Brave New World Essay

The novel Brave New World shares some very interesting thoughts on how certain values are to be conceived within the fictional world they have created for themselves through the process of mass production of humans.  Before going forward with any further analysis of Brave New World, it is essential that we understand and know the definition of the word ” value” and how it pertains to the novel.  Definition (1) : the amount of money that something is worth: the price or cost of something. Definition (2) usefulness or importance.

The second definition regarding values is the one that’s most appropriate with reference to the novel. Within the text, there is a clashing of two different worlds by two different set of characters both of whom have diametrically opposing ideologies about what is, or not important to them. The first of the characters would be John. John is the son of Linda. John comes from a world where love,marriage and family is of great value to him. For John, this was all that he knew this was what he grew up knowing and grew accustomed to. For him this is normal and anything that is contrary to that belief seems to be absurd. The Director of the Hatcheries in his earlier life had visited the Savage reservations with Johns mother Linda. Tomakin as Linda calls him, is very proud of the status and prestige he holds as Director of the Hatcheries, and the accomplishments he was able to gain in creating the World State and its ideologies.

Within the World State it is taught that one should be promiscuous sleep around and have multiple partners. Liberty to be inefficient and miserable. Freedom to be round peg in a square hole. ” But, my dear chap, you’re welcome, I assure you. You’re welcome” Henry Foster patted the Assistant Predestinator on the shoulder. “Every one belongs to everyone else, after all.” (pg51/52). As a result of this statement, it is implying that a monogamous relationship is an incoherent rational. John is from the Savage Reservations where he involves himself in a ritual of being beaten with whips while being silent to prove that he is a man and also to sacrifice his body to the village. This was a way in which John felt he could show compassion and sympathy for the people living in the village and what they endured. This was another element of unorthodox thinking that John portrayed that seemed completely reprehensible in the World State. He believes in giving of himself for others in need sacrificing for the greater good of someone else through respect, love compassion sympathy. Coupled with all these elements, John was given a book called The Complete Works of Shakespeare. He loves the language that is presented in the book because it speaks about love marriage and living happily ever after. This of course is in stark difference to what the director believes in or is of any value to him. The doctrines that are implemented in the World State, are completely void of anything that pertains to family values. It is reprehensible to talk about a woman being pregnant to be called a mother or a father, to be in a monogamous relationship to talk about love and such like.

As a matter of consequence for the Director, he tries to humiliate Bernard by telling all the other employees that works within the World State about his sex life as a means of embarrassing him and telling of his involvement in monogamous relationships. This Tactic works in the directors demise. This man who stands before you here, this Alpha- Plus to whom so much has been given and from whom, in consequence, so much must be expected, this colleague of yours-or should i anticipate and say this ex- colleague?- has grossly betrayed the trust imposed in him. By his heretical views on sport and soma, by the scandalous unorthodoxy of his sexlife, by his refusal to obey the teachings of our Ford and behave out of office hours.(pg138) The Director thinks he has the upper hand on Bernard not knowing what is to come next. To get back at the Director, Bernard brings Linda in. She immediately begins to show affection to the Director. There was gasp, a murmur of astonishment and horror; a young girl screamed standing on a chair to get a better view some one upset two test- tubes full of spermatozoa.(pg139) John is also introduced to rest of the Directors colleagues to further embarrass him and  to also show his double standards as well. As mentioned before, John loves the idea of family and love so he became increasingly ecstatic with the thought of meeting his dad for the first time. Little did John know that his father was ashamed of him because of his ideologies of the World State, and did not receive the welcome that he ha hoped for. John became grossly distraught.

Essay One Pre-Draft

The Ideology of Savagery in Brave New World

            The concept of savages in this novel arises with the introduction of John, a character who lives outside of the society at the savage reservation. He and the society he lives within are deemed savages because they are not a part of the World State. The true issue here arises with their title of “savages”, what truly makes someone a savage? To fully understand this, we must first understand the true definition on the word. As per dictionary meaning, the word savage has two different meanings; One, the word can represent something in a state of nature / wild, or uncivilized. Two, the word can also represent a brutal or cruel person. So, with this information, who are the true savages in Huxley’s A Brave New World?

