Neil Postman. “Media as Epistemology”
“A similar paradox exist in Universities, and with roughly the same distribution of resonances; that is to say, there are few residual traditions based on the notion that speech is the primary carrier of truth.” (pg.20)
Literally: This quote means how there is a paradox of how we use speech and rhetoric, as ways to convey the truth. There are many ways to convey truth, mostly we consider truth to be what is written down but there are some societies that still think truth can be conveyed through speech. Speech was the way all information was passed on before and there was many different cultures that made speech the primary way to convey truth.
Intellectually: The quote makes me think about how we think that truth is what is written down in books. There were many ways to get information around at that time and the way that was the most used was, oral speech. Rhetoric was used as more than just ways to give proverbs, they were ways to tell people what you really wanted to convey.
Emotionally: I can kind of understand what Postman is talking about. The societies of the modern era do not consider speech to be the main way to convey truth. I prefer to give a speech or talk to give information rather than, write it down. When I speak about it, it gives more insight into what the person is trying to convey.
Relationally: This quote relates to the essay based on how it talks about how societies use mediums and technology to convey truth. People like Socrates for example, would have used speech and even proverbs to convey what he wanted to say, because that is how societies at the time used proverbs as a medium of truth. Not all truths are equal, but instead are given more importance over another based on what the societies at the time has as its mediums and the technology to convey information.
Lewis Mumford, “Automation of Man”
“The scientific ideology that made possible these colossal benefits, we now find, can not be easy attached to other valid and purposeful human ends.”(pg.263)
Literally: This quote talks about how the ideas that were used to create some of humanities greatest inventions can not be used for all aspects of human life. An idea that is used to create something can not be used for the creation of another. There are ideologies that help us to come to a conclusion to solve our need.
Intellectually: The quote makes me think that science and the ideas that it produces are able to help us create the technology that we need to solve our needs, but it will not always lead to the outcome that we desire. Some ideas can be intertwined while others can only fit a certain mold.
Emotionally: I feel this quote creates a feeling of caution for the way we use scientific ideologies to find the means of solving our human desires. I think that ideas that were created to give birth to some technology can not be universal. There are not many valid ideas that are able to find a means to a end, that is why scientific ideologies are constantly changing, it is hard to find a single universal idea that can solve all our problems.
Relationally: This quote relates to this essay based on how we keep striving to improve our technology and trying to create the next evolution of automation. The desire to create things that better our life and can do things we can not, is also hurting us cause it means that we are making the human mind obsolete. The role of man and machine have switched, the new machine was man, but just a small part, while the man was the machine but was left over from the machine.
Donald Murray, “Internal Revision”
” The writing process is too experimental and exploratory to be contained in a rigid definition”
Literally: This quote means that the writing process is not just for only writing an essay for example, but can be made out to be many more forms of expression, the writing process is put into steps but even the steps can be played around with and even switched around, there should not be a stiff definition of how the writing process should be used.
Intellectually: This quote provokes ideas on how to write, but also encourages writing in new ways. Following a rigid system does not always help when it come to expressing your ideas. You should try to write in a way that helps the ideas flow onto the page and skip around on the writing process to better help your work.
Emotionally: This quote made me think about what the essay said on how we can better our selves when it comes to writing by learning what the process and each aspect of it really means. Revision is not just ” you failed and now have to fix it” it is more than that. I think that revision means more about looking at the ideas you have and expanding on them.
Relationally: This quote relates to the essay by confirming the points that are made by “Donald Murray”. The revision aspect alone can be broken into two forms, proving that the writing process that we use it too rigid and not giving room for more experimenting with writing. The writing process’s end goal is to help you convey what you want to say on paper but that does not mean that you have to follow it to the letter. You can experiment and explore your writing to make sure the ideas you have are more flushed out and written in a way that your targeted audience can best read it and understand what you have conveyed.