Category Archives: Proposals, Drafts

Uses of Architecture for Imagery in Science Fiction

In many science fiction media, the use of imagery helps the viewers/readers visualize the world in which the author is trying to convey. I believe that there are novels written by some science fiction authors that borrowed heavy influences of the surrounding architecture based on the time period which they lived in. For instance, borrowing heavily from destroyed buildings post-world war can influence writers to have their readers imagine similar types of destruction. Conversely, Metropolis (Fritz Lang, 1927) borrows influence from newly aspirated design in architecture such as art-deco which emerged from art-nouveau during the roaring twenties, and the Bauhaus movement in Germany (1919-1930) during the making of the film.

Art Deco in Metropolis

Metropolis (Fritz Lang 1927)












Bauhaus Metropolis

Bauhaus – Metropolis (Fritz Lang 1927)

Some of these picture examples show how much influence the architecture of that era helped with imagery in Fritz Lang’s Metropolis. These images help the viewers to understand the extent of industrialization in Metropolis which I consider to be a Utopia within a Dystopia. On one side of Metropolis, there is a utopia above ground where all the high class people live, and underground, what the workers would call a dystopia. Metropolis is one of the most significant science fiction movies ever made, and it tackles a few tropes about sectarianism, and utopianism as well as human artificial intelligence.

Another good example of the use of imagery with architecture is in Le Voyage Dans La Lune (Georges Melies, 1902) where we see what Georges’ imagination made up when thinking of the landscape on the moon, and what secrets it may hold. The harsh landscape, giant alien looking plants and large caves containing things that we would normally find on earth goes to show some of the limitations in our imagination.

Trip to the Moon

Le Voyage Dans La Lune (Georges Melies 1902)


There are many more types of science fiction subgenres that again, use architecture to help the readers/viewers understand the author’s vision. The idea of space exploration and colonization has led us to some great imagery. The imagery associated with technological advancements that are vastly superior to our current technology—so much so that it looks unfathomable.

eagle magazine

Eagle Magazine July 1950


This example of a 1950’s comic shows a great example of what the author had in mind about space colonization/civilization on other planets (in this case, Venus)

Ghost in the shell city scape

Ghost in the Shell (Masamune, Shirow 2017)


The common association with technological advancements is the urbanization of cities into what we would again consider to be a metropolis. The above example is a good depiction of what a futuristic city scape is like, massive holograms, tall glass buildings, apartment complexes all converge to give a sense of being urban, yet full of advanced technology.


Works Cited:

Căplescu, Oana Andreea. “Architecture In Science Fiction Movies.” 2 February 2015. 6 December 2018.

Ghost in the Shell. By Masamune Shirow. Dir. Rupert Sanders. Prods. Avi Arad, Steven Paul and Michael Costigan. Paramount Pictures, 2017.

Jackson, Gordon and Charlie Jane Anders. Great Science Fiction Creators Who Have Studied Architechture. 30 September 2011. Web Article.

Jacob, Sam. Architecture, Philip K Dick and Science-fiction Film. 4 August 2011. Web Article.

McCrary, Montez. The Architecture of “Metropolis (1927)”. 31 May 2012. Web Article.

Metropolis. By Thea von Harbou and Fritz Lang. Dir. Fritz Lang. Prod. Erich Pommer. Ufa, 1927.

Varah, Chad and Frank Hampson. “Eagle.” Hampson, Frank. Eagle. United Kingdom: Hulton Press; IPC Magazines, 1950.

Voyage Dans La Lune. By Georges MĂ©liĂšs. Dir. Georges MĂ©liĂšs. Prod. Georges MĂ©liĂšs. 1902.



Stanley’s proposal draft

ENG 2420

I chose genetic engineering as one of my topics because genetic engineering can be expanded to brainstorm so many vivid ideas that give a bigger eye opening on this world regarding science fiction. My first idea that came to mind with genetic engineering is the rumor of a mainstream artist named Gucci Mane that was supposedly supposed to be cloned when he was released from jail. This topic is brought to my interest because it is amazing how genetic engineering in a science fiction realm can do things such as cloning people for the better. It is all within the government making these controversials actions and nobody ever says anything about it to the public. There is a reason behind all of it, because if society was to be aware of how cloning and genetic engineering exactly works, the government feels as if the world will never generate in the way they want things to go. People will get a hand on the equipment and probably come up with astonishing projects to make someone think twice how they are potentially about to change the world.