When the first meaning of the word is taken into consideration, it becomes clear that the people who live in the reservations are savages. But when it comes to the second meaning, the ideology behind savagery gets flipped around. Most of the people living in the World State find their civilized world is perfect. They don’t see anything brutal or cruel about it, yet people like John who have a different set of values, feel uncomfortable in this so called civilized world and want to escape it. This is due to the harsh reality that the people the World State’s society associate as savages are in fact by far more civilized, and the ones thought to be civilized are indeed, the true savages.

From the first opening scenes at the Central London Hatchery and Conditioning Center, a group of boys are exposed to the factory process used to create humans. Conditioning them for their predestined roles in the World State society. The Hatchery destines each fetus for a particular caste in the society. The five castes are Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta, and Epsilon. Here the group is introduced to the Bokanovsky’s Process,” One egg, one embryo, one adult-normality. But a bokanovskified egg will bud, will proliferate, will divide. …………Making ninety-six human beings grow where only one grew before. Progress.” (pg.17). This process in its self isn’t an act of savagery, one may argue that its’s just the use of technological advancements. But the conditioning process the embryos endure can be categorized as cruel and inhumane.

The three lower castes are conditioned to be identical to one another, and are conditioned to be mentally inferior to the two upper castes. Fetuses destined for work in the tropical climate are heat conditioned while oxygen deprivation and alcohol treatment ensure the lower intelligence and smaller size. “The lower the caste,” said Mr. Foster, “the shorter the oxygen.” The first organ affected was the brain. After that the skeleton. At seventy per cent of normal oxygen you got dwarfs. At less than seventy eyeless monsters.” (pg.24). It takes a cruel person to talk about the purposeful destruction of human life with little to no remorse. This is the first of many forms of savagery displayed by the World state citizens.

 

 

 

Reflection:

So far, I feel that everything is coming together pretty well. My overall theme behind my essay is exposing the true “savages” in the story. I believe the world state are savages, but I also believe the people who live in the reservation are savages as well, but just in a different form. In the essay, I want to compare the actions and beliefs of both parties.

I am having trouble piecing all the information I have together and trying to organize it in a way that makes sense. I plan on going in chronological order through the book instead of jumping throughout the book to avoid confusion.

Essay 1 Pre-Draft

Brave New World and its Difference in a Civilized Culture

Culture is defined as a way of life of a group of people–the behaviors, beliefs, values, and symbols that they accept, generally without thinking about them, and that are passed along by communication and imitation from one generation to the next. Based on this definition, the World State has placed a standard culture that everyone follows throughout the world. The World State abolished natural child birth, created caste system, and demonized the idea of family, marriage and Mother / Father Relationship by ingraining this belief in their culture to create stability and control in their society. John on the other hand comes into the World State from the Savage Reservation and branded as a savage by the citizen. John derives all his cultural belief from Savage Reservation and Shakespeare great work like Romeo and Juliet, Othello, etc. I believe neither John nor the citizen of the World State to be uncivilized. I believe this is a tale of two worlds clashing with what is considered to be culturally right when comes to their beliefs and they never took the time to understand each other as human beings.

During the first introduced between John and his father Tomakin, the scene was staged for Bernard to use John to humiliate Tomakin in front of his colleagues because Tomakin fathered a child with Johns mother Linda.  ” Turning towards the door, “John!” she called. “John!” He came in at once, paused for a moment just inside the door, looked round, then soft on his moccasined feet strode quickly across the room, fell on his knees in front of the Director, and said in a clear voice: “My father!” The word (for “father” was not so much obscene as-with its connotation of something at one remove from the loathsomeness and moral obliquity of childbearing-merely gross, a scatological rather than a pornographic impropriety); the comically smutty word relieved what had become a quite intolerable tension. (Huxley, pg. 140). The World State culturally frown upon fatherhood and Tomakin responds of embarrassment during this introduction to his own child was no surprise because in Tomakin culture all child birth is done at the Central Hatchery and being parents is demonized by his society. Based on that scene, John most likely was expecting a more welcoming response from Tomokin because he grew up with one of his parents, but no one explains the cultural differences to John when it comes to Parenthood in the World State.

