-to-the-patients.html. Accessed 6 May 2021. 
  1.  Armstrong, Macel. Living Thoughts: Glimpses into the Altered Reality of Schizophrenia. 2018. Marcel Armstrong ed. 
  1.  Snyder, K. “Kurt Snyder’s Personal Experience with Schizophrenia.” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 32, no. 2, 9 Dec. 2005, pp. 209–211, academic.oup.com/schizophreniabulletin/article/32/2/209/1899556, 10.1093/schbul/sbj032. 
  1.  Kingsl, James. “Mindfulness Shows Promise in the Treatment of Schizophrenia.” Plastic Brain, 23 Jan. 2017, plasticbrainblog.com/2017/01/23/mindfulness-shows-promise-in-the-treatment-of-schizophrenia/. Accessed 6 May 2021. 
  1.  “Mindfulness Meditation for Schizophrenia Disorders.” The Daily Meditation, 27 June 2020, www.thedailymeditation.com/mindfulness-meditation-for-schizophrenia-disorders. Accessed 6 May 2021. 
  1.  Mendrek, Adrianna. “How Meditation Can Help Sufferers of Schizophrenia.” The Conversation, theconversation.com/how-meditation-can-help-sufferers-of-schizophrenia-98231. 
  1.  Bilican, F. Isil. “The Relationship between Focused Attention Meditation Practice Habits, Psychological Symptoms, and Quality of Life.” Journal of Religion and Health, vol. 55, no. 6, 2016, pp. 1980–1995, www.jstor.org/stable/44157057?addFooter=false&seq=1. Accessed 6 May 2021. 
  1.  “Is Mindfulness Useful or Dangerous for Individuals with Psychosis? | Here to Help.” Www.heretohelp.bc.cawww.heretohelp.bc.ca/visions/mindfulness-vol12/is-mindfulness-useful-or-dangerous-for-individuals-with-psychosis. 

Tackling Anxiety

My research topic will be on learning how to overcome anxiety, as well as including different strategies that can help individuals who struggle with this. I’m choosing this topic because anxiety is something I personally have to deal with daily and so I want to do more research on it. 

The first journal article I chose is titled Self-Help Interventions for Anxiety Disorders: An Overview by authors Pim Cuijpers and Josien Schuurmans. This article gives background information on how anxiety can be seen as an impairment to one’s quality of life. While many people do not seek help, others either cannot afford to or are put off by long waiting periods. However there are other methods to help yourself in this situation such as trying different self-help interventions. “A self-help intervention can be defined as a psychological treatment in which the patient takes home a standardized psychological treatment protocol and works through it more or less independently”. This treatment protocol can come in the form of a book, CD, audio recording, and other types of media. “Most self-help interventions for anxiety disorders are based on cognitive-behavioral techniques, such as exposure, cognitive restructuring, and applied relaxation”. Strategies such as psychoeducation, relaxation, graded exposure, cognitive restructuring, anxiety management, and other techniques have been proven to be beneficial.

The second article titled “The Role of Self-help in the Treatment of Mild Anxiety Disorders in Young People: An Evidence-based Review” by authors Debra Rickwood and Sally Bradford, introduces what anxiety is and how if left untreated, the anxiety can worsen and develop into other mental health problems. “The accepted evidence-based approach in the treatment of anxiety disorders is cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT), which challenges and tries to change negative or irrational thinking and behavior patterns”. This article also discusses different types of self-help interventions (psychoeducation, somatic management skills training, cognitive restructuring, exposure, and relapse prevention) that would be helpful in reducing anxiety. This article also includes various case studies that back their findings. 

The third article titled “How Does Meditation Reduce Anxiety at a Neural Level?” by Christopher Bergland, discusses and examines how meditation affects your brain, specifically “which areas of the brain are activated and which are deactivated during meditation-related anxiety relief”. A study was also used to back their findings on this topic. In this article, mindfulness meditation and loving-kindness meditation are the two “types of meditation that have been proven to change brain structure and have dramatic physical and psychological benefits”.

My next source is a book I recently ordered, that will hopefully provide me with more information on this topic. Anxiety Happens: 52 Ways to Find Peace of Mind by John P. Forsyth and Georg H. Eifert, includes 52 strategies (1 for each week in the year) that help you deal with anxiety through acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT). This book discusses “the underlying causes of your anxiety, why avoidance just doesn’t work, how to move past your negative inner voice, and how focusing on your values can help you move past anxiety and live a rich, meaningful life”. To me this book brings in the holistic approach I’ve been missing for this topic. What really drew me into this book was that it is listed as an Association for Behavioral and Cognitive Therapies Self-Help Book Recommendation, meaning it incorporates scientifically tested strategies that help one overcome mental health issues. 

Sources:

Bergland, Christopher. “How Does Meditation Reduce Anxiety at a Neural Level?” Psychology Today, Sussex Publishers, 7 June 2013, www.psychologytoday.com/us/blog/the-athletes-way/201306/how-does-meditation-reduce-anxiety-neural-level. 

Cuijpers, Pim, and Josien Schuurmans. Self-Help Interventions for Anxiety Disorders: An Overview, Current Psychiatry Reports, 2007, link.springer.com/content/pdf/10.1007/s11920-007-0034-6.pdf. 

Forsyth, John P., and Georg H. Eifert. Anxiety Happens: 52 Ways to Find Peace of Mind. New Harbinger Publications, Inc, 2018. 

Rickwood, Debra, and Sally Bradford. “The Role of Self-Help in the Treatment of Mild Anxiety Disorders in Young People: an Evidence-Based Review.” Psychology Research and Behavior Management, Dove Medical Press, 27 Feb. 2012, www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3304342/.