My other topic was ‘ Changing Ages’ because I always had a big interest on how humans went from looking like homosapiens at its first form to how we appear to each other now. There has been a big difference on what has happened in the past few decades in the way we look. Science Fiction and genetic engineering comes into play in this type of conversation because the only way evolution occurs in a world like this is genetic engineering and people who call themselves Hard Science Fiction authors that come up with controversial ideas on how to evolve humans as a whole. Our brain is developed to pretty much be able to do anything you can possibly think of, but obviously we are not capable of everything, but our mind definitely lets us explores these ideas and find ways to make it happen which is where Science Fiction role comes into play.


Pros or Cons: Uplifting Animal Intelligence

Intelligence is a dangerous thing, a double edge blade if you will; like a gun, it can be good and bad depending on the user. As far as we know, humans are the most intelligent creature of Earth, with this intelligence comes curiosity, a thirst for more knowledge and understanding, a creative mind that is far too big for its shell. To change, one needs to destroy first. For example, things are not always what it is now in the modern day, in the past, people believe Earth is flat, but it is in fact round. It is through endless experimentation that humans are able to make process. Nowadays, there is a debate on a new change, whether humans should increase the intelligence of animals.

I got inspired Vishal’s post and decide to focus on this topic myself. Personally, I am against that idea. First of all, the increase in animal intelligence would pose a threat to humans. Animals are naturally more gifted physically, if given the intelligence to match, what would become of the humans? Furthermore, what would the relationship be like for different groups of intelligent creatures? Will humans be able to accept these animals that they once consume and use as equals? Will these equally intelligent animals be able to accept humans?

Gent, Edd. “If We Could Engineer Animals to Be as Smart as Humans – Should We?”, Singularity Universe, 16 Jan. 2018,

This article give some example of human experiment with animals. He argues that animals to some extent become smarter, but in the end, they can never compare to humans because they do not have the mechanic conditions, such as brain size.

Xu, Christine. “Science or Science Fiction? Uplifting Animals.” Yale Scientific Magazine, Yale Scientific Magazine, 8 May 2015,

This article brings up the question of whether humans are obligated to uplift animals come up. Some says yes. because it is unethical to purposely withhold intelligence enhancement from other animals.

Maughan, Tim. “Future – Should We Engineer Animals to Be Smart like Humans?” BBC News, BBC, 1 Oct. 2014,

This article points out that humans have an obligation to help uplift animals, and that one of the benefits for humans is to have helpers with making Earth a better place. Paul Graham Raven question if humans have the right to make decisions for the animals in the matter of uplifting.

Knapp, Alex. “Is It Ethical to Make Animals As Smart As People?” Forbes, Forbes Magazine, 13 Sept. 2011,

In this article, Knapp believes that the uplifting of animal intelligence is feeble, instead humans should focus on the bettering of our own society.

How Taoism inspired the Force

George Lucas’ fictional religion named the Force and real-life ancient Chinese religion Taoism actually have many similarities with one another. First, Taoism is a religion that started in China 2000 years ago, it “emphasizes doing what is natural and ‘going with the flow’ in accordance with the Tao (or Dao), a cosmic force which flows through all things and binds and releases them” (Ancient History). On the other hand, the force is “an energy field that connected everything in the universe. The Force was generated by all living entities, and therefore, resided in all lifeforms” (Wookiepedia). Both the force and Taoism rely on an invisible energy that connects with the world and guides one in their lives. They also believe in the idea of evil and good. Taoism uses the yin and yang symbol to reflect the battle between both sides, while Star Wars uses the Sith and Jedi. Without evil or good, there would be no balance in the world.

Similar to The force, Taoism believes in the power of telekinesis to move objects. Followers of Taoism believed one could do this through Qigong, “a form of gentle exercise composed of movements that are repeated a number of times, often stretching the body, increasing fluid movement (blood, synovial and lymph) and building awareness of how the body moves through space” (Energy Arts). According to Paul Dong, once one masters this art form, they would become clairvoyant and have the power of telekinesis. This is very similar to the Force because users of it are able to move objects and perceive certain events before they happen,

Works Cited

Broughton, Richard (1991). Parapsychology: the controversial science. New York, [NY]: Ballantine Books. ISBN 978-0-345-37958-0.