Tomakin does a walk of the Central London Hatchery with a few of his students to demonstrate the process of manufacturing new human life into the world, during the walk parents were described in the conversation for the first time in a negative way. “Well, then they were the parents-I mean, not the babies, of course; the other ones.” The poor boy was overwhelmed with confusion. “In brief,” the Director summed up, “the parents were the father and the mother.” The smut that was really science fell with a crash into the boys’ eye avoiding silence. “Mother,” he repeated loudly rubbing in the science; and, leaning back in his chair, “These,” he said gravely, “are unpleasant facts; I know it. But then most historical facts are unpleasant (Huxley, pg. 32). Generation after generation the idea of parents became taboo within World State culture, especially since that babies were manufactured in a Hatchery and Child wasn’t raised by parents. So again with World State culture against parenting in their culture, John was bound to fail at getting any affection from Tomakin when he met him for the first time.

During Chapter 13 John tried to propose to Lenina which I believe was another attempt for John to hold on to his cultural values in the World State, but it leads to more disrespect when it comes to cultural differences. “How much I love you, Lenina,” he brought out almost desperately. An emblem of the inner tide of startled elation, the blood rushed up into Lenina’s cheeks. “Do you mean it, John?” “But I hadn’t meant to say so,” cried the Savage, clasping his hands in a kind of agony. “Not until. Listen, Lenina; in Malpais people get married.” “Get what?” The irritation had begun to creep back into her voice. What was he talking about now? (Huxley, pg. 174). In this scene, John and Lenina have the same views on Love, but they have different views when it came to marriage which cause a fissure in their relationship. From what John learned from Shakespeare’s works and especially from Romeo and Juliet, he believes in Love, Marriage, and then Sex in that order. The word marriage made Lenina very uncomfortable because in her culture everyone is open to be with anyone with no constraints to one person.

Reflection: So far I’ve changed the topic of my discussion from Civilized /Uncivilized to Cultural Differences after reading and analyzing more of conflict within the text. I felt that’s what World State and John have issues understanding about each other. I’m working to find more cultural conflicts within the text to support the problems I’ve noticed from reading the book. I feel my thesis paragraph was done pretty well, but I sometimes get writer’s block while trying to combine each paragraph and connecting thesis paragraph.

Essay 1 Pred-Draft

On my essay im writing about stability on brave new world and how can affect the sociaty. i’m almost with my essay but there some changes i have to make and adding little bit more of explanation on some scenarios. i know some of my ideas are all over the place and sometimes take me time to realize it, but if you see something that don’t make sense or think i have to change. please feel free and letting me know so i can apply the corrections.

 

Stability in brave new world

One noteworthy issue that keeps up social stability in Brave New World is sex. It is considered as would be expected for individuals to be totally open with their sexual nature. It is ordinary for youngsters to run around naked playing amusements that are sexual and once in a while homosexual person in nature. Each grown-up is urged to lay down with whatever number diverse people as could reasonably be expected. This attitude toward sexual nature is very unique in relation to real acknowledged perspectives.

The Director lets one of the student know the understudies, “Bokanovsky’s Process is one of the significant instruments of social stability.” For, he clarifies, with fate and molding, individuals then like their “inevitable social fate.” at the end of the day, individuals are adapted to acknowledge satisfaction over truth. In the nurseries, the kids are subjected to hypnopaedia, or rest molding, and additionally electric shock when they touch certain things. Accordingly, they are create indistinguishable youth fears that last into adulthood; in like manner, they discuss similar behavior and convictions to guarantee a stable society. The kids are instructed to consider the possibility of individual guardians and regular labor repulsive; they figure out how to despise books and nature and longing just to take part in consumerism. Into adulthood; likewise, they recite the same platitudes and beliefs to ensure a stable society. The children are taught to find the idea of individual parents and natural childbirth repugnant; they learn to hate books and nature and desire only to engage in consumerism.

Stability is the third of the three objective of the society in the story. It is character specify regularly the explanation behind that society act this way  for example stability requires the creation of expansive quantities of hereditary indistinguishable people since individual who are precisely the same are les inclined to create conflict, stability implies limiting conflisct in the society.

 

Blog#6: Essay#1-Pre-Draft

Title: Should one live up to their own standards or societal standards to find freedom and happiness?

Introduction: In society there are rules and regulations that are set for the people that are apart of it. These standards that are set by society are used as a means so that the people can be able to live freely and be able to find happiness. In the text “Brave New World” by Aldous Huxley, it deals with the people that are living in the society by being cloned and having their lives pretty much picked out for them as well. The World State’s version of what it takes to have freedom is different than what many would think. In this text, even though the society seems to be in good terms and the people seem to have no problems, it is disagreeable to live in a society like that in which one can not live by their own standards in a time and place where stuff like that is taboo.

Body Paragraph: In the story Brave New World, humans are mass produced as clones and from their creation they are given positions and are molded by the World State so that they can be able to live in society and carry out their daily duties that they are destined to perform in life. According to the text it says: “Second, a fully developed science of human differences, enabling government managers to assign any given individual to his or her proper place in the social and economic hierarchy.”(Huxley, 12). This quote is describing how what the people will go through and how they would live their lives would be determined by a higher power above them. The way this is set up means that there is no way for a human being that would live in the World State to be able to do what they freely want because they are being manipulated to live they way the higher order wants them to. Even though the people would not realize that, living in a society where one would have to abide by standards that are considered harsh would not really lead to true happiness because they would not be able to express themselves freely how they would want to.

Body Paragraph#2: In the society in the World State the humans that are created as clones are also conditioned as well in their youth and adolescence so that they can know the difference between what is considered right or wrong in that society. According to the text it says: “They’ll grow up with what psychologists used to call an ‘instinctive hatred of books and flowers.”(30). This means that the children are conditioned to note like certain things as they grow older because according to the world state factors like those can interfere with the standards they have set. This shows that you cannot find happiness in a society that conditions you and makes you experience and learn certain aspects forcefully rather than letting the person learn that through there own will.

Reflection: In the process of writing this essay I still have a while to go because I still need to organize my ideas and information better. Also since this is a draft, honestly in terms of writing those I am not really good at doing that because usually my ideas are all over the place sometimes. Also I know that in my first body paragraph I used a quote from a page before chapter one, because I had found it interesting. Overall I am still working on this essay as we speak.

Essay 1 Pre-Draft

To readers:

In this essay, there is still many things that are needed. The structure of the paragraphs isn’t figured out yet, mainly because there is still more paragraph to be written. The structure of the paragraph can also be in chronological order showing which character experience individuality. The structure would also be based around the theme of the essay, although the theme also needs some expanding to do, to be more precise in what is needed to expressed. In each of the paragraph that is written, it also needs some transition between them and also explains more on how the character’s growth with their individuality. As I have written most of the paragraph there is still more to be said and a topic sentence is needed for each to help clearly state the point. One thing that troublesome is finding quotes to help back up claims since there are aren’t much except for the main character to help distinguish one another they need to express individuality and that is what the point is. The point of all this is to prove that Brave New World does indeed show individuality in its characters. Last important thing to do also is to proofread the essay.

Individualities in Brave New World

Although individuality is taken away from society by the World State in Brave New World, individuality still exists throughout the characters in the novel.

One of the main characters Bernard Marx is conscious of his individuality and differences in the World State’s society. Bernard is shown to have unsatisfactory views toward society, he hopes to connect with society by joining a solidarity service. In the end of the service, he is left the same, as described by the narrator “He was as miserably isolated now as he had been when the service began…separated and unatoned”(86). The solidarity service represents society in some way and Bernard does views does not align with society. This contributes to his individuality as he does not feel the same as other do in the solidarity service.

Lenina is less conscious about her individuality, with her also being different and unique in society she still shows individuality. A display of individuality is when Lenina talk to Fanny about her relationship with a man named Henry. When Lenina said, “it’s only about four months now since I’ve been having Henry”(46). Lenina shows individuality by having a relationship with one person for four months in a world where people have multiple sex partners. Lenina acting is not appropriate to the society, she is acting out of the norm, giving her individuality.

Mustapha Mond expresses his individuality amongst many of his subject, by having the power to rule over them. In which Mond said, “But as I make the law here, I can also break them”(197). He expresses that he is different because he has the power to change the law. Unlike society, Mond is given individuality by the World State. Even so, society sees Mond as a leader distinguishing him from society’s caste system.

Snow Day #2! (City Tech Closed Tomorrow, Tu 3/14: No Class)

Hi everyone:

As you may have heard by now, City Tech is closed tomorrow due to the impending blizzard, so we won’t be having class.