This source is a book that discusses a bit on the concept of Quigong and how users of it are able to become telekinetic. This is important to my comparison of the Force and Taoism.


Frantzis, Bruce. “What Is Qigong?” Energy Arts, 8 Nov. 2018,’

This article discusses the history of Qigong, its usefulness and purpose. Qigong is a very important aspect of Qigong, so it must be talked about in my discussion. I used this article to further the connection between the Force and Taoism.


Mark, Emily. “Taoism.” Ancient History Encyclopedia, Ancient History Encyclopedia, 27 Nov. 2018,

This article discusses the history of the ancient Chinese religion Taoism. It is important to my discussion because I need to tell my audience what the religion is about. In other words, it is a great base to start on argument on.


“The Force.” Wookieepedia,

This article discusses the basic information on what the Force actually is. Although it is a fan-based site, it is known to be very reliable, accurate and comprehensive. I will use this article to inform my audience on what the force is defined as.

Alternate Future


When you think of Science fiction, you think of a lot of futuristic things. The most fascinating topic is alternate future. It almost sounds like Fantasy, but when you think about it, it’s actually really scientific and hard to explain. So instead, think of it like this, you have to two choices and you pick one of them and go along with it. The alternate future is basically is if you would’ve picked the other choice. Another way is that it’s the future that is similar to ours but different.

Alternate future is indeed a really confusing and complicated topic. However, that doesn’t stop it from making amazing stories. Some great examples are The Fallout(series), Superman: Red Son, The incredibles, and Doctor Who. These are set in an alternate future where the world is similar to ours but is different in a way where people have powers and some can time travel. 


A Rapidly Growing World

Science fiction is a broad subject matter that attempts to tackle many of our unanswered questions. When I think about what Science fiction consists of I usually think about what it means to be alive or what makes a person alive and usually when in context to science fiction this trope talks about a world were humanity is being taken over by man made machines that have become indistinguishable to humanity it self.  My research project will try to tackle the development of how man tries to defy our natural environment. By this I mean humanities inability to conform to how the world tries to regulate population. As scary of a topic and at the same time slightly clinical it is inarguable that humanities population is steadily growing to the point where it is starting to become difficult to sustain such large populations of humans.

Throughout science fiction this such problem is constantly faced both in a post apocalyptic setting like in Children of Men  where humanity is no longer able to bare children for unknown reasons, but one can also this sort of problem being faced in stories like “The Last Question” where although man is aware that humanity is coming to an end because of their inability to decreases there rapidly growing population they still go ahead and figure out way for man to become immortal.

Although both these stories are taken from hypothetical worlds they still reflect what people in the real world are thinking. With the help of document such as “The Perils of Population Growth” by Aziz Haniffa one starts to understand that this idea of the dangers of population growth isn’t a new one. Along with dangers is the amount of people living on Earth being dangerous the problem doesn’t stop there because with larger populations the growth of pollution also grows. When people think about the growth of a world its difficult to really see the bigger picture what this could mean. One hardly thinks about the fact that with larger populations the water supplies and natural resources start to dwindle as well. In the ” The World Water Crisis and International Security” written by Harald Frederiksen these such problems come into question.

Not only does man question the consequences of what rapid population growth can mean for humanity but we also look for way to outsmart our in environment as well in “Dome, sweet home: climate shelters past, present and future” written by Rachael Squire ect.  its clear  that man is trying to find other viable alternatives for when the earth becomes unsustainable. Its difficult to think so deep into the future that we see all the faults that man has been accountable for but when it comes to population growth it starts to become abundantly clear that this problem branches out into many more.


Asimov Isaac November 1956  “The Last Question”

This story tells of a future where the world is constantly changing. Over the cores of millions of a years a question is constantly asked and its how does humanity prevent the decay of the universe only for the question to be solved once  man is no longer around.