I’ve created a new Class Discussion on “There Will Come Soft Rains” as a way to continue to work through the short story, focusing on the group discussion questions from last class, the elements of fiction, especially conflicts & themes (especially in relation to the questions in the Science Fiction Framework), and analysis of quotes (with citations!).

As for the rest of the week, don’t forget that the Midterm Exam is this Thursday, 3/16 (I’ll be away at a conference, but one of my colleagues, Professor Corbett will be there to proctor the exam in class). Please review the exam page (which provides details about the format for/content of the exam), and study accordingly.

Also, Essay 1 is due Thursday, 3/14 (Professor Corbett will be collecting the hard copies in class, and you should submit the file via Dropbox before class begins), and you should still post your Pre-Draft by tomorrow, Tu 3/14 at 2pm (see the Schedule for more details). Please read through everyone’s Pre-Drafts, and provide peer review (feedback) by leaving a comment on your classmates’ posts. You can give feedback on content, organization, argument, analysis, etc.

Please use the time you gain back from not having class tomorrow to work on your essays. If you have any questions about the exam or the essay, please post a comment here to this post.

Next week we’re moving forward with starting a new novel, Nineteen Eighty-Four, as planned.

Most importantly, stay safe during the storm & enjoy the snow day 🙂

Ryan Yip Pre-draft

To start off, I’m giving my reflection first to explain my thought process to anyone who decides to read this. So I’ve written my pre-draft and realized that it’s not as well written as I thought it would be. I’m not a history buff, far from it. The essay said that we were prohibited from using outside sources but I wanted to make a comparison from history anyway. Around the time I started writing my third body paragraph it occurred to me that the slaves that the Spartans had on hand actually had a name like a city state. After I wrote the essay I looked up their name on google and they were called Helots. I’m sure there are some people who will say that I’m inaccurate, but f**k it they were basically slaves and no one reading an essay about science fiction is going to care about the complexity between a slave state and their boss. Also the structure of my Paragraphs may be off a bit. My goal was to make 2 body paragraphs with supporting details and evidence and the third would be where I analyse everything and where it would all come together. The problem is that the third body paragraph looks like how I would end an essay instead of making all the details and evidence come together. I’m probably going to change that, but I want to avoid making a whole new paragraph drawing from the book simply because I can’t come up with any other arguments to my case. Also I had recently received an email from the school that said that we’re snowed in tomorrow (March 14th) so that’s the second snow day we had on a Tuesday so that’s unfortunate. And I think that’s all I got to say so I’ll get to that pre-draft in a second.

 

Human Nature and Free Will

What does it mean to be human? What does it mean to have free will? These are questions that have plagued the minds of many great thinkers and stand either unanswered or is answered in a complex and confusing manner. But know that we are easily manipulated and fragile creatures. History has shown us that humans are fickle and cruel creatures. Our present is brimming with hatred and uncertainty. So what does our future hold in store for us? Men, women and children have dared dream of what is possible. As we grew as a culture we spread our ideas, share them, and perhaps denounce other ideas. Scientists made predictions, wise men made prophecies, and authors told stories. Literature has shown us what a future with great technology can look like. And perhaps that they can horrify our lesser minds. Aldous Huxley wrote a book titled Brave New World, published in 1932, which told us about a future that made many question our humanity. Within these pages was a strange culture built on a system that was powered by values that conflict with our own beliefs.

What does it mean to hold a station? At work? At life? There are inumerous debates about inequality. Human history is thick with slavery. The spartans are well known as great warriors who pride themselves as such. What most people forget is how it was supported by slaves that they capture. While the Spartans trained as warriors at a very young age, they had slaves working to support them in their pursuit of strength. The glory of the Spartans that is well known, due to their popularity in media, and got where they were by the labor of people beneath their station. Today, many see themselves as second class citizens, a type of citizen beneath what defines a regular citizen. This is often a minority group that is treated differently due to their physical features. Often there are people who are treated differently not because of their physical appearance but their beliefs and values. Some could argue that these people became second class citizens upon birth. The story of Brave New World, tells us about how a man once envisioned a society that is built on the backs of lesser people. The story takes place in a city known as the “World State” and this city supports a caste system. Similar to how most would envision a caste system the people are assigned a caste or a station in life upon birth. Unlike the many imaginings of caste systems is the production of citizens that align these castes. In chapter 1 page 17, the story gives us a long explanation of a method to mass produce twins known as the Bokanovsky process. This process uses uteruses that were removed from women and uses it to produce  embryos. These embryos are then separated into five castes. These castes are called Alpha, Beta, Gamma, Delta and Epsilon. Here the Alphas and Betas are sent to mature in a tank to produce a single infant. The Gammas, Deltas, and Epsilons are then sent to undergo the Bokanovsky process. Here they are subjected to a treatment that causes the embryo to divide into a large number of identical twins. This process has been known to produce a record of ninety-six twins. In the last few sentences of the first paragraph the director of the facility stated that, ”where the Alpha and Betas remained until definitely bottled; while the Gammas, Deltas and Epsilons were brought out again, after only thirty-six hours, to undergo Bokanovsky’s Process.” He goes on to explain that once the process is finished, they are decanted from their tanks and made ready for the next step in their classification as a citizen. Once they become functional toddlers, they are subjected to different forms of training and conditioning. These are people who have been told where they belong upon birth. This story published in 1932 challenges what free will and thinking is to us. It drives us to think and question what it means to be in a station of life and what extremes we can take this in our potential future. Some are satisfied with equal rights while there are others who are not still unhappy and want to be treated as equals as well as retain their equal rights. While we may be made to believe in that something is right in the world there is always the potential and possibility that there is a wrong.

Conditioning is a term that defines rewarding efforts deemed desirable and punishing efforts that are not. In the World State, their methods of training and conditioning are very different from our own. While we do begin molding our young into proper and functional adults at an early age, the World State takes this to an extreme. In chapter 2 page 32 paragraph 10 the director began describing a story about Reuben Rabinovitch. He described how Reuben’s parents had left a radio on a program from London while he slept. To his parent’s astonishment, the next morning he began speaking english. After the director continued on saying that “The principle of sleep-teaching, or hypnopaedia, had been discovered.” The facilities that were conditioning these children were using hypnopaedia on these children to ingrain information in their minds as they slept. The director continues to explain that while this was an excellent method of gaining information, this could not change their beliefs and values. To change those they have a different method. Conditioning in the purest sense. The story gives us a clearer example of this in chapter 2 page 29 Paragraph 6. The conditioning involved infants being presented with colorful flowers and books. When these infants approached these objects the director explained “And now, now we proceed to rub in the lesson with a mild electric shock.” After the infants approached the objects they were subjected to an electric shock to develop a resentment toward nature and books. They would repeat this process 200 times to do so. The World State conditions their citizens to uphold values that it deems good. Returning to our examples from the Spartans, they instilled fear into their slaves by attacking them yearly. Every year the Spartans would remind their slaves who is in charge. Through repetition, these slaves were conditioned to fear the Spartans and had little chance to learn of bravery and glory that the Spartans live with. In our present, we are not so extreme as the World State but not so barbaric as the Spartans. We do condition our young to learn and think. Instead of causing them pain or torment them regularly, although it may be debatable, we simply send them to be educated in school. Here we reward our young for studying and learning and punish laziness and violence. We do so often do so at home with our parents. There are exceptions to this. There are some who take this to an extreme and some who do not do enough. With so many similarities to our past, our present, and Aldous Huxley’s interpretation of an extreme future what does that mean to us who have human nature and free will?

Can one say that they are happy where they are, or is it just what they were conditioned to believe to be true? Like the people of the World State we are conditioned to hold certain values. We are conditioned to do well in school, stay out of trouble and get a good job. As children we were often told to do these things by adults. Our efforts to live by these beliefs are rewarded and efforts that do not are punished. We are conditioned to hold these beliefs so that when we are thrown into the adult world, it becomes natural. Our thoughts align with we have been taught to think. When we are presented with a sea of options, we narrow ourselves to only a few because we were taught that many of these options are unavailable. It is easy to manipulate a person to have certain beliefs. Unlike the World State, the Spartans could do it easily. They even made it a yearly duty for themselves. The World State only does what we do today, only at a larger scale with advance techniques and technologies to make it all possible. That is our nature as humans. We are weak willed creatures who are susceptible to change.