Frederiksen, H. D. (2009). THE WORLD WATER CRISIS AND INTERNATIONAL SECURITY. Middle East Policy, 16(4), 76-89. doi:

This article talks about the dangers of population growth.More importantly it speaks to the dangers and affects of population growth and how due to it mans natural resources are blundering. This article also approaches how all of the world is in danger of being affected by such problems.

Haniffa, Aziz. (1994, Mar 25). The perils of population growth. India Abroad Retrieved from

This article addresses the problems with population growth and the rapid acceleration at which it is being done. It also sheds light on the consequences of population in places such as India.

James P.D Published 1992  Children of Men

This wiki pages gives you a general look of what the story is about. This story is about a dystopian future that no longer is capable of baring children.

Squire Rachael ,ect. 23 NOVEMBER 2018  Dome, sweet home: climate shelters past, present and future from

This article approaches how man is trying to face the rapid population problem as well as the problem of our depleting planet by finding alternative living situations. It also approaches our history with seeking alternative means for a hospitable living environment.



When registering for classes I was to take another writing-intensive course while looking for one I found a science fiction course and sad this seems interesting  I should take the class. It is a good thing I did because without it I would have never learned about a topic that is very intriguing. The first time that I was exposed to the idea of Artificial intelligence was When I watched the show called  “The 100” developed by  Jason Rothenberg loosely based on the novel by Kass Morgan. The show takes place 100 years after a nuclear war destroyed the earth making anyone who could make it off the planet in time live in a ship called the arc. life is well in space but there are too many people to supply on the arc. the show goes on and 100 teen delinquents are sent down to earth and have to learn how to survive and live. 

Throughout the show, you learn about the future and what happened to planet earth and in one of the seasons they introduce artificial intelligence and I didn’t understand what it really was. When the semester started and as classes came by in are science fiction classes we were to read and it brought up the topic of artificial intelligence. Hearing that word made me remember the show and I understood the word and what it meant. Then when reading in class different stories of science fiction it made me realize how interesting the topic really is and I started thinking of books I read and shows I watched that where science fiction and one thing over and over that was brought to my attention was artificial intelligence and with that I had an idea of what want my research paper is going to be about.


this website is about humans and how they are able to do small tasks as small as washing your hands, jumping, and walking and it talks about how they want to be able to create machines that are able to do these things as simple as humans can.

Benefits & Risks of Artificial Intelligence

this website talks about the pros and cons of artificial intelligence and how it affects the world today and how it can affect the world in the future for the generations to come. the website also talks about the safety of it as a whole.

This website talks about the mind and the simples tasks of reading and understanding and how it is so hard for regular computers to do this tasks as easily  as regular people can.

The Uplift of Animals: Good or Bad?

Over the course of this semester, Science Fiction has introduced to many different concepts that I never knew of. From this course, I got to the opportunity to learn about things such as; utopias, dystopias, apocalyptic, post-apocalyptic settings, and artificial intelligence. This course brought my attention to all of these topics. But one topic in particular that I wished we would have covered is the process of uplift or uplifting. Uplifting is basically the use of technology or artificial intelligence to improve the overall intelligence of non-human species. When I was looking for research topics, this term came across and I was immediately hooked. In the 2011 film, “Rise of the Planet Apes” that is based on the book “Planet of the Apes” there are examples of the uplifting process. In this reboot, chimpanzees are given this drug called the ALZ-112. This drug is supposed to be a cure for Alzheimer’s disease but instead it improve one’s intelligence greatly. In this reboot, there is this one chimpanzee named Caesar, who is given the drug and his intelligence increases.

So imagine a world where animals are given the opportunity to increase their intelligence. These animals could communicate with humans, build their own cities, and govern their own cities. With the way science and technology are advancing, this imagined world could be inevitable. But in the science fiction world, everything is a possibility. The kind of research that I will be doing is rather important. From the basic research that I have done already, the uplift of animals could be coming sooner than we actually think. There have been several experiments tested on monkey and mice to advance their intelligence and their memory. This research will be important because it speaks upon the future. Maybe twenty or thirty years ahead into the future, we as a race might be living with enhanced animals. From this topic, I hope to question the reasoning behind the uplift process. Is it ethical? Can be used on humans? Are we pushing it too far? In my own thought, I think the process of uplifting could have a great impact on the animal kingdom. But I also think that there could be consequences.


This article proposes the idea of uplifting in the real world. There are two different experiments done, where animals have been experimented on. Although, this article does claim that the process of uplifting on animals may be controversial and just a plain fantasy.

This is another article explaining the methods of uplifting and its dangers. This article also states that the process of uplifting is still far into the future. Although, there is a thought that if we were to uplift animals using our human material, we could help resolve diseases we face in the world today. Diseases like Alzheimer’s and memory loss.

This article claims that the uplifting of animals could be morally wrong. If we were to change an animal’s entire biological system there could be some dangerous consequences. We could extinct an entire species just because we do not think they are smart enough. We could sterilize the uplifted animals and they could lose their ability to repopulate.

In this article, it touches upon the moral rights that animals have. It also offers the idea of animals becoming aware of these experiments and it could totally backfire on us. It also mentions that uplifting animals to increase their intelligence may not be the solution to our world problems. As humans, we tend to alter and destroy any type of life we come in contact with. So the concept of uplifting could worse than we expect.


Defying the Inevitable

When I think about science fiction, I imagine the boundaries of possibilities being stretched beyond their standard limits. There’s a lot of things we haven’t even been capable of for as long as we can remember and one of those things is the secret behind death, an unchangeable fate that every living being experiences at the end of their lifespan.  However with science fiction releasing numerous ideas that could be used to avoid or delay this encounter like uploaded consciousness as shown in novel “Altered Carbon” or cryonics as seen in the film Passengers, bio technologists are willing to invest time into making these concepts a reality.

Imagine what could be possible if the ability to change a person’s lifespan actually existed. Those who face a disease that threatens to take them away from their families earlier than expected could be saved giving them more precious time. People who haven’t lived out life to the fullest will have more time to reconsider the decisions they made in life.  Death can be frightening to many because it’s a one time experience. It can’t be thoroughly explained what happens after death which is what makes it scary, because it’s the unknown. However, that doesn’t mean longevity isn’t without flaws either. If too many people are tempted by the joys that life has to offer, then we face overpopulation. Overpopulation also leads to an increase in resource consumption as seen in Isaac Asimov’s story “The Last Question” which in turn, will leave to mass suffering and death instead of just a single death.  Not only that but extending life beyond its normal duration this has psychological and social consequences too, such as possibly changing a person to the point where they are bored with a longer lifespan or only allowing the rich to be able to afford longer lives while the poor don’t even get the choice.  Although we commonly turn to technology to solve our questions, we have to consider the consequences our developments might bring.

In my research, I would like to explain the general information like what is life extension is and why we should care about it.  I’ll discuss the history of life extension and how it’s changed since then, as well as listing the techniques currently in development and if there has been any breakthroughs.  Finally, I’ll focus on the reasons for and against life extension keeping the ethical and practical repercussions in mind . Some questions that interest me about this topic are related to the consequences of longevity:

A lot of the things in the world are defined by opposites.  Take light and dark into consideration. Both ideas define each other, as one term would be meaningless without the other.  Applying this to the concept of life and death, what is life without death?

As life and death are integral parts of human existence, to avoid death is unnatural for a human being. If we were to extend our lifespan, would we be sacrificing a part of what makes us human?


“Human Age-Reversal Research.”,

This website is absolutely dedicated to the idea of longevity.  It recommends products pertaining to being healthy and any process that involves reversing age or rejuvenating people are supported in this website.  It also contains research on how young blood donors have reversed the aging of older animals, which shows their optimism at preventing death by aging.

“Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies.” Institute for Ethics and Emerging Technologies,

This website states multiple arguments for and against the idea of life extension.  Arguments against life extension include how it aligns with the natural law, the effects it has on the mind of people, the negative social repercussions, and the motivations of people who request life extensions.  Arguments supporting life extension consist of the value of life compared to death, the positive social consequences, and legal and ethical rights. It also lists how a person dying at a young age is more tragic than a person dying at an old age so the idea that we have the ability to enable those the opportunity to fully live out their lives isn’t too bizarre.

“Killing Immortality.” Razor Tie Artery Foundation Announce New Joint Venture Recordings | Razor & Tie, Rovi Corporation,

This website is about how a bioethicist researcher is completely against the idea of life extension and how it creates social issues, renders life pointless, and challenges religion.  The researcher believes that creating artificial organs or changing our genes are challenging us as humans. The social issues he believes in will result in environmental damage and how only rich people will have the luxury of choosing whether they can live longer or not.  Even now the world’s population is alarmingly large and extending people’s lives will only make it more crowded. He also provides reasons as to why death gives life meaning by saying “life is beautiful because it has an ending.”

Maxmen, Amy. “This Startup Takes Cash from Aging Adults in Exchange for Young People’s Blood.” MIT Technology Review, MIT Technology Review, 13 Jan. 2017,

This website lists an ethical issue in which it discusses a clinic where adults against aging spend thousand of dollars injecting young people’s blood into their body, as it’s believed younger people’s blood can reverse aging since it worked on mice.  Taking in blood from other people’s bodies are incredibly dangerous just to reduce aging, not to mention this process is incredibly expensive and would be better used on someone who’s actually dying from a disease rather than a person interested in retaining their youth.  There’s too many illnesses to watch out for such as hives, lung injury, and infections.

Technology is a useful servant but a dangerous master.

Technology in the dictionary sense is ” the application of scientific knowledge for practical purpose…” . For thousands of years , dating back to paleolithic age men used simple technological tools like axes and shovels for their personal needs like hunting, and farming. Since then technology as evolved and served humanity gratefully . Now in the 21th century , we use cars ,planes, boats ,trains to travel far distances , we use cell phones and computers to be connected virtually and to be  omnipresent , and use other advanced technological tools that give us our daily needs like food , water,  clothes , electricity, etc. What technology does is it gives us the ultimate convince in our daily lives.

Additionally , technology has treated more sick people with diseases and help a lot of injured people now then hundreds of years of ago . The invention of the computer and the cell phone has enhanced our connectivity and communications greatly. Companies can make quick money exchanges, purchases and sales in just few seconds . Industrial and agricultural production is much faster , easier and safer. However, there are disadvantages to these advancements . Most technology has reduced humans to being obsolete , as more work is done by machines than humans, thus causing a rise in unemployment in the labor force. In addition, humans have a dependency on technology , like when they use the calculator to solve problems. This goes to shows that humans are not willing use use their mental power to solve calculations on their own. Even when we use social media to connect with one another , we are not willing to see each other in person. As technology advances , we must question our own abilities if  we are worthy enough to sustain our own well being without the assistance of technology.

This semester, I have read numerous science fiction literatures . Each of these literatures have some advance technology that revolves around the story . Then, what comes into question is how and what effects technology itself  or how humans use technology and whats the benefits and consequences . Science fiction  is speculative fiction that deals with imaginative concepts. One of these concepts that is presented in this genre is advance technology. In my opinion, I had felt that this concept was the most popular . 

Short stories like The Machine Stops and The Last Question both heavily rely on advance technology in the story. In The Machine Stops,  humanity has built a Machine that can do almost anything. Humans rely on the machine 24/7 and it’s all they know how to do . They look at the machine like a god , but in the end of the story the machine malfunctions, thus destroying itself . And in the Last Question , humans built a advance machine that evolves as billions of years  passes on . As time passed, humans from different eras would ask the machine to solve the universe energy crisis. In the end ,  after humanity has died out and machine has evolved beyond humanity, the machine creates a new universe solving the energy crisis .  Its technology like this that is so advances that it could be our greatest servants, but also our dangerous masters.


Ismail, Nick. Modern Technology: Advantages and Disadvantages. Information Age, Accessed 28 Nov. 2018.

This cite gives  simple and brief advantages and disadvantages of how technology affects us today.And I had used this cite to write down advantages and disadvantages of technology

Wikipedia. Accessed 28 Nov. 2018.

I had used this cite to give me the broad definition of what technology is and some of its advances.

Asimov, Isaac. The last Question. 1956.

I had used this short stories as one of my examples in my proposals. As it deals with advance technology  and its consequences and benefits .

Forster, E.M. The MAchine Stops. 1909.

I had used this short stories as one of my examples in my proposals. As it deals with advance technology  and its consequences and benefits .